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Sixties Date Machine

Interactive database of events within the context of the 1960s  social protest movements, including Civil Rights, Peace & Anti-War, Free Speech, Black/Women's/Gay Liberation, American Indian, Counterculture, &c.

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Dating

Event / Description
Dec 10, 1924Founding of first American gay rights group
(Wednesday)The Society for Human Rights is founded by Henry Gerber in Chicago.

Add'l Info:
The society is the first gay rights organization as well as the oldest documented in America. After receiving a charter from the state of Illinois, the society publishes the first American publication for homosexuals, Friendship and Freedom. Soon after its founding, the society disbands due to political pressure.

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Nov 16, 1938Discovery of LSD
(Wednesday)Albert Hofmann, a chemist working for Sandoz Pharmaceutical in Basel, Switzerland, is the first to synthesize LSD-25. He discovered LSD, a semi-synthetic derivative of ergot alkaloids, while looking for a blood stimulant.

Add'l Info:


Source: Hofmann A. "Die Geschichte des LSD-25". Triangel Sandoz Zeitschrift fur Medizinische Wissenschaften. 1955;2(3):117-24. (as cited in Ott J. Pharmacotheon. 1993. pg 123.)
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Apr 16, 1943Discover of LSD experiences its effects
(Friday)Albert Hofmann accidentally experiences a small amount of LSD for the first time. This is the first human experience with pure LSD-25. He reports seeing "an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopelike play of colors." The experience lasted just over two hours.   

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Apr 19, 1943"Bicycle Day" (Albert Hoffmann takes the first LSD trip)
(Monday)Bicycle Day - Albert Hofmann intentionally takes 250 ug LSD for the first time. This is the first intentional use of LSD.

Add'l Info:


Source: Hofmann A. LSD: My Problem Child. J.P. Tarcher, 1979.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Apr 22+, 1943Second experiment with LSD-25
After receiving Albert Hofmann's report regarding the effects of LSD-25, professor Ernst Rothlin was the second person to try the drug. Rothlin was Sandoz's chief pharmacologist at the time. Albert Hofmann gave Rothlin a small, 60 microgram, dose of LSD about 1/4 of the dose Hofmann had tried.   

Add'l Info:
"Professor Ernst Rothlin, head of the Sandoz pharmacological department at the time. Rothlin was dubious about LSD ; he claimed he had a strong will and could suppress the effects of drugs. But after he took 60 micrograms, one quarter of the dose I had taken earlier, he was convinced. I had to laugh as he described his fantastic visions." -- Michael Horowitz interview with Albert Hofmann, 1976.

Source: Horowitz M. "Interview with Albert Hofmann". High Times 11:24-31,81 (1976). Available here: https://www.erowid.org/culture/characters/hofmann_albert/hofmann_albert_interview1.shtml
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Jun 12, 1943First woman to experiment with LSD
(Saturday)Susi Ramstein becomes the first woman in the world to take LSD.

Add'l Info:
Twenty-one-year-old Susi Ramstein (the only female apprentice at Sandoz) becomes the first woman in the world to take LSD. She initially took a 100 mics--a higher dose than either Albert's co-worker Ernst Rothlin or his supervisor Arthur Stoll had tried--and she had a good experience. And although everyone working with Albert took acid at least once, Susi tried it two more times in order to help out with establishing some standards for the medical use of LSD. (Susi was Hofmann's lab assistant, and the person who accompanied him from Sandoz to his home via bicycle, on the day that Hofmann took his first intentional dose of LSD.)

Source: Hagenbach, D. and Werthmüller, L. Mystic Chemist: The Life of Albert Hofmann and His Discovery of LSD. 2013. [Erowid link that is dead 02/2016: https://erowid.org/library/books/mystic_chemist.shtml]
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
1947First published report on LSD
First article on LSD's mental effects published by Werner Stoll in the Swiss Archives of Neurology.   

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
1948Kinsey publishes sex research
Biologist and sex researcher Alfred Kinsey publishes Sexual Behavior in the Human Male.

Add'l Info:
From his research Kinsey concludes that homosexual behavior is not restricted to people who identify themselves as homosexual and that 37% of men have enjoyed homosexual activities at least once. While psychologists and psychiatrists in the 1940s consider homosexuality a form of illness, the findings surprise many conservative notions about sexuality.

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
1949Research on LSD begins in United States
Boston psychiatrist Max Rinkel obtains LSD from Sandoz and initiates work on it at Harvard. Hungarian psychiatrist Nicholas Bercel commences LSD research in Los Angeles.

Add'l Info:


Source: Stafford P. Psychedelics Encyclopedia. Ronin, 1992.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
1950 - 1960Publication of findings on LSD
Hundreds of papers published discussing LSD.   

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Source:
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Apr 20, 1950CIA behavior modification research begins
(Thursday)The CIA's behavior-control program project BLUEBIRD officially begins.

Add'l Info:
CIA Director Roscoe Hillenkoetter approves their behavior-control program, project BLUEBIRD (the predecessor to project ARTICHOKE) and authorizes the use of unvouchered funds to pay for its most sensitive areas.

Source: Marks, J. The Search for the Manchurian Candidate: The CIA and Mind Control. 1979. (Review available here: https://www.erowid.org/library/review/review.php?p=227)
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
August 1950First publication on LSD in the United States
The first American article about LSD appears in Diseases of the Nervous System, wherein the possibility that LSD might be useful as an aid to psychotherapy is presented.

Add'l Info:


Source: Busch, A.K. and Johnson, W.C. 1950. "LSD-25 as an Aid in Psychotherapy (Preliminary Report of a New Drug)", Diseases of the Nervous System 11(8): 241-243. (Available at: http://www.psymon.com/psychedelia/articles/busch.htm)
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Nov 11, 1950Founding of Mattachine Society
(Saturday)In Los Angeles, gay rights activist Harry Hay founds America’s first sustained national gay rights organization.

Add'l Info:
In an attempt to change public perception of homosexuality, the Mattachine Society aims to "eliminate discrimination, derision, prejudice and bigotry," to assimilate homosexuals into mainstream society, and to cultivate the notion of an "ethical homosexual culture.

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Dec 15, 1950Start of U.S. federal government's "lavender scare"
(Friday)A Senate report titled "Employment of Homosexuals and Other Sex Perverts in Government" is distributed to members of Congress after the federal government had covertly investigated employees' sexual orientation at the beginning of the Cold War.

Add'l Info:
The report states since homosexuality is a mental illness, homosexuals "constitute security risks" to the nation because "those who engage in overt acts of perversion lack the emotional stability of normal persons." Over the previous few years, more than 4,380 gay men and women had been discharged from the military and around 500 fired from their jobs with the government. The purging will become known as the "lavender scare."

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
1951CIA experiments with LSD
CIA becomes aware of and begins experimenting with LSD.   

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
1951Al Hubbard experiments with LSD
Al Hubbard first tries LSD.

Add'l Info:


Source: Lee MA, Shlain B. Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD and the Sixties Rebellion. Grove, 1985.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
1952First study of LSD for treating depression
Charles Savage publishes the first study on the use of LSD to treat depression.   

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
April 1952Homosexuality deemed a mental illness
The American Psychiatric Association lists homosexuality as a sociopathic personality disturbance in its first publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

Add'l Info:
Immediately following the manual's release, many professionals in medicine, mental health and social sciences criticize the categorization due to lack of empirical and scientific data.

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
1953CIA MK-Ultra secret LSD experiments
First LSD clinic opened to the public in England under Ronald Sandison. Separately, unwitting subjects in the United States were given LSD in the CIA funded Project MK-Ultra to test the effects of the drug.   

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
1953First use of LSD to treat alcoholism
Dr. Humphry Osmond begins treating alcoholics with LSD.

Add'l Info:


Source: Lee MA, Shlain B. Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD and the Sixties Rebellion. Grove, 1985.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Apr 27, 1953Homosexuals banned from federal agencies
(Monday)President Dwight Eisenhower signs Executive Order 10450, banning homosexuals from working for the federal government or any of its private contractors. The Order lists homosexuals as security risks, along with alcoholics and neurotics.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
1955Aldous Huxley experiments and writes about LSD
Aldous Huxley first takes LSD. The publication of Huxley's 'Heaven and Hell'.

Add'l Info:


Source: Lee MA, Shlain B. Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD and the Sixties Rebellion. Grove, 1985.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
1955First academic conferences on LSD and mescaline
First conferences focusing on LSD and mescaline take place in Atlantic City and Princeton, N.J.   

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
August 1955Emmett Till Murdered
Fourteen-year-old Chicagoan Emmett Till is visiting family in Mississippi when he is kidnapped, brutally beaten, shot, and dumped in the Tallahatchie River for allegedly whistling at a white woman.

Add'l Info:
Two white men, J. W. Milam and Roy Bryant, are arrested for the murder and acquitted by an all-white jury. They later boast about committing the murder in a Look magazine interview. The case becomes an important spark in the rise of the 1950s/60s Civil Rights Movement.

Source: Infoplease.com
Entry by: infoplease.com
Sep 21, 1955Founding of Daughters of Bilitis
(Wednesday)In San Francisco, the Daughters of Bilitis becomes the first lesbian rights organization in the United States. The organization hosts social functions, providing alternatives to lesbian bars and clubs, which are frequently raided by police.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Oct 07, 1955First Reading of "Howl" by Allen Ginsberg
(Friday)The poetry reading at the 6 Gallery in San Francisco was one of the defining moments of the Beat Movement.

Add'l Info:
[from the SF Chron 2000 article:] If the birth of the beat generation could be traced back to one event, it would probably be the first public reading of Allen Ginsberg's poem "Howl" 45 years ago this month at the defunct Six Gallery in San Francisco. "Howl," widely regarded as one of the great works of 20th-century American poetry, is a 3,600-word torrent of unusually vivid and hellish imagery written in the long-line style of Walt Whitman's "Leaves of Grass" and echoing the rhythms of jazz. It has also become one of the most popular poems in U.S. history, having sold nearly a million copies in its City Lights edition - very rare for a book of poetry. The poem, the target of a landmark obscenity trial in 1957, also helped turn publisher and bookseller City Lights, at Columbus Ave. and Broadway in North Beach, into the center of the San Francisco poetry renaissance of the 1950s.

Source: Chron, 10/28,2000, p. D1. (Retrospective article).

There are at least three discrepancies in the dating of this event. Linda Hamalian, in A Life of Kenneth Rexroth (New York: Norton, 1991), p. 243, gives the date incorrectly as October 13, 1955.. She mentions that Ginsberg sent out 100 postcard invitations to the reading. Hamalian quotes the postcard: "Six poets at the Six Gallery. Kenneth Rexroth, M.C. Remarkable collection of angels all gathered at once in the same spot. Wine, music, dancing girls, serious poetry, free satori. Small collection for wine and postcards. Charming event."

However, Barry Miles in Howl: original draft facsimile, transcript & variant versions, fully annotated by author, with contemporaneous correspondence, account of first public reading, legal skirmishes, precursor texts & bibliography by Allen Ginsberg, edited by Barry Miles (New York, HarperCollins, 1986), pinpoints the date as October 7, 1955. (See page xiii). On page 165 is reproduced a facsimile of the postcard that Ginsberg sent out. It reads: "6 Poets at 6 Gallery / Philip Lamantia reading mss. of late John Hoffman-- Mike McClure, Allen Ginsberg, Gary Snyder & Phil Whalen--all sharp new straightforward writing-- remarkable collection of angels on one stage reading their poetry. No charge, small collection for wine and postcards. Charming event. / Kenneth Rexroth, M.C. / 8 PM Friday Night October 7, 1955 / 6 Gallery 3119 Fillmore St. / San Fran". Note the discrepancies with Hamalian's transcription of the text of the card. Was there a different card or was Hamalian taking "poetic liberties"?

There is also occasionally a date given for this event of December, 1955 (no specific day). For example, Allen Ginsberg's obituary published in The Independent (London) on April 7, 1997 (p. 20), has: "The pivotal point of a spiritual and poetic development that began then can be dated quite precisely. In December 1955, at the Six Gallery in San Francisco, Ginsberg read the first part of his poem 'Howl, for Carl Solomon'." I have found other references that gave December, 1955 as the date for the 6 Gallery reading.
Entry by: e.p.n.

Dec 01, 1955Arrest of Rosa Parks leads to the Montgomery Bus Boycott
(Thursday)Rosa Parks, a member of the NAACP, refuses to give up her seat on a city bus to a white man. Her arrest leads to the Montgomery, Alabama bus boycott by the black community.

Add'l Info:
This was a seminal moment in the developing Civil Rights Movement. The community sustained the boycott until the buses were desegregated on Dec. 21, 1956 in response to a Supreme Court decision on Dec. 17, 1956 and its order three days later for all Alabama bus systems. This event was the impetus for Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s career as a social justice activist. King had been newly elected president of the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA).

Source: See: Chronology of Rosa Parks' life: (from The Cincinnati Enquirer, Sept. 25, 1998)
Entry by: e.p.n.
Aug 30, 1956Psychologist presents paper with positive image of homosexuals
(Thursday)American psychologist Evelyn Hooker shares her paper "The Adjustment of the Male Overt Homosexual" at the American Psychological Association Convention in Chicago.

Add'l Info:
After administering psychological tests, such as the Rorschach, to groups of homosexual and heterosexual males, Hooker's research concludes homosexuality is not a clinical entity and that heterosexuals and homosexuals do not differ significantly. Hooker's experiment becomes very influential, changing clinical perceptions of homosexuality.

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Fall 1956Irving Rosenthal Joins Chicago Review
Irving Rosenthal joins Chicago Review as a student associate, while attending Univ of Chicao as a graduate psychology student studying under Carl Rogers.

Add'l Info:
Thus begins the series of events that leads to the controversy over Rosenthal (as editor) publishing excerpts from William Burroughs' manuscript Naked Lunch and the subsequent suppression of the Wiinter 1958-59 issue containing the third installment of Burroughs' work.

Source: Brennan, Gerald E. "Naked Censorship: The True Story of the University of Chicago and William S. Burroughs's Naked Lunch " Chicago Reader Sep 29, 1995; Oct 6, 1995.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jan/Feb 1967Founding of Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Martin Luther King, Charles K. Steele, and Fred L. Shuttlesworth establish the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, of which King is made the first president.

Add'l Info:
The SCLC becomes a major force in organizing the civil rights movement and bases its principles on nonviolence and civil disobedience. According to King, it is essential that the civil rights movement not sink to the level of the racists and hatemongers who oppose them: "We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline," he urges.

Source: Infoplease.com
Entry by: infoplease.com
September 1957Forced integration of Little Rock, AK high school
Formerly all-white Central High School learns that integration is easier said than done. Nine black students are blocked from entering the school on the orders of Governor Orval Faubus. President Eisenhower sends federal troops and the National Guard to intervene on behalf of the students, who become known as the "Little Rock Nine."

Add'l Info:


Source: Infoplease.com
Entry by: infoplease.com
Sep 05, 1957Jack Kerouac's On the Road is published by Viking Press
(Thursday)First date of publication of one of the seminal works that defined the Beat Generation.

Add'l Info:
[From www.wordsareimportant.com:] On the Road was Jack Kerouac's second novel to be published. Along with Ginsberg's Howl and Burroughs' Naked Lunch, it would serve as the foundation for a movement that became known as the Beat Generation. Of course, it was Herbert Hunke who first brought the term 'beat' to the attention of Kerouac and his friends in the late 40's, and it would be John Clellon Holmes' book Go that would first use the term beat. Ann Charters writes, "The young people who responded to the book recognized that Kerouac was on their side, the side of youth and freedom."

Source: http://www.wordsareimportant.com/ontheroad.htm
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jan 13, 1958US Supreme Court rules in favor of LGBT magazine's freedom of speech
(Monday)In the landmark case One, Inc. v. Olesen, the United States Supreme Court rules in favor of the First Amendment rights of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) magazine "One: The Homosexual Magazine." The suit was filed after the U.S. Postal Service and FBI declared the magazine obscene material, and it marks the first time the United States Supreme Court rules in favor of homosexuals.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Summer, 1958Actor R.G. Davis moves to San Francisco
R.G. Davis returns from Paris after studying at the Ecole de Mime under Etienne Decroux. Settles in San Francisco where he teaches and performs mime.

Add'l Info:


Source: Davis, SFMT: The First Ten Years, p. 195.
Entry by: e.p.n.
1959Macy Foundation congress on LSD
Josiah Macy Foundation sponsors major scientific congress on LSD.

Add'l Info:


Source: Lee MA, Shlain B. Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD and the Sixties Rebellion. Grove, 1985.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
1959Allen Ginsberg experiments with LSD
Allen Ginsberg tries LSD for the first time.

Add'l Info:


Source: Lee MA, Shlain B. Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD and the Sixties Rebellion. Grove, 1985.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Apr 22-24, 1959International conference on LSD Therapy
The First International Conference on LSD Therapy  

Add'l Info:
Held at Princeton, NJ. Produced by the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation. Chaired by Paul H. Hoch, presenters included Harold A. Abramson, Gregory Bateson, Arthur L. Chandler, Sidney Cohen, Jonathan Cole, Keith S. Ditman, Betty Grover Eisner, Frank Fremont-Smith, Mortimer A. Hartman, Mollie P. Hewitt Hewitt, Abram Hoffer, Cecelia E.Jett-Jackson, Solomon Katzenelbogen, G.D. Klee, Humphry Osmond, Charles Savage, H. Lennard, S. Malitz, R.C. Murphy, Gwendolyn J.Neviackas, Cornelius H. van Rhijn, Ronald A. Sandison, Louis Joylon "Jolly" West, J.R.B. Whittlesey, and others.

Source: Proceedings were published as The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy, edited by H.A. Abramson (1960).
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Fall 1959 [- May 1961]Kesey In Stanford graduate program
Ken Kesey (b. 17 September 1935 in La Junta, CO.) enters the graduate writing program at Stanford University on a Woodrow Wilson Fellowship.

Add'l Info:
Ken Kesey (b. 17 September 1935 in La Junta, CO) enters the graduate writing program at Stanford University on a Woodrow Wilson Fellowship. He and his wife Faye Haxby Kesey rent an apartment on Perry Lane which has a reputation for being a bohemian enclave. His teachers include Wallace Stegner, Malcolm Cowley, Richard Scowcroft, and, for a short time, Frank O'Connor. While there he becomes friends with fellow writers Larry McMurty, Ed McClanahan, Wendell Berry, Gurney Norman, and Bob Stone.

Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Oct 29, 1959First performance of the R.G. Davis Mime Studio and Troupe
(Thursday)The Troupe performs "Mime and Words" at the San Francisco Art Institute.

Add'l Info:
R.G. Davis started work as an assistant director in the San Francisco Actor's Workshop in 1959. Within the Actor's Workshop, Davis organized the R.G. Davis Mime Studio and Troupe. Their first performance was at the San Francisco Art Institute where they performed several mimes that Davis had created.

Source: Davis, SFMT: The First Ten Years, p. 18.
Entry by: e.p.n.
1960Timothy Leary begins LSD research at Harvard
Harvard University's Timothy Leary establishes the Psychedelic Research Project.   

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Source:
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
1960Founding of Leary's League of Spiritual Development
Leary founds the League of Spiritual Development, with LSD as the sacrement.

Add'l Info:


Source: Ray O, Ksir C. Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior. Mosby, 1996.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
1960Bread and Puppet Theatre founded
Peter Schumann arrives in New York and starts the Bread and Puppet Theatre, famous for the giant puppets at anti-war rallies later in the decade.

Add'l Info:


Source: Davis, SFMT: The First Ten Years, p. 195.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Feb 01, 1960First Lunch Counter Sit-In at Greensboro, NC Woolworth's
(Monday)This unplanned, spontaneous sit-in took place at a lunch counter in Greensboro, N.C., though the technique had been invented two decades earlier by the Congress of Racial Equality in Chicago in 1943.

Add'l Info:
Four black college freshmen at North Carolina Agricultural &Technical College refuse to leave an all-white Woolworth's lunch counter in Greenboro, N.C., after the waitress refuses to serve them. Over the next few days, hundreds of students join the protest. TV and radio spread the news of the sit-in demonstrations, which spread all over the country. The tactic was effective by stopping normal business activity. Ultimately, the idea spread to other types of establishments to include "read-ins at public libraries, paint-ins at public art galleries, wade-ins at public beaches, kneel-ins at white churches", (see Anderson, "The Movement and the Sixties", p. 46) and boycotts. White response included violence against the demonstrators but within a year the Civil Rights movement was celebrating successes in desegregating many public accommodations. (The Greensboro Woolworth's was finally desegregated on July 26, 1960.) This new movement soon found form in new organizations such as the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee. The student who had the idea to sit-in at the Woolworth's lunch counter had been reading a comic book about Martin Luther King and the Montgomery Bus Boycott. (According to The Power of the People). The four students were Ezell Blair Jr. (Jibreel Khazan), David Richmond, Joseph McNeil, and Franklin McCain. The Woolworth's building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982 and a museum opened in 2001, operated by N.C. A & T College and Sit-In Movement, Inc.

Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
April 1960Founding of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) is founded at Shaw University (Raleigh, N.C.), providing young blacks with a place in the civil rights movement. The SNCC later grows into a more radical organization, especially under the leadership of Stokely Carmichael (1966-1967).

Add'l Info:


Source: Infoplease.com
Entry by: infoplease.com
May 20, 1960Second Performance of the R.G. Davis Mime Studio and Troupe
(Friday)The R.G. Davis Mime Studio and Troupe perform mimes at the Pacific Coast Arts Festival, Reed College. (May 20-22, 1960).

Add'l Info:
Arthur Holden is the student chairman of the Festival, and later becomes a Troupe member. The program included: Man With A Stick, White Collar Day, Wanna Play?, Arlecchino & Brighella, Cars, City Dweller, Bird in Flight, The Circus.

Source: Davis, SFMT: The First Ten Years, p. 195.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Summer 1960 [- Spring 1961]Kesey participates in government drug experiment
Kesey signs up as a volunteer and also takes a night-shift position there as an aide on the psychiatric ward.

Add'l Info:
Stanford University psychology graduate student Vik Lowell (to whom One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is dedicated) tells Ken Kesey about the U.S. government experiments with psychotomimetic drugs being conducted under Dr. Leo Hollister at the Veterans Administration hospital in Menlo Park. Kesey signs up as a volunteer and also takes a night-shift position there as an aide on the psychiatric ward. Writes Cuckoo's Nest as a result of his experiences. The manuscript is finished by around September 1960 and is published in February 1962.

Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Sep 23, 1960Third appearance of the R.G. Davis Mime Studio and Troupe
(Friday)The Troupe performs the same program as they offered at Reed College in May.

Add'l Info:


Source: Davis, SFMT: The First Ten Years, p. 195.
Entry by: e.p.n.
11 December 1960 [- 28 June 1961]First R.G. Davis Mime Troupe midnight shows in San Francisco
The R.G. Davis Mime Troupe offers the "11th Hour Mime Show" every Sunday night at the the Encore Theatre, under the guise of the San Francisco Actor's Workshop.

Add'l Info:
Davis says this was the Troupe's entrée into performing. The Actor's Workshop staged two productions each week -- Sunday night they would strike the second show. Davis asked to use the theater for a free performance every Sunday from 11pm to 12 midnight. The innovation they developed was to use shock openers to "dispel the coldness of the basement, the 'artistic' atmosphere and the distance between the audience and the performer" (a frequent theme as the Mime Troupe developed their various styles over the coming years.)

Source: Davis, SFMT: The First Ten Years, p. 18, 195.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Apr 25, 1961R.G. Davis Mime Troupe in Beckett performance
(Tuesday)The Troupe performs Act Without Words II, by Samuel Beckett, at the Encore Theatre, under the guise of the Actor's Workshop. (This was part of the 11th Hour Mime Series).

Add'l Info:


Source: Davis, SFMT: The First Ten Years, p. 195.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Nov 18, 1961R.G. Davis Mime Troupe performs Event I
(Saturday)The Troupe offers this "happening"-style performance as part of the 11th Hour Mime Series at the Encore Theatre.

Add'l Info:


Source: Davis, SFMT: The First Ten Years, p. 196.
Entry by: e.p.n.
1962FDA regulates LSD research
Congress passes new drug safety regulations and the FDA designates LSD an experimental drug and restricts research. The first LSD related arrests are made by the FDA.

Add'l Info:


Source: Lee MA, Shlain B. Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD and the Sixties Rebellion. Grove, 1985.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Jan 01, 1962First US state to repeal sodomy laws
(Monday)Illinois repeals its sodomy laws, becoming the first U.S. state to decriminalize homosexuality.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Summer 1962Kesey and Cassady meet
Ken Kesey is introduced to Neil Cassady while the former is still living at Perry Lane in Palo Alto.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
10 September 1962 [- July 1965]S.F. Mime Troupe moves to first studio in SF's Mission District
R.G. Davis Mime Troupe and Studio changes its name to the San Francisco Mime Troupe and moves to a former church building in the Mission District of San Francisco, located at 3450 20th Street (at the corner of Capp Street).

Add'l Info:


Source: Davis, SFMT: The First Ten Years, p. 196.
Entry by: Doyle w/ changes by en
1963First street sales of LSD
LSD first appears on the streets liquid on sugar cubes. Articles about LSD first appear in mainstream media Look, Saturday Evening Post.

Add'l Info:


Source: Lee MA, Shlain B. Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD and the Sixties Rebellion. Grove, 1985.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
May 1963Leary and Alpert fired from Harvard over LSD experiments
Richard Alpert is fired and Timothy Leary is dismissed from Harvard.

Add'l Info:


Source: Lee MA, Shlain B. Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD and the Sixties Rebellion. Grove, 1985.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
May 03, 1963Birmingham Police violently suppress Civil Rights marchers
(Friday)The police turn fire hoses and dogs against the marchers who are demonstrating to end segregation in housing, employment and education.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 28, 1963Criticism of Leary and Alpert's LSD research
(Tuesday)Weil and Russin write a scathing critique of Leary and Alpert's work in the Harvard Crimson: Far from exercising the caution that characterizes the published statements of most scientists, Leary and Alpert, in their papers and speeches, have been given to making the kind of pronouncement about their work that one associates with quacks.

Add'l Info:
"The shoddiness of their work as scientists is the result less of incompetence than of a conscious rejection of scientific ways of looking at things. Leary and Alpert fancy themselves 'prophets' of a psychic revolution designed to free Western man from the limitations of consciousness as we know it."

Source: Russin JM, Weil AT. "Corporation Fires Richard Alpert for Giving Undergraduates Drugs: First Dismissal Under Pusey", Harvard Crimson, May 28, 1963
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Jun 12, 1963Civil Rights leader Medgar Evers murdered
(Wednesday)Medgar Evers, 37, early leader of the Mississippi NAACP, is shot and killed as he returned to his home in Jackson.

Add'l Info:
The murder of Medgar Evers is the first of numerous murders in the struggle of the 60s, including three Civil Rights workers near Philadelphia, Miss., and four Sunday school children in Birmingham. Byron De La Beckwith is tried twice in 1964 for Evers' murder, both trials resulting in hung juries. Thirty years later he is convicted.

Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
Aug 28, 1963First March on Washington for Civil Rights
(Wednesday)Martin Luther King, Jr., delivers his "I Have A Dream" speech to the assembly of over 200,000 gathered at the Lincoln Memorial.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
Fall 1963Formation of Merry Pranksters
Ken Babbs returns from military service in Vietnam and meets Ken Kesey and his circle of friends who are living at Perry Lane in Palo Alto.

Add'l Info:
Babbs and Kesey invent the concept of "pranking," and begin calling themselves "The Merry Pranksters." The group moves to a cabin in the redwoods near La Honda, fifteen miles east of Palo Alto, where Kesey finishes work on his second novel Sometimes a Great Notion.

Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Sep 15, 1963Bombing of Birmingham Church
(Sunday)The Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, which had been used as a central meeting place for civil rights planning meetings, was bombed during Sunday morning services.

Add'l Info:
Four young girls (Denise McNair, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson, and Addie Mae Collins) attending Sunday school are killed. Street uprisings ensue in Birmingham in which two black youths are killed.

Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
Nov 22, 1963Assassination of President Kennedy
(Friday)President John F. Kennedy is assasinated in Dallas, TX. Lyndon Baines Johnson assumes the office of the presidency.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Jan 23, 196424th Amendment ratified; abolishes poll tax in elections
(Thursday)The 24th Amendment abolishes the poll tax, which originally had been instituted in 11 southern states after Reconstruction to make it difficult for poor blacks to vote.

Add'l Info:
The poll tax was a remnant of the Jim Crow era of segregation. The impetus for its abolishment had a long history. Pres. Harry Truman appointed a Committee on Civil Rights in 1946 which made the recommendation for a Constitutional Amendment.

Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
March 1964Street murder shocks country
Queens, NY, resident Kitty Genovese was stabbed to death on the street in an incident that shocked the nation.

Add'l Info:
Though they went out for several anguished minutes, her cries for help went unheeded by the 38 people who heard them from their apartments. In subsequent interviews, these auditors stated repeatedly that the "didn't want to get involved," thus articulating a phrase that expressed perfectly the sense of anomie experienced by many urban dwellers during this period.

Source: (David Stout, "True Crime Stories That Sell Themselves," New York Times (14 November 1993) sec. 4, p. 2.)
Entry by: Doyle
Summer 1964Freedom Summer
A coalition of civil rights groups, including CORE and SNCC, launch the project to register black voters in southern U.S. states.

Add'l Info:
A delegation of organizers attend the Democratic National Convention to protest, and attempt to unseat, the official all-white Mississippi contingent.

Source:
Entry by: infoplease.com
14 June 1964 - late August 1964Merry Pranksters tour in school bus
During the Spring of 1964, the Merry Pranksters think up the idea of purchasing and outfitting a 1939 IHC school bus (christened "Furthur") and driving across the country to New York.

Add'l Info:
In New York, the Merry Pranksters would attend a publication party for Kesey's new novel, Sometimes a Great Notion, check out the World's Fair, and pay a visit to Timothy Leary and his associates at the Millbrook estate of William Hitchcock. They arrive in New York City in mid-July 1964 and are introduced to Jack Kerouac at a fateful party. The cross-country trek later is memorialized by Tom Wolfe in Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test.

Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Jul 02, 1964Civil Rights Act of 1964
(Thursday)President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The most sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction, the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination of all kinds based on race, color, religion, or national origin. The law also provides the federal government with the powers to enforce desegregation.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: infoplease.com
Aug 04, 1964Bodies of three civil-rights workers found in Mississippi
(Tuesday)James E. Chaney, 21, Andrew Goodman, 21, and Michael Schwerner, 24, had been helping register black voters in the Freedom Summer project in Mississippi when they were murdered by members of the Ku Klux Klan six weeks earlier.

Add'l Info:
The bodies of the three civil-rights workers--two white, one black--are found in an earthen dam in Neshoba County, Mississippi. On June 21, the three had gone to investigate the burning of a black church. They were arrested by the police on speeding charges, incarcerated for several hours, and then released after dark into the hands of the Ku Klux Klan, who murdered them. The discovery of their bodies came in the midst of a federal investigation backed by President Johnson.

Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
Sep 04, 1964Picketing of Oakland Tribune
(Friday)Picketing of Oakland Tribune by Ad Hoc Committee to End Discrimination, which recruits support on Berkeley campus.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Sep 14, 1964UC Berkeley Bans Informational Tables on Campus
(Monday)Dean Towle, of the University of California at Berkeley, bans posters, easels and tables at Bancroft-Telegraph gate of Berkeley campus "because of interference with flow of traffic."

Add'l Info:
Dean Towle also "reminded" student groups of "rules prohibiting the collection of funds and the use of University facilities for the planning and implementing of off-campus political and social action." Previously, University officials had "considered no action (to enforce these rules) to be necessary." (Quotes from Chancellor Strong's Report of 26 Oct. 1964 to Academic Senate.) San Francisco Chronicle of 4 Dec. said that although Chancellor Strong called these rules "historic policy,' "the fact was, however, that it was a policy frequently winked at by university officials--until the convention controversy." (See June entry below) June 1964: During Republican National Convention, according to San Francisco Chronicle, 4 Dec. 1964, charges are made by Goldwater supporters that Scranton supporters are illegally recruiting student volunteers on campus.

Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Sep 17, 1964Coalition forms to oppose UC Berkeley policy on free speech
(Thursday)Some 20 organizations of students announce coalition as United Front in opposition to this reiteration of "historic policy" by the university administration.

Add'l Info:
The coalition includes Slate, Campus CORE, University Society of Individualists, DuBois Club, Young People's Socialist League, University Young Republicans, University Young Democrats, Young Socialist Alliance, Campus Women for Peace, Youth for Goldwater, Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, Student Committee for "No on Proposition 14," University Friends of SNCC, Students for a Democratic Society, College Young Republicans, Students for Independent Political Action, Youth Committee Against Proposition 14, and Independent Socialist Club (as listed in Chancellor Strong's report to the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate, dated 26 Oct. 1964). The Inter-Faith Council and the California Council of Republicans were also included.

Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Sep 21, 1964Rally Against UC Berkeley Policy
(Monday)The United Front holds their first rally on the steps of Sproul Hall (Berkeley campus administration building) in response to Dean Towle's decision that rules permit informational activity but not advocacy or organization of political and social action.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Sep 28, 1964Response by United Front to UC Berkeley Policy
(Monday)Several United Front organizations make a test-issue of administration rules by manning tables to organize political and social action.

Add'l Info:
Chancellor Strong had interpreted the rules as allowing distribution of campaign literature and similar materials at designated locations. Dean Williams had announced that those engaging in "illegal politics" may be expelled.

Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Sep 30, 1964Sit-In at UC Berkeley
(Wednesday)The university begins disciplinary action against five students for manning illegal tables; 400 students sign statements that they too have manned illegal tables, enter Sproul Hall demanding disciplinary hearings, sit-in awaiting hearing; 11:45, five students and 3 more thought leaders of demonstration are "indefinitely suspended"; sit-in continues to 3:00 a. m.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Oct 01, 1964Protest Rally Against UC Berkeley Policy
(Thursday)Protest rally and manning of tables on Sproul steps. Arrest of Jack Weinberg, a former graduate student in Mathematics, for operating a CORE table on Sproul steps; crowd of protestors, growing to 3000, blocks police car carrying Weinberg away. Protestors enter Sproul Hall, sit-in to demand discussion of eight suspensions; clash briefly with police in effort to block early locking of Sproul Hall doors; protesters subsequently leave, voluntarily.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Oct 02, 1964Protest Rally Continues Against UC Berkeley
(Friday)Some 450 police assemble on campus to undertake removal of police car and Weinberg, still immobilized by seated crowd; University officials, including President Kerr, members of faculty and student leaders meet, agree to discuss differences. Police leave; demonstrators disperse. Weinberg booked, but released as University, in accordance with agreement, does not press charges.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Oct 03, 1964Free Speech Movement Forms
(Saturday)Emergence of Free Speech Movement (FSM) out of United Front.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Oct 05, 1964University Appoints Committee to Deal With Free Speech Issue
(Monday)Appointment by the Chancellor pursuant to 2 Oct. agreement of ten members of committee of administration, faculty and students to investigate and propose solutions of campus political problems; FSM to send two delegates to committee. FSM protests composition of committee and gains agreement to four-man FSM delegation

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Oct 13, 1964Faculty motion on Free Speech issue
(Tuesday)Academic Senate passes motion favoring "maximum freedom for student political activity"; calls for inquiry into, and recommendations on, problems by Academic Freedom Committee.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Oct 15, 1964UC President Requests Faculty Advice
(Thursday)President Kerr asks Academic Senate to establish ad hoc committee to advise on disciplining of the eight suspended students (Heyman Committee)

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Oct 21, 1964Request to Reinstate FSM Students
(Wednesday)Heyman Committee requests of Chancellor temporary reinstatement of suspended students pending hearing and report. Request denied.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Nov 05, 1964Free Speech Movement Resumes Picketing
(Thursday)FSM, impatient with committee, resumes picketing of Sproul Hall.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Nov 09, 1964Free Speech Movement Rally
(Monday)FSM rally on Sproul steps attracts 1200. Tables again set up by FSM groups, ending six-week self-imposed moratorium. University officials take names of some students manning tables; 800 students sign statements declaring that they too have manned tables.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Nov 10, 1964UC Dissolves Committee to Resolve Free Speech Issue
(Tuesday)Chancellor Strong dissolves administration-faculty-student committee because FSM has resumed setting up tables.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Nov 12, 1964Recommendation to Censure/Suspend FSM Students
(Thursday)Heyman Committee recommends censure of six students, suspension of Savio and Art Goldberg for six weeks beginning 30 Sept. 1964.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Nov 20, 1964UC Regents Accept Recommendation to Suspend FSM Students
(Friday)Regents accept recommendation by President Kerr and Chancellor Strong for suspension of the eight students for the period 30 Sept.-20 Nov., and for the placing on probation of Savio and Goldberg.

Add'l Info:
Regents also agree to modify policy on political activity: recruiting, fund collecting, organization of "lawful off-campus" action may take place in designated areas -- students advocating unlawful action will be subject to University discipline. Rally of 4000 on Sproul steps and march to University Hall where Regents are meeting

Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Nov 22, 1964FSM Sit-In at Sproul Hall
(Sunday)FSM sit-in of three hours in Sproul Hall over issue of University discipline for off-campus activities.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Nov 24, 1964University Implements Free Speech Restrictions
(Tuesday)Chancellor issues new rules framed in accordance with lines established by Regents in 20 Nov. meeting.

Add'l Info:
New rules include: "certain campus facilities ... may be used ... for planning, implementing, raising funds or recruiting participants for lawful off-campus action, not for unlawful off-campus action." Academic Senate defeats 274 to 261, a motion to limit University regulation of speech, political and social activity only to the extent "necessary to prevent undue interference with other University affairs." A motion to establish a Senate committee to deal with questions of student political conduct is also defeated.

Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Nov 25, 1964University Reprimands FSM Students
(Wednesday)Letters of reprimand sent by University to some 60 students who had manned illegal tables on 9 Nov.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Nov 30, 1964FSM Announcement
(Monday)FSM announces its leaders, Savio, Art Goldberg, Jackie Goldberg and Brian Turner, face disciplinary action.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Dec 01, 1964FSM Demands Dropping of Charges
(Tuesday)FSM demands University drop charges, asserting only courts have right to regulate political activity, including campus political activity; demand University meet conditions in 24 hours or face demonstration.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Dec 02, 1964FSM Sit-In to Protest University Policy
(Wednesday)University ignores ultimatum. FSM rally attracts 6000; 1000 engage in sit-in in Sproul Hall; over 800 remain for the night.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Dec 03, 1964Police Arrest FSM Demonstrators
(Thursday)Governor Brown sends police to clear out or arrest demonstrators; Chancellor Strong urges students to leave Sproul; students remain: police begin arrest and removal of students.

Add'l Info:
Graduate students in large numbers begin picketing of University buildings in protest of police action. Faculty members spontaneously arrange meeting to consider crisis, pass resolutions calling for dropping of pending disciplinary action against students, for the establishment of an Academic Senate committee to which students could appeal penalties imposed for political activity, and for the Regents to change their policy of 20 Nov. so that student off-campus political activities shall not be subject to University discipline. Faculty members raise $8500 bail for students; many meet with Judge Crittenden in effort to help in setting and posting bail, then in returning students from prison farm.

Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Dec 05, 1964Student Government Urges University Leniency
(Saturday)ASUC Senate (the student government) urges leniency for arrested students, dropping of charges against four FSM leaders, and test case of University regulations.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Dec 06, 1964Faculty meeting on FSM issue
(Sunday)Meeting of 200 faculty members to consider implementation of resolutions made in impromptu faculty meeting of 3 Dec., and to begin drafting of motions to place before Berkeley Academic Senate.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Dec 07, 1964University Meets to Discuss Response to FSM Issue
(Monday)Release of agreement between department chairmen and President Kerr on amnesty and modification of regulations concerning student political activity.

Add'l Info:
Departmental meetings at 9 a.m. to discuss agreement. Convocation in Greek Theatre at 11 a.m. Announcement of agreement; speeches by Professor Scalapino and President Kerr; meeting adjourned. Attempted announcement by Savio, who is removed by police, but then released and permitted to make announcement. FSM states agreement inadequate; looks to faculty action in Academic Senate. Graduate student picketing suspended until after Senate meeting.

Source:
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Dec 08, 1964Faculty vote on FSM issue
(Tuesday)Meeting of Academic Senate; passage by vote of 824 to 115 of motion of Committee on Academic Freedom saying that control of student speech and advocacy in politics must "be rendered unto Caesar" since the function of the University is education, not control.

Add'l Info:
The motion also stated that a Senate committee should only regulate the time, place, and manner of student political activity as was the case until 1938. Passage of second motion to establish Senate Emergency Committee to help with problems arising out of crisis. FSM adherents sweep seven ASUC Senate seats as unprecedented 5276 students vote. FSM states full support for faculty position.

Source: FSM Faculty Chronology prepared by: John Masson Smiths Jr.; Ph.D., Assistant Professor of History; Richard Bridgman, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of English, University of California, Berkeley.
Entry by: FSM Faculty Chronology
Dec 15, 1964Student Government Supports Faculty Resolution
(Tuesday)The Associated Students of the University of California (ASUC, the students' government) approves motion that the regents accept the five-point Academic Senate proposal to end the "free speech" controversy.

Add'l Info:


Source: From Revolution at Berkeley: The Crisis in American Education , edited by Michael V. Miller and Susan Gilmore; Dial Press, N.Y., 1965.
Entry by: Miller and Gilmore
Dec 18, 1964UC Regents Reject Faculty Proposal
(Friday)The University board of regents do not accept the proposal made by the Academic Senate. They appoint a committee of regents to examine the issues and consult with students, faculty and "other interested persons" in order to make recommendations to the board.

Add'l Info:


Source: From Revolution at Berkeley: The Crisis in American Education , edited by Michael V. Miller and Susan Gilmore; Dial Press, N.Y., 1965.
Entry by: Miller and Gilmore
Jan 02, 1965UC Chancellor Replaced
(Saturday)At an emergency meeting, the board of regents names Martin Meyerson, Dean of the College of Environmental Design, as acting chancellor, replacing Edward W. Strong.

Add'l Info:


Source: From Revolution at Berkeley: The Crisis in American Education , edited by Michael V. Miller and Susan Gilmore; Dial Press, N.Y., 1965.
Entry by: Miller and Gilmore
February 1965Owsley first manufactures LSD
Owsley Bear Stanley first succeeded in synthesizing crystalline LSD. Earliest distribution was March 1965.

Add'l Info:


Source: Eisner B. "Interview with an Alchemist: Bear: Owsley, LSD Chemist Extraordinaire". BruceEisner.com
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Feb 21, 1965Assassination of Malcolm X
(Sunday)Shot while making a speech in Harlem, New York City. Members of the rival Black Muslim group are arrested.

Add'l Info:
Malcolm X had founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity. The assailants are members of the Black Muslim group, which Malcolm had recently abandoned in favor of orthodox Islam.

Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 07, 1965First Selma to Montgomery March for Civil Rights ends in "Bloddy Sunday"
(Sunday)The march was to go from Selma, Alabama to Montgomery in support of voting rights. A police blockade violently stops the marchers at the Pettus Bridge, named for a Civil War Confederate general and later leader of the Ku Klux Klan.

Add'l Info:
Fifty marchers are hospitalized after police use tear gas, whips, and clubs against them. The incident is dubbed "Bloody Sunday" by the media. The march is considered the catalyst for pushing through the voting rights act five months later.

Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
April 1965Kesey Arrested for Marijuana
Ken Kesey is arrested for possession of marijuana during a raid of his La Honda home.

Add'l Info:
After months of court hearings, he is convicted and sentenced to six months of jail and three years of probation (see 13-18 January 1966), but subsequently files an appeal.

Source: Ralph J. Gleason, The Jefferson Airplane and the San Francisco Sound (New York: Ballantine Books, 1969), 23.
Entry by: Doyle
May 1965R.G. Davis presents his essay on Guerrilla Theatre
Davis, director of the San Francisco Mime Troupe, presents his essay, with the title of "Guerrilla Theatre" suggested by Peter Berg, to the Troupe. The essay was a blueprint for radical theater groups working toward social change.

Add'l Info:
The essay was later published in the Tulane Drama Review, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1966.

Source: See "The San Francisco Mime Troupe: The First Ten Years" by R. G. Davis, p. 70. He gives the date of this event as May, 1965.
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 8-10, 1965Second international LSD conference
The Second International Conference on the Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and Alcoholism

Add'l Info:
Held at South Oaks Hospital, Amityville, NY. Presenters included Harold A. Abramson, Arendsen Hein, Edward F.W. Baker, Antonio Balestrieri, Donald Blair, John Buckman, John Chiasson, Sidney Cohen, Charles Clay Dahlberg, Betty Grover Eisner, Ruth Fox, Daniel X. Freedman, Frank Fremont-Smith, Kenneth Godfrey, Stanislav Grof, William Hausman, Mogens Hertz, Abram Hoffer, Gordon H. Johnsen, James S. Ketchum, Sol Kramer, Leonard W. Krinsky, Albert A. Kurland, Hanscarl Leuner, Jerome Levine, John C. Lilly, Thomas M. Ling, Arnold M. Ludwig, Donald C. MacDonald, J. Ross MacLean, Pauline McCricick, William H. McGlothlin, A. Joyce Martin, Robert E. Mogar, Robert C. Murphy, Humphry Osmond, Walter Pahnke, Andre Rolo, Max Rinkel, Charles Savage, Emilio Servadio, Sanford Unger, Cornelius H. van Rhijn, Jack L. Ward, E.S. Weber, and Mary S. Wicks.

Source: Proceedings were published as The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and Alcoholism, edited by H.A. Abramson (1967).
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
July [or May?] 1965 [- July 1968]SF Mime Troupe Moves to Loft
San Francisco Mime Troupe moves to a downtown studio loft located at 924 Howard St. By Summer 1966, it was sharing an office next door to the practice area with SDS.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Jul 04, 1965Gay activists picket Fourth of July celebration in Philiadelphia
(Sunday)At Independence Hall in Philadelphia, picketers begin staging the first Reminder Day to call public attention to the lack of civil rights for LGBT people. The gatherings will continue annually for five years.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Aug 04, 1965Congress passes the Voting Rights Act
(Wednesday)Beginning of the end of white domination of political offices in many parts of the South.

Add'l Info:
Final passage of the legislation took place in the House of Representatives on Aug. 3 and in the Senate on this date (8/4/65). President Johnson the Act on August 6, 1965. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Rosa Parks, John Lewis, and other Civil Rights Movement leaders were in attendance at the signing.

Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
Aug 07, 1965Police Stop SF Mime Troupe Performance, Arrest R.G. Davis
(Saturday)The Mime Troupe's performance of Peter Berg's adaptation of "Il Candelaio" by Giordano Bruno is stopped in mid-performance by San Francisco police on orders of the Recreation and Park Department. The Mime Troupe's permit had been revoked on grounds of obscenity. After the police arrest Director R.G. Davis, subsequent organizing efforts thrust the Troupe onto the stage of the Bay Area arts community.

Add'l Info:
The San Francisco Mime Troupe showed up at Lafayette Park to perform "Il Candelaio," by far the most controversial of their previous productions. After the third performance, the S.F. Recreation and Park Commission had revoked the Troupe's permit on the grounds of obscenity. The Troupe ignored the order, and, as they staged the scheduled performance on this date, the police showed up and stopped the show, arresting Director Davis and two performers. A lengthy court battle ensued; to raise money for the defense fund, the sharp business manager of the Mime Troupe (Bill Graham) staged a benefit at the Troupe's warehouse studio in the South of Market district.

Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
Aug 07, 1965Merry Pranksters Party With Hell's Angels
(Saturday)Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters throws a huge party at their La Honda cabin and invite the San Francisco chapter of the Hell's Angels.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
August 11-16, 1965Watts Riot
Five nights of rioting in the Watts section of Los Angeles triggered by a police driving arrest. Dozens of deaths, thousands of arrests, millions in property damage. Televised to a national audience, the rioting was a wake-up call and a shock to White America.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
Aug 13, 1965First issue of the Berkeley Barb
(Friday)The Berkeley Barb publishes its premier issue (vol.1, no. 1).

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Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Sep 24, 1965Executive order enforcing affirmative action for federal contractors
(Friday)Asserting that civil rights laws alone are not enough to remedy discrimination, President Johnson issues Executive Order 11246, which enforces affirmative action for the first time. It requires government contractors to "take affirmative action" toward prospective minority employees in all aspects of hiring and employment.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: infoplease.com
Oct 16, 1965First Rock Dance Concert
(Saturday)Produced by the Family Dog at the Longshoreman's Hall.

Add'l Info:
The first rock dance concert ever held took place under the sponsorship of the Family Dog at the octagonal meeting hall of the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union near Fishermen's Wharf. It was billed as "A Tribute to Dr. Strange," and featured the Jefferson Airplane, the Charlatans, the Great Society, and ?the Marbles [who later metamorphized into the Loading Zone]. A light show was operated by Bill Ham.

Source: (Charles Perry, The Haight Ashbury: A History (New York: Random House/Rolling Stone Books, 1984), 28-30.)
Entry by: Doyle
Oct 16, 1965Anti-war march in Berkeley, California
(Saturday)The Berkeley-based Vietnam Day Committee held is march on the Oakland Army Terminal.

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Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Oct 24, 1965Family Dog concert
(Sunday)The second Family Dog rock dance concert was held at ?the Longshoremen's Hall. It was called "A Tribute to Sparkle Plenty."

Add'l Info:


Source: (Charles Perry, The Haight Ashbury: A History (New York: Random House/Rolling Stone Books, 1984), 40-41.)
Entry by: Doyle
Nov 01, 1965Ron Davis Convicted
(Monday)R.G. Davis found guilty by city court judge of performing without a permit in Lafayette Park as charged on 7 August 1965.

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Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Nov 06, 1965Appeal I
(Saturday)The San Francisco Mime Troupe puts on an "Appeal" [subsequently referred to as "Appeal I"] at their studio loft located downtown at 924 Howard St. as a way to raise funds to fight director R.G. Davis's conviction for performing without a permit in Lafayette Park on 7 August 1965.

Add'l Info:
Event is organized by SFMT business manager Bill Graham. It is fabulously successful and establishes a kind of precedent for the mixed media and performance genre of the San Francisco acid rock dance concert scene. It also gives Bill Graham the idea that this new type of entertainment might be commercially viable.

Source: (Charles Perry, The Haight Ashbury: A History (New York: Random House/Rolling Stone Books, 1984), 33.)
Entry by: Doyle
Nov 06, 1965Family Dog dance concert
(Saturday)The third Family Dog rock dance concert was held at the Longshoremen's Hall. It was called "A Tribute to Ming the Merciless." The Mothers [who later added "of Invention" to their name] played it.

Add'l Info:


Source: (Charles Perry, The Haight Ashbury: A History (New York: Random House/Rolling Stone Books, 1984), 40-41.)
Entry by: Doyle
Nov 27, 1965First Acid Test
(Saturday)The first Acid Test was staged by the Merry Pranksters at Ken Babbs' book store in Santa Cruz. It featured a light show and projections of some of the forty hours of film shot on the 1964 bus excursion [and referred to simply as "The Movie"]. (Augustus Owlsley Stanley III had been introduced to Ken Kesey in September 1965.)

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Dec 04, 1965Second Acid Test
(Saturday)The second Acid Test was held at "Big Nig's" house in San Jose. It featured the Warlocks band (future Grateful Dead), a light show, and was attended by some 400 people.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Dec 10, 1965Appeal II
(Friday)Bill Graham and the San Francisco Mime Troupe stage the "Appeal II" rock dance concert and light show at the Fillmore Auditorium, the first ever to be held there.

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Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Dec 11, 1965Third Acid Test
(Saturday)The third Acid Test was held at the Big Beat night club in Palo Alto. It featured the Warlocks band (future Grateful Dead), a light show, and Stewart Brand's "America Needs Indians" slide show.

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Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Dec 17, 1965Fourth Acid Test
(Friday)The fourth Acid Test took place at Muir Beach Lodge near Mt. Tamalpais (after being advertized for Stinson Beach). This was the largest one to date in terms of attendence.

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Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Dec 31, 1965Grape Strike Victory
(Friday)An arbitrator ruled that the longshoremen could not be forced to load grapes onto a freighter bound for Scandinavia, even though the picket lines are illegal, for reasons of safety.

Add'l Info:
The strike has been organized by the AFL-CIO's Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee and the Independent National Farm Workers' Association. The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee is supporting the picket.

Source: 1/1/66 Chron, p. 3
Entry by: e.p.n.
Dec 31, 1965East-West Shrine Game
(Friday)East-West Shrine Game at Kezar Stadium.

Add'l Info:
Front page of 1/1/66 Chron shows a drummer who strangely looks like a long-haired, bearded hippie. The West "unexpectedly" won. Chief Justice Earl Warren and Mayor John F. Shelley both attended.

Source: 1/1/66 Chron, p. 1
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jan 02, 1966Article by Ralph Gleason
(Sunday)Chronicle pop music critic Ralph Gleason's retrospective on 1965.

Add'l Info:
Among his observations: "This was the year that San Francisco began to look like the Liverpool of the U.S., with hit discs coming from We Five, the Beau Brummels and the Vejtables. [. . .] It was the year that Bob Dylan emerged as the dominant figure in American popular song with dozens of imitators, a pervasive influence on group style and performancee and on song writing. [. . .] It was the year that popular music, the Top 40, the Hit Parade and the juke box sweepstakes began to include songs of a remarkable aesthetic content. The year of "Turn! Turn! Turn!" (from Ecclesiastes) of "Sounds of Silence" of "Do You Believe in Magic" of "Eve of Destruction" and numerous other great hits, including the Dylan songs. [. . .] It was the year of rock; the year that the modern teenage music finally took over and proved its value, including the growing importance of the Beatles as song writers and performers, in addition to their role as teen-age culture heroes."

Source: 1/2/66, This World, p.29
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jan 02, 1966Article by Kenneth Rexroth
(Sunday)One of a series of articles by Rexroth explaining what is happening in society to bring culture into focus as a topic of importance.

Add'l Info:
Among the quotes from the article: "It is, of course, true that the arts are subversive, not of capitalism or the Constitution, but of what used to be called the American Way of Life, the pursuit of the dollar, regardless. [. . .] Now there are so many dollars flying around we don't know what to do with them: they pursue us. Yet still we don't know what to do with them. Most social and political action is still motivated by assumptions inherited from a bygone society. Since World War II we have been going through a revolution as profound as any in history, but since it has not involved barricades and guillotines, at least here at home, most people are still hardly aware of it. [. . .] We have moved into a new historic epoch. Changes in our ways of living and working have taken place that demand a wholesale revision of the aims of society. What do we want out of life? What can we expect to get if we manage our affairs properly? What is life for?"

Source: SF Examiner (Sunday), p. 4, Section II
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jan 08, 1966Fifth Acid Test
(Saturday)The fifth Acid Test was held at the Fillmore Auditorium. (Another one -- the sixth? -- took place sometime this month in Portland, OR.)

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Ca. 13-18 January 1966Kesey Sentenced
Ken Kesey is sentenced for his conviction in the April 1965 arrest case for possession of marijuana, receiving a six-month jail sentence and three years of probation.

Add'l Info:


Source: (Ralph J. Gleason, The Jefferson Airplane and the San Francisco Sound (New York: Ballantine Books, 1969), 23.)
Entry by: Doyle
Jan 14, 1966Appeal III
(Friday)Bill Graham and the San Francisco Mime Troupe stage the "Appeal III" rock dance concert and light show at the Fillmore Auditorium.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Jan 19, 1966Ken Kesey Busted
(Wednesday)Ken Kesey is arrested in San Francisco a second time for the possession of marijuana. He subsequently jumps bail and flees to Mexico, trying to mislead law enforcement authorities with a faked suicide note.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
21-23 January 1966Acid Test and Trips Festival
The seventh (?) Acid Test was held at the Trips Festival (Friday through Sunday) which took place in the Longshoremen's Hall, San Francisco.

Add'l Info:
The Festival was a joint effort of Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters, Stewart Brand (who showed his "America Needs Indians" slide show during it), and Bill Graham (who handled the business arrangements). Augustus Owsley Stanley III was a financial sponsor of the event: He purchased amplifiers and other electronic equipment for the Grateful Dead to use in playing there (and thereafter) and also donated LSD which he had manufactured for free ditribution at the event.

Source: (Charles Perry, The Haight Ashbury: A History (New York: Random House/Rolling Stone Books, 1984), 44-45. Lou Gottlieb, a former member of the folk group, The Limelighters, and future founder of the Sonoma County commune, Morningstar Ranch, in his regular folk music column for the San Francisco Chronicle (Tue. 18 January 1966), promoted the upcoming Trips Festival as being "of major significance in the history of religion.")
Entry by: Doyle
Jan 29, 1966Acid Test
(Saturday)The eighth (?) Acid Test was held at the Sound City Studios in San Francisco.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
February 1966Bill Graham changes careers
Bill Graham resigns as business manager of the San Francisco Mime Troupe in order to devote himself full-time to the business of acid rock concert promotion, initially at the Fillmore Auditorium.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Feb 06, 1966Acid Test
(Sunday)The ninth (?) Acid Test was held in Los Angeles (and called the "Sunset [Blvd.] Acid Test"?). It featured the Grateful Dead.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Feb 12, 1966Acid Test
(Saturday)The tenth (?) Acid Test was held at the Youth Opportunities Center in Compton, CA., which is on the fringes of Los Angeles' Watts ghetto. Some 200 people attended.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Feb 28, 1966Panhandle Freeway Vote Delayed
(Monday)The San Francisco Board of Supervisors delay voting on the Panhandle and Golden Gate freeways due to Supervisor William Blake's absence. Blake, called the "father of San Francisco's freeway revolt" was out of town.

Add'l Info:
Mayor Shelley asked the Federal government to hold the freeway funds three more weeks. The Human Rights Commission made a stand against the Panhandle freeway at last week's Finance Committee hearings on the project. In Chron, 3/2/66 (p. 4) an article mentions that Leo McCarthy sent out a letter opposing the Panhandle Freeway, but it inadevertently was signed by Supervisor Ertola, who favors the freeway. The same article mentions Margaret Johnston, the chair of the Freeway Committee of the Haight Ashbury Improvement Association. In Chron 3/3/66 (p. 1), an article mentions that the deadline for the freeway was extended. Also that the Human Rights Commission denounced a Hal Dunleavy report in favor of the freeway. Groups that are opposed include Civil Rights, Haight Ashbury Neighborhood Council, Haight and Fillmore merchants. In Chron 3/6/66 (World, p. 5), an article has background to the "Great Freeway Controversy." Arthur Bierman and Robert Barone (president of Haight Ashbury Neighborhood Council) are mentioned. They confronted Mayor Shelley at a meeting last Sunday. The proposal for the freeways was introduced in a city master plan from December, 1949.

Source: Chron, 3/1/66, p. 1; Chron, 3/1/66, p. 6; Chron, 3/2/66, p. 4; Chron, 3/3/66, p. 1; Chron, 3/6/66, World, p. 5.(Mentions a demonstration last Sunday at Towne House on Market Street where Mayor Shelley was meeting. Arthur Bierman and Robert Barone (pres., H-A District Neighborhood Council) spoke w/ Shelley. Mentions "The Great Freeway Controversy" has a long history. Began Dec. 1949 with publication of a master plan for several freeways in Golden Gate Park.)
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 01, 1966Kesey Sighting
(Tuesday)Herb Caen reported that Ken Kesey is in Mexico, but "he'll be back."

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron 3/1/66, p. 21
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 02, 1966War Tax Protest
(Wednesday)Joan Baez launches a war-tax refusal campaign.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 3/3/66, p. 12
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 03, 1966Mission Rebels Protest
(Thursday)The Mission Rebels try to stop the illegal sale of glue to minors. Rev. Jesse James is the director. They work with the Poverty Program.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 3/4/66, p. 3
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 04, 1966Hallinan Denies Charge of Being a Communist Front
(Friday)Terence Hallinan, exec. secy. of the W.E. DuBois Clubs, denies a Justice Department charge that the Clubs are a Communist front.

Add'l Info:
The National Headquarters office is at 954 McAllister. Hallinan claims the feds are using the charge to stifle the group's criticism of the Vietnam war.

Source: Chron, 3/5/66, p. 1
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 05, 1966Tape Center To Move
(Saturday)The Tape Center will move to Mills College by this summer.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 3/5/66, p. 31
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 06, 1966W.E.B. DuBois Club Bombed
(Sunday)The bombing took place one day after the Chron reported the charge by the Justice Department that the group is a Communist front.

Add'l Info:
Just days earlier, an article in the Chronicle quoted Terence Hallinan, the executive secretary of the W.E.B. DuBois Clubs, who denied a Justice Department charge that the Club is a Communist front. Their office at 954 McAllister is the national headquarters. Hallinan claimed the feds are levelling the charge to stifle their criticism of the Vietnam war. In a Chron article, 5/6/66, p.1, a SF welfare worker was reportedly fired for signing an anti-police leaflet put out by the W.E.B. DuBois Club. See also article on the Berkeley print shop that received threatening phone calls. (Leo Bach, the owner of the Berkeley Free Press, which prints for for the Vietnam Day Committee.) Among the anonymous callers, one threatened to escalate beyond the bombing that had been done to the VDC headquarters in Berkeley and the DuBois Clubs in San Francisco.

Source: Chron, 3/7/66, p. 1. Earlier article with Hallinan: Chron, 3/5/66, p. 1. Firing: Chron, 5/6/66, p. 1. Printer received threats: Chron, 6/2/66, p. 23. ("Radical Berkeley Free Press' owner gets threatening calls.")
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 06, 1966Block party in San Francisco
(Sunday)A large rock & roll block party celebrated the neighborhood's victory in stopping an apartment complex on Twin Peaks.

Add'l Info:
Willie Brown attended the celebration that drew 200 people to Steward Street. Photo of Robin Goodfellow in a Pied Piper costume.

Source: Chron, 3/7/66, p. 3
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 06, 1966Arts report released
(Sunday)California Arts Commission releases a report on "The Arts In California." The study began in 1963.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 21, 1966SF Supervisors Defeat Freeway Plans
(Monday)San Francisco Board of Supervisors defeat the Panhandle and Golden Gate Freeways. After many years, San Francisco's Freeway Crisis has come to an end.

Add'l Info:
During the previous week, Supervisor Jack Morrison, a leading proponent of the freeways, had announced he was withdrawing support for the Panhandle Freeway in support of the alternate route around the Marina over the proposed Golden Gate Freeway. Both freeways lost in a 6-5 vote of the Supervisors. The votes against were: Supervisors Roger Boas, Terry A. Francois, Leo T. McCarthy, and George R. Moscone. Voting in favor were: Peter A. Tamaras, Joseph E. Tinney, Kevin O'Shea, and Joseph Casey. Jack Morrison and John A. Ertola both voted for one of the freeway plans and against the other. Their votes cancelled each other out in both cases. Morrison also switched his "aye" vote to "nay" in order to ask for reconsideration next week. (At the following week's Board meeting, the Golden Gate Freeway was subsequently defeated again and for a final time.) The vote was also a defeat for Mayor John F. Shelley who had been an "ardent supporter" of the Panhandle Freeway and sought to broker the passage of the Golden Gate Freeway. Shelley said, "I still think San Francisco needs freeways, but you have to work in the face of realities." Blake was the hero of the packed crowd that attended the Board meeting. He had authored a 1958 anti-freeway resolution that had eliminated seven freeways from the city's master plan. Blake had chaired the Streets Committee of the Board of Supervisors for eleven years, but was replaced 2-1/2 months ago by Morrison. Morrison pitched the Golden Gate Freeway by appealing to the broad support it had received from "big business", "big labor", The Chronicle and The Examiner. Moscone mentioned an alternate plan that the state had earlier rejected which would have put freeways into a "triple-tube" route around the northern edge of the waterfront. Moscone declared, "This is our city. We should call the shots."

Source: Chron, 3/22/66, p. 1; Chron, 3/29/66, p. 1; Chron, 4/3/66, World, p. 5; see also Chron, 2/16/67, p.1 (City Planning Commission rejects any further S.F. freeways).
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 25, 1966Life Magazine cover article on LSD
(Friday)Life publishes cover article on LSD. "LSD: The Exploding Threat of the Mind Drug that Got Out of Control".   

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
April 1966Sandoz withdraws from LSD research
Sandoz Pharmaceutical recalled the LSD it had previously distributed and withdrew its sponsorship for work with LSD.

Add'l Info:


Source: Ray O, Ksir C. Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior. Mosby, 1996.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Apr 03, 1966Ralph Gleason article on light shows
(Sunday)Gleason discusses elements of the new dance shows.

Add'l Info:
Gleason mentions the three elements of the new dances: light shows, along with the new music and the new dancing. "The whole thing is a happening; i.e., unplanned, unstructured and ad lib." He goes on to make a comment on artistic calling: "The curse of the entire avant-garde in music, lights, fiction, poetry and everything is the conviction that every man is an artist and sincerity is all that matters. This is hog wash. Many highly intelligent people are simply not artists and many artists are simply not highly intelligent people too, by the way." In another article (Chron, 5/22/66, Datebook, p. 27, "The Building of a New Music") Gleason discusses the rock scene's differences and changes.

Source: Chron, 4/3/66, Datebook, p. 27, "Throwing Light on the Subject".
Entry by: e.p.n.
Apr 05, 1966Mime Troupe show halted in Washington state
(Tuesday)The Minstrel Show is halted at a Washington State College. Later it receives a standing ovation at the Univ. of Washington.

Add'l Info:
See also Chron, 7/3/66, Datebook, p. 10, article on the Minstrel Show returning to the Bay Area amid acclaim and controversy. See also Chron, 7/31/66, Datebook, p. 10 "Where do we stand, the Minstrel Show clarified" by RG Davis.

Source: Chron, 4/6/66, p. 44.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Apr 05, 1966Acid Test #11 in L.A.
(Tuesday)The eleventh (?) Acid Test was held in Los Angeles, and referred to as the "Pico Acid Test."

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Apr 21, 1966Gay protest at Greenwich Village bar
(Thursday)Members of the Mattachine Society stage a "sip-in" at the Julius Bar in Greenwich Village, where the New York Liquor Authority prohibits serving gay patrons in bars on the basis that homosexuals are "disorderly."

Add'l Info:
Society president Dick Leitsch and other members announce their homosexuality and are immediately refused service. Following the sip-in, the Mattachine Society will sue the New York Liquor Authority. Although no laws are overturned, the New York City Commission on Human Rights declares that homosexuals have the right to be served.

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Apr 22, 1966Bill Graham arrested at Fillmore Auditorium
(Friday)Bill Graham, rock 'n roll dance promoter, is arrested at the Fillmore Auditorium, for allowing under-18 year olds in attendance at a public dance hall. Case later dismissed.

Add'l Info:


Source: Berkeley Barb, Vol. 2, #18, p. 9. Case dismissed: Barb, Vol. 2, # 22, p. 5.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Apr 30, 1966Richard Farina Dies
(Saturday)Musician and writer Richard Farina dies in a motorcycle crash in Carmel.

Add'l Info:
His novel is Been Down So Long . . ." Brother-in-law of Joan Baez. First album (by Mimi and Richard) last year received the NY Times rating as 1 of top 10 folk records of 1965. Two weeks ago they were a hit at the SF State College Folk Festival. Dropped out of Cornell. Roamed the world before settling in Carmel Highlands w/ his wife Mimi. They had met in Paris. An article by Richard appears on p. 37, about his writing career. "All other questions should be saved for Sunday at the Discovery Bookstore, 241 Columbus in North Beach where they're having a little party around 7pm. Together with Big Frederick Roscoe, the owner, I promise to look for answers among the store's collection of ceramic heads. Who knows, in another incarnation, maybe one of them was a cameraman."

Source: Chron, 5/1/66, p. 1. Followup: Chron, 5/2/66. p. 2.
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 02, 1966Mime Troupe Disrupts Arts Meeting
(Monday)The San Francisco Mime Troupe crashed the first luncheon meeting of the new Arts Resources Development Committee and presents a manifesto.

Add'l Info:
The San Francisco Mime Troupe crashed the first luncheon meeting of the new Arts Resources Development Committee, a group of twenty-six prominent business people and civic leaders that Mayor Shelley had appointed to study the arts in San Francisco. The Mime Troupe were outraged that the mayor had not asked any working artists to join this policy review committee. The Troupe was "dressed in a variety of costumes from minstrel to commedia," and Ronnie Davis, the Director, read a manifesto to the gathering. The newly appointed Chairperson of the Committee, Harold Zellerbach (also president of the Arts Commission), asked the Mime Troupe to leave the premises. (The meeting was conveniently being held at the Crown Zellerbach Building on lower Market street.)

Source: Chron, 5/3/66, p. 48. See also, Chron, 8/10/66, p. 45 "More Words About Culture" about the consulting firm which made a presentation of their study on San Francisco arts yesterday.
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 02, 1966Gleason article
(Monday)Gleason discusses the controversy surrounding under-18 year olds at dances.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 5/2/66, p. 59.
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 02, 1966Article on Both/And jazz club
(Monday)Opened a year ago in the Haight-Ashbury by Leonard Sheftman, on Divisadero Street. He's 26, was at SF State in film.

Add'l Info:
Background info.

Source: Chron, 5/2/66, p. 29
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 02, 1966Article on El Teatro Campesino
(Monday)By John Wasserman, the article talks about Luis Valdez.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 5/2/66, p. 60
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 03, 1966Culture symposium at SF State
(Tuesday)Ron Davis, director of the SF Mime Troupe, and Kenneth Rexroth participate in a San Francisco State College symposium on the state of the arts in San Francisco at which Rexroth proposes a neighborhood arts movement.

Add'l Info:
Ron Davis, Kenneth Rexroth and others participate in a San Francisco State College symposium called Campus and Community Day, organized by Art Bierman, a professor at the College. This is where Rexroth, after recounting numerous instances of police harassment and arrests of artists, advises the young rebels to take art out into the neighborhoods of the city, to create a "cultural diffusion" that will bring life to the City, which he warned was in danger of "beheading" itself. [Exact quote on tape, transcribed below.]

Rexroth: I'll start it off, but I'll start off with a speech, a follow up on Ronnie's. God forbid that I should be a racist, but as far as I can make out, is there a Negro in the house, as they say when fire breaks out in a theater? Ed Bullins and Marvin Jackman were busted by the cops in the Black Arts Repertory Theater, Saturday night. I have also to have been rousted myself having asked for it in the papers. But the paper hadn't come out yet. They anticipated my request. I wonder how many people here who wear beards have been stopped in the Haight Ashbury district time and again? At the meeting at which I was yesterday, I said to the people around the table, "All you know, some of you, about the people that you think are rather grubby, who were standing at the door, is what you read in the papers when they get arrested. It so happens that Lawrence Ferlinghetti is, in fact, more famous than Josef Krips (sp?) around the world. This happens to be a fact. All that most of those people at that table knew about Ferlinghetti was when he got busted for selling Howl. Howl is not my favorite poem but it certainly is one of the most remarkable things ever written in the City. Bill Graham, who is making an essential contribution to the cultural life of the city, providing a place for young people to relax and blow off steam, if that's your attitude toward what young people should do, is being subjected to an unbelievable harassment. Most people, including many people in the city who consider themselves patrons of the theater, know of Ronnie Davis only because he was kicked out of the parks by the Park Recreation Commission, the head of which considers himself the leading patron, the second leading patron, his wife is the leading patron, in the city. (Laughter) Now, the Both/And musicians are instructed by the owners not to go outside and smoke a cigarette and talk to their wives particularly if their wives are white. I don't wonder that Marvin Jackson isn't here, you know it's just a bunch of devils, you know, kicking the gong around. He had something to say but he isn't here. I don't wonder that there's a Jim Crow section in the cafeteria. They don't want to have nothing to do with you. One of the town's interesting, and perhaps not most important sculptors, all that anybody knows about him was that his welded sculptures illustrating the Kama Sutra was busted by the police. The real problem in this community is the same problem I said to Father Dempsey and he said, "I couldn't agree more" at that meeting yesterday. I said I don't want to be too holy or I would've [..] this. We talk in the church continuously about when are the red brick bishops going to die off? When are the building maniacs who constitute the hierarchy, and they are devoted men who spend many hours of the day on their knees, and what comes up [..] When are they going to die off and when is mass going to be said in people's kitchens? This is what we need in this city, culturally, we need diffusion of the cultural life of the city out into the neighborhoods. And the city structure, and particularly the police department, does everything possible to prevent. Bongo and guitar groups are ordered to disperse when they play in the park or in the Panhandle. Anybody here been ordered to disperse? Poetry reading was ordered to disperse within 15 minutes last summer by a mounted policeman. A request following up a column of mine to use that redwood grove little theater that they've got out there, which is never used at all, as far as I know it's never been used, was not even answered by Park Rec. Now this great patron at the head of Park Rec should have known the names, in fact he should have known personally, he should have had to dinner the people who asked. Never heard of them, they're a bunch of beatniks. Imagine what happens if you go out in the park and try and play a horn. [Laughter] School auditoriums are closed except for school activities, and they're closed at night. And they wonder what to do about the people on the streets. And Spears goes, he happens to be born a little ways from where I was, he goes back to Indiana, I happened to be there, and he gives a great speech about how thrilling it is to live in that radical city of San Francisco, of which he's a part. Boy. [Laughter] Now, the simplest thing that they could do is open the playgrounds of the schools and open the school auditoriums for cultural use. The important thing in this city is to get the Art Festival diffused over the city, to get music, to get all this stuff out into the city, because we are facing a cultural crisis. We are facing the absolute schism between what's called the Establishment and the Disestablishment. And the artists' community is going over to the Disestablisment. Just like Jack London wrote on the side and lived as an oyster pirate. I'm old and successful and probably in Ronnie Davis' eyes rich and part of the superstructure, part of the Establishment. But as a sociological commentator, I know what's happening. And what's happening is of the most serious character and it is not solved by building skyscraper cathedrals of culture. It is not. And the duty of a college in the community is to interfuse the community. A streetcar college like this is, in fact, fused out all through the city like that parasitic crustachean that fastens on the breast of a crab and gradually takes over the whole crab although the crab goes on living. This community, the college community, is doing to a certain extent. But this is its job and this is its duty and this is the way that it can revitalize the city. And its creative arts programs and its poety center and all the rest of this stuff can diffuse out in the city if the resistance of the authorities is overcome. I'm all for, I have a personal fight with Mark and Jim, but I'm all for the poetry center. But a poetry center should be able to carry on poetry readings every Sunday like Ronnie Davis in the parks. In the parks. And it should be [..] a public school program, which the great poets boycott, incidentally. Just like the great artists, once they get 40,000 for a painting, they won't touch the Art Festival. It is the duty to diffuse out into the city and bring it to life because this city is dying because it's beheaded itself. That's my speech.

Source: Chron, 5/4/66, p. 8. Audio tape of the morning and afternoon sessions. Golden Gater (SF State College) May 5, 1966, p. 1.
Entry by: e.p.n.

May 03, 1966Bill making LSD sale illegal
(Tuesday)California legislation passes to outlaw possession for sale or giving away, not simple possession itself.

Add'l Info:
See Sources for more articles around this time on LSD.

Source: Chron, 5/4/66, p. 4, et al. See also: Chron, 5/10/66, p. 6. (Possession reinstated into the legislation). Chron, 5/12/66, p. 8, Cal. Assembly passes the bill to ban private use of LSD. / Other LSD articles at this time: Chron, 5/6/66, p. 47, Merla Zellerbach writes about 23-year old Bob Bailey, the leader of a psychedelic rock group Vejtables. Zellerbach quotes Bailey: "The only way to travel is without reservations." / See also Chron, 6/1/66, p. 1, "Teacher's Weird LSD Fantasies"; Chron, 6/2/66, p. 1, "Couple's Trip on LSD"; Chron, 6/3/66, p. 1, "The Perils of LSD".
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 03, 1966Teenagers Demand Dance
(Tuesday)Teens ask the mayor to sponsor a dance at Civic Center Plaza after the police crackdown on the Fillmore Auditorium under the city's ordinance prohibiting under-18s at public dance halls.

Add'l Info:
Reaction against police crackdown on the Fillmore Auditorium. In Chron, 5/5/66, Mayor Shelley calls the law outdated.

Source: Chron, 5/4/66, p. 6
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 04, 1966Mime Troupe Cut Off From Hotel Tax Funds
(Wednesday)San Francisco's Chief Administrative Officer Thomas J. Mellon cuts the Mime Troupe off the list of groups to receive SF Hotel Tax funds.

Add'l Info:
San Francisco's Chief Administrative Officer Thomas J. Mellon cuts the Mime Troupe off the list of groups to receive SF Hotel Tax funds. Last year, the troupe received $1000 from the city. This is the fund that is parcelled out to arts groups each year. The CAO has full control over the allocations of the money that the City raises through a 3% tax on transient hotel rooms. Mellon explained his decision to cut off the Mime Troupe in saying, "I felt there are organizations to which we are contributing that are doing a better job of publicity and advertising that the Mime Troupe." The SF Chron article mentions the Troupe's "bawdy" performance the previous year, and their uninvited participation and impromptu protest at this week's initial meeting of the Arts Resources Development Committee.

Source: Chron, 5/5/66, p. 1
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 04, 1966Methadone Announced
(Wednesday)Methadone, a cure for heroin addiction, is announced.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 5/5/66, p. 1E
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 04, 1966Article on Black Arts West Theater
(Wednesday)The Black Arts Theater is located on Fillmore Street.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 5/4/66, p. 42. See also Chron, 5/29/66, Datebook, p. 6.
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 06, 1966Conviction, acquittals in Haight drug bust
(Friday)Two were acquitted, one was convicted in a marijuana bust at 408 Ashbury.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 5/7/66, p. 3.
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 06, 1966Burns Report released: blasts Mime Troupe, etc.
(Friday)A State Senate subcommittee released the Burns Report denouncing Clark Kerr for the appearance of the SF Mime Troupe on campus, among other reasons. (They were there to benefit the Vietnam Day Committee.)

Add'l Info:
Another article in the same issue interviews Konstantin Berlandt, a 20-year old junior at UC Berkeley. He wrote five articles about homosexuality in the Daily Cal last fall. The Burns Report cited these in their charge of "rampant homosexuality" on the campus. Berlandt claims their figures are erroneous.

Source: Chron, 5/7/66, p. 1. Berlandt: Chron, 5/7/66, p. 7.
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 08, 1966Rexroth article on the Arts
(Sunday)Rexroth cites Bill Graham and Black Arts West as significant undertakings. (Within the same timeframe and context as the formation of the Artists Liberation Front.)

Add'l Info:
"The really significant things that happen in the cultural life of a great city and that help to solve the ever increasing problems and ease the ever increasing tensions seem to be, by definition, self-starting and self-financing." He mentions Bill Graham and Black Arts West. "They are out for cultural, social, ideological autonomy, for the liberation of all those values inherent but now suppressed or distorted in the American Negro race."

Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 10, 1966First Artists Liberation Front meeting
(Tuesday)Assemblyman Willie Brown chaired the meeting of the new group of San Francisco artists at the SF Mime Troupe's Howard Street loft in response to the Troupe's call "to organize a program for the cultural development of the area." The meeting was prompted by the failure of the San Francisco Arts Resources Development Committee, appointed by Mayor Shelley and funded by Harold Zellerbach, to invite working artists to its May 2 planning discussion.

Add'l Info:
The Berkeley Barb (5/13) termed this "A Poor Man's Art Commission With Artists" and reported on the initial meeting. Alan Meyerson of The Committee will head a 7-man steering committee of the new organization. Peter Berg and Ronnie Davis of the SF Mime Troupe, Bill Graham (Fillmore Auditorium), Arthur Sheridan of City Lights, entrepreneur Yuri Toropov of the Sopwith Camel rock 'n roll group, and Carol Tinker, secretary to critic Kenneth Rexroth, were also elected. Elizabeth Hancock is quoted, "Whether the group is to be a poor man's art commission or a society for the protection of artists, or both is still being decided." Berkeley Puppetteers Bill and Helga Cassady, columnist Ralph Gleason, members of VDC, SNCC, and SDS, and various professionals attended. The Barb likened this group to the voting bloc that defeated Proposition B in November which proposed funding a cultural center "to be built by Zellerbach for him and his friends, the wealthy San Francisco Establishment." The meeting considered "small, numerous neighborhood centers to bring art to the people," and methods to have public library book volume doubled. "We do not agree with the Art Commission's view that art filters from one center down to the little people," Hancock explained. "Ferlinghetti and Rexroth had thought of this sort of group some time ago," Hancock said, "and Ron Davis wanted it after he was invited last fall to meet with McFayden and Knowles, the New York architects brought in by Zellerbach, to discuss "the cultural needs of the community."

Source: Chron, 5/9/66, p. 51. See Gleason article, Chron, 5/13/66, p.51 for background. See Gleason article, Chron, 5/16/66, p. 51("Several sides of the Cultural Coin") for report of this first ALF meeting. Also, Berkely Barb, May 13, 1966, p. 1.
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 14, 1966Black Power advocated
(Saturday)Stokely Carmichael, new chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) advocates Black Power for ending racial inequality. "Negroes will organize Negroes," he declares. This strategy creates anxiety among White civil rights workers, unsure of their future position in the movment.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 15, 1966Article on avant-garde arts
(Sunday)Harry Partch, an avant-garde composer living in Los Angeles, came to San Francisco for local artists. The Bay Area is "a great incubator but no one can exist there." He mentions that the tradition of San Francisco artists finding recognition elsewhere goes back to Gertrude Stein, Jack London, and Isidora Duncan.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 15, 1966Peace March at the White House
(Sunday)8000 attended the peace march.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 5/16/66, p. 1.
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 19, 1966Ron Boise nude sculpture installed
(Thursday)Fritz Maytag installed a Ron Boise sculpture of two nudes onto the roof of his Steam Beer Brewery Corp, in view of the freeway.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 5/20/66, p. 3
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 21, 1966Rally for homosexuals
(Saturday)The rally protesting military policy on homosexuals is at the Federal Building in San Francisco.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 5/21/66, p. 9. See also Chron, 5/22/66, p. 3.
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 21, 1966Vietnam Day Committee celebration
(Saturday)The Vietnam Day Committee celebrated the first anniversary of its big demonstration on the UC Berkeley campus. Attendance was reported as 500. A motorcade of 25 cars left from the Panhandle. This was reported as the smallest demonstration of the VDC.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 22, 1966Rexroth on "institutionalization" of rebellion
(Sunday)Rexroth article.

Add'l Info:
Rexroth, writing about "Group 47" a German group of writers. "Most of them still think of themselves as rebels, but their rebellion, like that of the British Angry Young Men and the American Beats, has been institutionalized."

Source: Chron, 5/22/66, Section II, p. 4.
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 29, 1966Gleason article
(Sunday)Discusses new teen attitude.

Add'l Info:
RG: "This attitude of complete rejection of the previous patterns of behavior can get one into trouble ... But it's already providing for a refreshing reappraisal of many tradiitonal assumptions."

Source: Chron, 5/29/66, Datebook p. 24, "The Big Teen Trend of Refusal".
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 31, 1966Amsterdam youth protest German warship
(Tuesday) A brief Reuters report describes Dutch youth protesting a visit by the West German warship Scharnhorst. Does not mention Provos.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 6/1/66, p. 3
Entry by: e.p.n.
May 31, 1966Third Artists Liberation Front organizational meeting
(Tuesday)The Artists Liberation Front holds its third organizational meeting at the Fillmore Auditorium.

Add'l Info:
The Artists Liberation Front has its third organizational meeting at the Fillmore Auditorium.

Source: Chron, 5/30/66, p. 47 (Gleason Ad Lib).
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jun 03, 1966Black Arts banned
(Friday)Oakland police ban the Black Arts production.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 6/4/66, p. 33.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jun 03, 1966Mime Troupe sues for permit
(Friday)Mime Troupe sues for permit to produce shows in the SF parks.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 6/4/66, p. 33.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jun 06, 1966Gleason reviews Vietnam Teach-In LP
(Monday)Gleason reviews a new documentary LP: "Berkeley Teach-In -- Vietnam" (Folkways).

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 6/6/66, This World, p. 39.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jun 13, 1966Artists Liberation Front meeting
(Monday)The Artists Liberation Front meets at The Committee, 8pm.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 6/13/66, p. 53.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jun 16, 1966Stokely Carmichael urges "Black Power"
(Thursday)Stokely Carmichael, a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), coins the phrase "black power" in a speech in Greenwood, Mississippi, in reaction to the shooting of James Meredith.

Add'l Info:
From history.com: "By the time he was elected national chairman of SNCC in May 1966, Carmichael had largely lost faith in the theory of nonviolent resistance that he--and SNCC--had once held dear. As chairman, he turned SNCC in a sharply radical direction, making it clear that white members, once actively recruited, were no longer welcome. The defining moment of Carmichael’s tenure as chairman--and perhaps of his life--came only weeks after he took over leadership of the organization. In June 1966, James Meredith, a civil rights activist who had been the first black student to attend the University of Mississippi, embarked on a solitary "Walk Against Fear" from Memphis, Tennessee to Jackson, Mississippi. About 20 miles into Mississippi, Meredith was shot and wounded too severely to continue. Carmichael decided that SNCC volunteers should carry on the march in his place, and upon reaching Greenwood, Mississippi on June 16, an enraged Carmichael gave the address for which he would forever be best remembered. "We been saying ‘freedom’ for six years," he said. "What we are going to start saying now is ‘Black Power.'"

Source: http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/stokely-carmichael
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jun 18, 1966Grant Street Fair (13th Annual)
(Saturday)The 13th Annual Grant Street Fair takes place today and tomorrow along three blocks between Vallejo and Filbert streets and will include 150 painters, sculptors, craftspeople. The Mime Troupe and rock & roll bands will entertain.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 6/18/66, p. 32
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jun 19, 1966Rexroth article: "The Irrational Edifice Complex"
(Sunday)By Kenneth Rexroth

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 6/19/66, p. 1 (Lively Arts)
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jun 19, 1966Ginsberg to appear on LSD panel
(Sunday)

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 6/19/66, p. 27
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jun 23, 1966Mime Troupe Permit Denied
(Thursday)The SF Rec and Park Commission denies a permit application from the SF Mime Troupe, using new rules adopted at the meeting.

Add'l Info:
The SF Rec and Park Commission denies a permit application from the SF Mime Troupe, using new rules adopted at the meeting. "Ron G. Davis, the troupe's director, called the regulations 'repressive and restrictive. ... I expected them (the commissioners) to use every measure possible to harass us,' he said. He added that 'if we aren't in the city's parks, we'll be in the streets and the lofts.'"

Source: Chron, 6/24/66, p. 50
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jun 24, 1966David Simpson appointed to Art Institute panel NOT THE DAVID SIMPSON
(Friday)Simpson, a painter and UC Berkeley faculty member, is appointed to a 3-to-4 year term. (This is not the same David Siimpson who published FCN etc.)

Add'l Info:
SF Art Institute's Board of Trustees annouces appointment of a new Artist's Committee to act as an advisory group to the Board. David Simpson is among the artists appointed a 3-4 year term. In Chron, 6/29/66, p.43, Simpson is mentioned as a painter and faculty member at U.C. Berkeley.

Source: Chron, 6/24/66, p. 47
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jun 26, 1966Rexroth article: "San Francisco's Culture and the Drift to the Right"
(Sunday)"Let the rich pay for the big cultural facilities. We can have a genuine "people's art" right here and now in San Francisco, and for relativley little money."

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 6/26/66, p. 1 (Lively Arts)
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jun 30, 19669th Annual Berkeley Folk Music Festival
(Thursday)Will include John Fahey, Pete Seeger, Malvina Reynolds, Phil Ochs, Jefferson Airplane, panels and discussions with Lou Gottlieb, Ralph Gleason, et al. Takes place at UC.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 6/21/66, p. 43
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jul 02, 1966Mime Troupe cancels park performance
(Saturday)The SF Mime Troupe cancelled the Lafayette Square performance of "The Miser" because the Rec & Park Commission had refused their permit application. The Troupe performed in an empty lot at Laguna and California streets instead.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 7/3/66, p. 1B. See also Chron, 7/29/66, p. 52 (a sixth refusal for the Mime Troupe).
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jul 03, 1966Rexroth article: "Arts for the Street Corner"
(Sunday)Final in the series on culture in the city. (Fifth in the series.)

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 7/3/66, p. 1 (Lively Arts)
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jul 05, 1966"Search and Seizure" opens
(Tuesday)The Mime Troupe performance "Search and Seizure" opens at The Matrix.

Add'l Info:
Written by Peter Berg, "Search and Seizure" was a one-act "cabaret" play about police harassment of drug takers. The actors included Emmett Grogan, Kent Minnault, Peter Cohon and others.

Source: Chron, 7/5/66, p. 53. See also Chron, 7/4/66, p. 45, Gleason "Ad Libs" announces "Search and Seizure" to be presented for two weeks at The Matrix along with Country Joe & The Fish.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jul 17, 1966Benefit for Artists Liberation Front at Fillmore Auditorium
(Sunday)Announcement by Ralph Gleason (7/11/66) mentions Sopwith Camel, Bob Clark's jazz group, a poetry reading by Allen Ginsberg, and other events with Gary Goodrow as master of ceremonies.

Add'l Info:


Source: SF Chron, 7/11/66, p. 47; 7/15/66, p. 45; 7/20, p. 39.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jul 20, 1966Artists Liberation Front announces plans
(Wednesday)The Artists Liberation Front holds a press conference to discuss their plans for an upcoming series of events, including a five-day arts festival in September.

Add'l Info:
The Artists Liberation Front holds a press conference at the band shell in Golden Gate Park, and discuss their plans for an upcoming series of events, including a five-day arts festival in September. They also offer to paint the town for free, involving hundreds of artists, "on the streets, in empty lots, in a building, maybe, anywhere we can find -- but not downtown," explained Tille Olson.

Source: Chron, 7/21/66, p. 2. SF Examiner, 7/21/66, p. 13.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jul 25, 1966Artists Liberation Front meeting
(Monday)The ALF holds another meeting at the Fillmore at 8pm.

Add'l Info:
The ALF holds another meeting atthe Fillmore at 8pm.

Source: Chron, 7/25/66, p. 45.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jul 29, 1966Dylan hurt in motorcycle accident
(Friday)Dylan, 25, disappears from view. Manager quoted saying he doesn't know the singer's whereabouts. An assistant to Albert Grossman, Dylan's manager, is quoted in the article.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 8/2/66, p. 42.
Entry by: e.p.n.
August 1966Gay uprising at SF Tenderloin cafeteria
After transgender customers become raucous in a 24-hour San Francisco cafeteria, management calls police. When a police officer manhandles one of the patrons, she throws coffee in his face and a riot ensues, eventually spilling out onto the street, destroying police and public property. Following the riot, activists established the National Transsexual Counseling Unit, the first peer-run support and advocacy organization in the world.

Add'l Info:
This apparently wasn't the first confrontation at Compton's Cafeteria. Herb Caen had mentioned in a July 20, 1966 column that: "COMPTON'S, the all-night cafeteria at Turk and Taylor, is now being picketed by some of the weirdniks who've been rousted by the tough Pinkertons on duty there. If you've never dug the Tenderloin types who generally hang out there after midnight, you're misssing one of tbe Sights of the City." (SF Chron, July 20, 1966, p 21

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline/EPN
Aug 01, 1966U of Texas college student kills 14 in shooting spree
(Monday)Charles Whitman, a 24-year old ex-Marine, shot his wife and mother before leaving home to climb the clock tower at the University of Texas in Austin. There he shot and killed 12 people before police shot and killed him. This event was mentioned in the chronology of Ringolevio.

Add'l Info:
The next day, a Milpitas family was shot and killed in their sleep by a the housewife who then killed herself after shooting her husband and three children. No motive was found.

Source: Chron, 8/2/66, p. 1.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Aug 02, 1966Plans for "MacBird" announced
(Tuesday)Article from NY Times syndicate details Barbara Garson's plans to produce her play off Broadway in October.

Add'l Info:
Garson is quoted saying she had been jailed for two weeks in 1964 for her participation in a free-speech rally at UC Berkeley. "MacBird", a parody of political leaders based on "Macbeth" is Garson's first play. It was published in a limited edition of 2000 copies by the Independent Socialist Club of Berkeley.

Source: Chron, 8/2/66, p. 41. "Satire by FSM Author To Be Staged".
Entry by: e.p.n.
Aug 03, 1966Lenny Bruce Dies of Overdose
(Wednesday)Lenny Bruce, 40, dies of a morphine overdose in his Hollywood, California bathroom. A tragic end to a mercurial comic/satiric genius.

Add'l Info:
His death affected many in the Underground. The early Digger sheets made reference to Lenny's death a few weeks later. Bruce was an important influence on the Diggers with his searing commentaries that exposed social hypocrisy. Bruce had performed recently at the Fillmore.

His arrest on obscenity charges in San Francisco took place in 1961. He referred to Judge Axelrod's courtroom as "Axelrod's Palace". "He violated every concept of what I thought a judge should be. He would listen to nobody. He was a king in his palace."

Source: Chron, 8/4/66, p. 1. See also in [Addl Notes] from "Lenny Bruce - Live at the Curran Theater", November 19, 1961, Fantasy Records, Inc., liner notes by Ralph J. Gleason, 1971
Entry by: e.p.n.

Ca. Aug 04, 1966Billy Murcott arrives in SF (dating in doubt)
(Thursday)Around this date, Billy Murcott moved to San Francisco from New York and joins longtime friend Emmett Grogan to collaborate on various undertakings including the founding of the Diggers.

Add'l Info:
Billy Murcott (a/k/a Billy Landout in Ringolevio) arrives in San Francisco from New York and joins his childhood friend Emmett Grogan who's recently been discharged from the army and is living in the Haight-Ashbury district.

Note: research in the SF Mime Troupe archives leaves questions about this dating. The general ledger shows a $5.00 payment to "Bill Murcutt" on June 20, 1966 for work on the "Work Crew".

Source: (Grogan, Ringolevio 1972:235.)
Entry by: Doyle

Aug 07, 1966Article on underground press
(Sunday)Article on the LA Free Press and others.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 8/7/66, This World, p. 20. "Underground Press Comes Up".
Entry by: e.p.n.
Aug 08, 1966"The Beard" busted
(Monday)Michael McClure's play, "The Beard" is busted at The Committee. Charges later dropped.

Add'l Info:


Source: Berkeley Barb, Aug. 19, 1966, p.3. SF Chronicle, Aug. 9, 1966, p.1. Re: charges dropped, SF Chron, 12/9/66, p.1.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Aug 28, 1966Artists denounce Mayor's arts panel
(Sunday)Lawrence Ferlinghetti and the Artists Liberation Front denounce Mayor Shelley's Arts Resources Development Committee.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 8/29/66, p. 3. Check date of event.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Sep 03, 1966Forerunner of the SF Oracle Published
(Saturday)The premier [and sole] issue (vol. 1, no.1) of P.O. Frisco published in the Haight-Ashbury. It is the forerunner (though by only two weeks) of the San Francisco Oracle.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Sep 16, 1966Anti-fascist rally and march
(Friday)Haight residents hold an "Anti-Fascist Rally and March" from the 1500 block of Haight Street to the Park police station and then back to the intersection of Haight and Ashbury.

Add'l Info:
The purpose was to protest a drug bust that had occurred at 1090 Haight Street. Dennis Noonan, of that address, was quoted as denouncing "blue fascism." This event was the inspiration for the Love-Pageant Rally held three weeks later on October 6, 1966.

Source: Chron, 9/17/66, p. 9.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Sep 20, 1966SF Oracle First Issue
(Tuesday)The premier issue (vol. 1, no.1) of the San Francisco Oracle published.

Add'l Info:
It features an article by the editor John Brownson entitled, "Anarchy 66 Provo" [on p. 3] which describes the activities of the Dutch Provos. Emmett Grogan, who helped to organize the Diggers in San Francisco two weeks later, acknowledged being influenced by contemporary news stories of "the 'Beatnik-Anarchist Provos' in Holland."

Source: (Emmett Grogan, Ringolevio; A Life Played for Keeps (Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown, 1972), 245. The San Francisco Chronicle also ran a front page article around this time (3 October 1966) on "The Dutch Beatnik Provos" as did the Berkeley Barb 3:13 (30 September 1966) 7: Stew Albert's "Like Socialist, Man.")
Entry by: Doyle
Sep 21, 1966PGE Announces Diablo Canyon for Site of Nuclear Power Plant
(Wednesday)Pacific Gas & Electric announces their choice of Diablo Canyon as the site of a future nuclear power plant.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 9/22/66, p. 3.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Sep 26, 1966Artists Liberation Front announces Free Fairs
(Monday)The Artists Liberation Front announces plans for a series of fairs "to involve people in the arts on a direct action basis."

Add'l Info:
Dates planned: October 1, on Shotwell Street (between 15th and 16th streets); October 2 at Hunter's Point; October 8/9 at Glide Memorial Church in the parking lot; October 15/16 in the Panhandle. Names of those involved: Lee Meyerzove, Yuri Toropov (producer), Alan Meyerson, Garry Goodrow, Bill Graham, etc. Three days earlier, the ALF announced the press conference with a press release on three painted bodies (a "topless press release").

Source: Chron, 9/27/66, p. 3. See Chron, 9/24/66, p. 4 for the press release account.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Sep 27, 1966Hunter's Point Uprising
(Tuesday)The Hunters Point Uprising in San Francisco begins around 11pm after a police officer shot and killed a 16-year old African American, Matthew "Peanut" Johnson, around 3pm after Johnson fled from a car that later turned out to be stolen.

Add'l Info:
The uprising spreads from Hunters Point to the Fillmore district (situated in close proximity to the Haight Ashbury). Mayor Shelley orders an 8pm to 6am curfew, and Governor Edmund Brown calls out the National Guard (2000 strong) who arrive the next day, Wednesday, September 28. The State of Emergency ends finally on October 2, six days later, followed by accusations and numerous articles with prescriptions for solving the underlying racial and social problems. Events over the next several days were instrumental in the formation of the Digger Free Food program.

Source: Chron, 9/28/66, p. 1. See Ringolevio. See Burocops Proboscis.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Ca. 28 September 1966-October 1966Ken Kesey Returns and Is Apprehended
Ken Kesey returns surreptitiously to San Francisco from Mexico where he had been in hiding after jumping bail for his 19 January 1966 arrest.

Add'l Info:
He is apprehended on 20 October 1966, tried twice by two hung juries, and is sentenced to serve five months in the San Mateo County Jail and the San Mateo County Sheriff's Honor Camp. (Kesey is released in November 1967.)

Source: (Charles Perry, The Haight-Ashbury: A History 1984:94-95, 100.)
Entry by: Doyle
Sep 29, 1966SDS Pickets Arrested
(Thursday)Paul Jacobs and 91 others are arrested for curfew violation at Haight and Clayton streets.

Add'l Info:
They were part of an anti-cop march organized by the local Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), protesting the Hunter's Point Riot curfew and the National Guard troops who had moved into the City and were stationed at several locations including Kezar Stadium, two blocks from Haight Street.

Source: Chron, 9/30/66, p. 13; Chron, 10/1/66, p. 4. (Note: the original article 9/30 reported 70 arrested.). An article by Saul Landau on his and Paul Jacobs new book ("The New Radicals") earlier in the summer appeared in the Chron, 6/5/66, This World, p. 26.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Sep 29, 1966Diggers defy curfew orders, beginnings of Free Food
(Thursday)Billy Murcott and Emmett Grogan defy the curfew but avoid a confrontation. This evening led to the inspiration for Free Food in the Panhandle.

Add'l Info:
Billy Murcott and Emmett Grogan post "scribbled posters" on Haight Street suggesting that people defy the curfew but avoid confrontations like the one in which the SDS marchers were arrested this evening. They confront the Oracle group after Michael (presumably Bowen) tear down one of these posters that Emmett had posted outside the Straight Theater. Later, Emmett and Billy come close to throwing Molotov cocktails from the roof of Billy's Fell street apartment but at the last minute change their minds. In the coming days, they announce the first Free Food gatherings in the Panhandle, the first activities beyond the anonymous Digger Papers that they had been publishing for some weeks at this point. The first article about (and probably by) the Diggers, which appeared several weeks later in the Berkeley Barb, says the Diggers were born the night that Matthew Johnson was killed. However, that must be more poetic than accurate. See notes on sources. Clearly the beginnings of Free Food are within a few days of this period. See the following from the Communication Company leaflet, "about time we started doin' our own livin' and dyin'" (dated 4/20/67, Cat. No. CC-032A): ===== And so, six months ago you watched two guys bring a milk can full of turkey stew into the panhalde [sic] and start the diggers. two weeks later free food in the panhandle at four o'clock was advertised in the berkeley barb and it never missed a day. somebody asked: Why free food?
and anyone answered: free clothes.
the first free store opened in a six car garage on page street and it was small and the crowd knew each other and someone had written winstanley on the door and then the rains came and the roof fell in the landlord was harrassed by the police and said please... and someone said it was nice while it lasted.
and the diggers grew. =====


Source: See Ringolevio, p. 241 about the events of this night. See "Burocops Proboscis," Berkeley Barb, Oct. 21, 1966, p. 3 for the assertion that the Diggers were formed two nights previously. In Ringolevio Grogan clearly talks about the SDS march as occurring before he and Billy posted flyers that took an alternative approach to the SDS group which was advocating that people defy the curfew, and the Oracle group that were telling people to abide by the curfew.
Entry by: Doyle
Sep 30, 1966Early appearance of the Digger Papers
(Friday)One of the early Digger Papers is published on this date. The broadside, titled "A-Political Or, Criminal Or Victim Or Or Or . . . " is another in the series of manifesto poems signed "THE D I G G E R S". Although undated, internal evidence clearly proves this as the date of first printing.

Add'l Info:
The broadside (see Early Digger Papers on the Digger website for full text) contains the following: "So, don't worry about surface reality. Afterall, Terrance O'Flaherty in today's Chronicle, says you're the average fool on the street and have no right to speak for yourself." In the column by Terrance O'Flaherty (the Chronicle's TV critic) on Friday, Sept. 30, 1966, is the following: [he is decrying a local television station interviewing high-school girls on their views of the Hunter's Point Riots] "Random questioning on subjects such as dating, or whether girls should wear slacks in public, are innocent fillers and healthy slices of humanity. But on more serious problems where even well-informed specialists must restrain themselves from jumping to the "dangerous conclusions" station manager Sacks fears, there is increasing evidence that the average fool on the street has no right whatever to a soap box he has not earned. The viewer has enough difficulty trying to sift the truth from the experts." The phrase "fool on the street" subsequently is used by the Diggers in many of their street events.

Note also: the article "Burocops Proboscis" that appeared in the Berkeley Barb, Oct. 21, 1966, p. 3, states that the first Digger Papers appeared on this date. However, Ringolevio is clear that Emmett and Billy had published at least two sheets prior to this. Soon after this date, Emmett and Billy put together the first Free Food gathering in the Panhandle.

Source: See SF Chron, 30 Sept. 1966, p. 39. (Terrence O'Flaherty's column, "September Song"). See the original Digger broadside (catalog no. DP004) located on the Digger website.

See "Burocops Probiscis," Berkeley Barb, Oct. 21, 1966, p. 3. See also Ringolevio, p. 237 for the description of the first Digger Paper, "Time to Forget . . ." and the second, "Take a Cop to Dinner . . ." which in that chronology occurred sometime after the first week of August, 1966 and prior to the Hunter's Point Riots (which started Sept. 27, 1966).
Entry by: Doyle entered Barb ref. EN found O'Flaherty ref.

October 1966Founding of the Black Panthers
The Black Panthers are founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
Oct 01, 1966Artists Liberation Front Free Fair (first)
(Saturday)The first Artists Liberation Front Free Fair takes place in the Mission District and was one of the first (if not the very first) free outdoor rock performance in the Bay Area.

Add'l Info:
The first of four Artists Liberation Front street festivals is held in San Francisco's Mission district and featured performances by Dick Gregory, Teatro Campesino, Carol Landes's children's dance troupe, and free hands-on art projects. Festivals were to feature performances by the SFMT, the Calliope Company, puppet shows, Dick Gregory, local comedian Bobby Baker, and rock bands [It is possible that this was the first ever free outdoor rock performance in the Bay area]. ALF also set up do-it-yourself art projects. The weekend also saw the San Francisco State College's 'Whatever It Is" event and the twentieth SF Art Festival.

Source: See Chron, Gleason, 9/12, p. 45. There were other articles about this first Free Fair but I have lost track. Check Barb.
Entry by: Doyle
Oct 02, 1966Artists Liberation Front protest Matthew Johnson's killing
(Sunday)On the steps of San Francisco's City Hall, the Artists Liberation Front brings a black coffin labeled "Another 16-Year Old" in reference to Matthew Johnson, the African American teenager who was shot and killed on Tuesday by a San Francisco Police officer. Johnson's death subsequently gave rise to the uprisings on Tuesday and Wednesday nights in the Hunters Point and Fillmore districts. Fifty people participated in the protest. Political Action Committee The Artists Liberation Front protests Matthew Johnson's killing by a San Francisco police officer.

Add'l Info:
On the same day, a memorial took place at the site of the shooting, on "The Hill" as residents of Hunters Point called this area. Connie Williams, of Connie's Restaurant on Haight Street, had donated one of two "bright, yellow" wreaths. The Socialist Workers Party and Young Socialist Alliance donated the other. At first, there were 50 people holding hands in a circle, but people kept showing up, until there were at least a 1000 at the site. A poem written by Alan Williams, a SF sculptor, was read aloud. Williams also donated a sculpture of a large harp for the site.

Source: Chron, 10/3/66, p. 10. Note also Ringolevio, p. 244. The article about the memorial at the site of the shooting is Chron, 10/3/66, p. 1.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Oct 02, 1966Matthew Johnson Memorial Service
(Sunday)A memorial service took place at Hunters Point. The Artists Liberation Front participated.

Add'l Info:
About 3pm, a group of around 50 people of all ages held hands in a circle around the site where Matthew Johnson had been killed. Two bright yellow wreaths were laid out. One from Connie Williams of Connie's Restaurant on Haight Street, and one from the Socialist Workers Party and Young Socialist Alliance. People kept showing up, until there were at least a 1000 at the site. A poem written by Alan Williams, a SF sculptor, was read aloud. Williams also donated a sculpture of a large harp for the site.

Note: the ALF also were involved in an earlier demonstration outside City Hall protesting Johnson's killing.

Source: Chron, 10/3/66, p. 1. See also Berkeley Barb, Oct. 7, 1966, p.3.
Entry by: e.p.n.

Oct 02, 1966Acid Test
(Sunday)The twelfth (?) Acid Test was held in a cafeteria at San Francisco State College. (The 'Whatever It Is" event was held on campus during that weekend.) The state of emergency is ended in San Francisco following the rioting which began in Hunter's point on 27 September 1966.

Add'l Info:
The twelth (?) Acid Test was held in a cafeteria at San Francisco State College. (The 'Whatever It Is" event was held on campus during that weekend.) The state of emergency is ended in San Francisco following the rioting which began in Hunter's point on 27 September 1966.

Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Oct 03, 1966Front page article on Dutch Provos
(Monday)"The Dutch Beatnik Provos" mentions activities and philosophy of the group in Amsterdam.

Add'l Info:
The article discusses an upcoming convention in Maastricht. Bernhard deVries is called a "chieftain." Their magazine, Images has a circulation of 20,000. In June there was a 3-day battle with firecrackers and smoke bombs thrown at the royal family. They hold weekly happenings at the Spul in Amsterdam at the place where they hang out near a statue of a nude boy. White clothes, white bikes, their idol is Dutch patriot Jan de Wit. Boys wear long hair. "We are not provos." Article written by Ferris Hartman, the Chronicle Foreign Service.

Source: SF Chronicle, 10/3/1966, p. 1.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Oct 06, 1966Love Pageant Rally
(Thursday)One of the defining events of the new community in the Haight-Ashbury takes place in the Panhandle at Masonic and Oak. The event marked the day that LSD became illegal under California law. However, the tone of the event was celebratory and presaged the Human Be-In three months later. Big Brother and the Holding Co. played what the SF Chronicle termed "folk rock" music. The Merry Pranksters attended with their now-famous bus "Further".

Add'l Info:
California state law goes into effect on this day making possession of LSD illegal. Hippies in the Haight-Ashbury district protest, or "commemorate" (since the organizers didn't want to be involved with anything so negative as a "protest") this measure with the "Love Pageant Rally" in the Panhandle section of Golden Gate Park. Estimates of the crowd varied from between 500 to 2,000 individuals. A Sunday Ramparts article related that a press release issued by the ad hoc group which organized this event stated that it was being held 'to affirm our identity, community and innocence from influence of the fear of addiction of the general public as symbolized in this law.' Celebrants were urged to bring to the rally 'the color gold ... photos of perssonal saaints and gurus and heroes of the underground ... children ... flowers ... flutes ... drums ... feathers ... bands ... beads ... banners ... flags ... incense ... chimes ... gongs ... cymbals ... symbols ... costumes.' The reporter noted that all of these things were in evidence, including photos of Ho Chi Minh and Lenny Bruce. The Merry Pranksters attended with their bus "Further," but Ken Kesey, who was still a fugitive from the law, did not put in an appearance. The rock bands that played in the park for the Pageant included Big Brother and the Holding Company, and Wildflower. The Ramparts reporter concluded the account by noting that the gathering was conducted "in the spirit of love" as the organizers had planned it, speculating that "[i]f this movement ever catches on it could be the single most subversive influence on Western Civilization since Gutenberg."

Source: (Jerry Belcher, "'Happening' in Park -- The LSD Revolution?" San Francisco Examiner (F. 7 October 1966) 4; "Love-Pageant Rally held to 'celebrate' new LSD law; Panhandle is scene for revelry," The Sunday Ramparts [San Francisco](23 October 1966) 6.) See also Chron, 10/7/66, p.1 (with photo). NOTE: Barbara Wohl, when I interviewed her, felt that this event was a direct result of the Artists Liberation Front. [epn]
Entry by: Doyle
Oct 06, 1966California law criminalizing possession of LSD takes effect
(Thursday)LSD becomes illegal in California.

Add'l Info:
With the onset of this new law in California, thousands of residents of the Haight-Ashbury are suddenly criminals in the eyes of the justice system.

Source: [Erowid ref.:] 'Getting High: The History of LSD', The History Channel, 1999.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Oct 08, 1966Artists Liberation Front Free Fair (second)
(Saturday)Second Artists Liberation Front Free Art Fair took place at the Glide Memorial Church in the Tenderloin district of San Francisco. [See also 1-2 October.]

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Oct 12, 1966Event to remember Matthew Johnson
(Wednesday)A "Plant-In" takes place at the site of Matthew Johnson's killing. One hundred people participate.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 10/13/66, p. 5. See also SF Chron, Nov. 27, 1966, p. 31 re park being built.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Oct 15, 1966Artists Liberation Front Free Fair (third)
(Saturday)Third Artists Liberation Front Free Art Fair took place in the Panhandle of Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. Two of the event organizers -- Arthur Lisch (a Digger) and Yuri Toropov (of the rock group Sopwith Camel) -- are arrested. [See also 1-2 October.]

Add'l Info:


Source: (See article, "And Not So Free After The Fair," Berkeley Barb 3:16 (21 October 1966) 3. [Photocopied and attached to article: George Metevsky, "Delving the Diggers," filed in folder: "The Diggers."]) See Chron, 10/17/66, p.3. Also Gleason, Chron, 10/14, p. 49.
Entry by: Doyle
Oct 21, 1966First Digger articles in Berkeley Barb
(Friday)First mention of the Diggers in print. Two articles appear in the Berkeley Barb underground newspaper. These are most likely written by someone involved or closely associated with the Digger activities. Important statement of the early Digger ideas.

Add'l Info:
First publication of articles that feature the Diggers and their ideas, in the Berkeley Barb. "Burocops Proboscis Probes Digger Bag" (Berkeley Barb, Oct. 21, 1966, p. 3, signed "JAS") describes the birth of the Diggers on the night that Matthew Johnson was shot and killed at Hunter's Point. By the end of the week, the first Digger Papers had appeared and word spread that the Diggers would serve free food in the Panhandle. The Health Department and the Police both have visited the gatherings. The article ends by saying the Diggers want to do something about cars, "which they abhor."

The other article, "Delving the Diggers" (By George Metevsky, Berkeley Barb, Oct. 21, 1966, p. 3), ostensibly written by a naïve onlooker who tries to make sense of the free food gatherings (which sound more like happenings). In answer to a question about who was providing the food, the now famous reply came: "It's free because it's yours." The article also mentions the Digger Papers that are handed out on Haight Street once or twice a week. "Nobody seems to know who writes them, but most agree that the DIGGERS are behind autonomy." There is a mention of one of the Digger Papers: "COOL CRANBERRY HORSE-HAIRED MOUTH CLUTTERED WITH APPLE CORES" and quotes from that sheet. "Regarding inquiries concerned with the identity and whereabouts of the DIGGERS: We are happy to report that the DIGGERS are not that."

The wording of these two articles make them sound like later Digger writings. I conclude that one or more of the Diggers wrote and submitted these to the Barb. Note the pseudonym Metevsky, obviously a reference to George Metesky, the mad bomber of New York, who figures prominently in Emmett Grogan's Ringolevio.

Source: Berkeley Barb 3:16, 21 October 1966, p. 3. See also Grogan's com/co broadside of 20 April 1967: "about time we started doing our own livin' and dyin'" which makes reference to the event described in this article.
Entry by: e.p.n.

Oct 22, 1966Artists Liberation Front Free Fair (fourth and last)
(Saturday)Fourth and last Free Fair put on by the Artists Liberation Front, held at Hunter's Point. Originally scheduled for the first weekend in October, it was rescheduled because of the riots after the police shooting of Mathew Johnson.

Add'l Info:
Fourth and last Free Fair put on by the Artists Liberation Front. Originally scheduled for the first weekend in October, it was rescheduled because of the riots after the police shooting of Mathew Johnson.

Source: Chron, 10/21/66, p. 47.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Oct 31, 1966Acid Test Graduation
(Monday)Kesey cancels the Acid Test Graduation which was to happen at Winterland and holds a private, sedate affair at a Harriet Street warehouse.

Add'l Info:
Doyle's notes: The thirteenth (?) and final Acid Test (referred to as the "Acid Test Graduation") occurred at the Calliope Company warehouse on Sixth Street near Howard Street in San Francisco's skid row district south of Market. (This was the same building in which the San Francisco Mime Troupe had their studio.) It was an invitation-only affair for members of the Merry Pranksters and their associates.

Source: Chron, 11/1/66, p. 2. See also Hap Stewart, "In Kesey's Corner," Berkeley Barb 3:18 (4 November 1993) 1, 5. See also Chron, 11/2/66, p. 49, Ralph Gleason's column.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Oct 31, 1966Dance of Death
(Monday)"The Dance of Death," organized by Bob McKendrick and featuring the rock band Quicksilver Messenger Service, took place at California Hall.

Add'l Info:


Source: "Kesey Not At Dance Of Death," Berkeley Barb 3:18. See also Chron, 11/2/66, p. 49, Ralph Gleason's column.
Entry by: Doyle
Oct 31, 1966The Intersection Game
(Monday)The Diggers held an event they billed the "Full Moon Public Celebration of Halloween" at the intersection of Haight and Ashbury.

Add'l Info:
The Diggers held an event they billed the "Full Moon Public Celebration of Halloween" at the intersection of Haight and Ashbury. The Diggers brought the 25-foot tall wooden "Frame of Reference" that they had used at the Panhandle Free Food gatherings over the past few weeks. Two giant puppets, on loan from the San Francisco Mime Troupe and resembling Robert Scheer and Berkeley Congressman Jeffrey Cohelan (in the Spring primary election, the former -- an antiwar activist -- had come close to wresting away the Democratic Party nomination from the latter), performed in an improvised skit called, "Any Fool on the Street." The puppets moved back and forth through the Frame, encouraging bystanders to do so as well, thereby changing their frame of reference. The Diggers meanwhile distributed approximately 75 smaller versions of the Frame made out of yellow-painted laths six inches square which hung from a neck strap. This was followed by a game of "Intersection," which was played by people crossing the intersection in a way that traced as many different kinds of polygons as possible. Within an hour (around 6 p.m.) a crowd of some 600 people had gathered to take part in these activities. The assembly attracted several squad cars and a paddy wagon with the result that the puppeteers, and three other Diggers were arrested, as well as another man who objected to the police's action. / The article on which this account is based notes that the celebration had been announced by the Diggers' distribution of 1,500 handbills in the Haight-Ashbury and 500 more on Telegraph Avenue in Berkeley during the previous weekend (i.e. 29 and 30 October 1966). And also that "[t]his week the Diggers are renovating a garage in the Haight, where they will open a 24-hour Frame of Reference Exchange, which will provide at no charge all kinds of necessities of life to those who need them. ... Another project underway is the developing of sewing circles and baby-sitting circles."

Source: "Diggers New Game: The Frame," Berkeley Barb 3:18 (4 November 1966) 1, 5. The article should be consulted to read the hilarious dialogue between the puppets and the police, and the chants that the Diggers set up when the arrests were underway. "In the Clear", S.F. Chronicle, 30 Nov. 1966, p. 1. (About the charges being dropped for the Halloween event.)
Entry by: Doyle
Week of Nov 4, 1966Opening of First Digger Free Store
The first Digger free store, called the Free Frame of Reference, opens at 1762 Page Street.

Add'l Info:


Source: Berkeley Barb, Nov. 4, 1966, p. 5.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Nov 09, 1966Diggers and Kesey in court
(Wednesday)Ken Kesey and several Diggers (Emmett Grogan, Peter Berg, Kent Minault, Robert La Morticello, and Brooks Buchet) met briefly in an elevator in the San Francisco Hall of Justice while they were going to separate legal appearances.

Add'l Info:
Ken Kesey and several Diggers (Emmett Grogan, Peter Berg, Kent Minault, Robert La Morticello, and Brooks Buchet) met briefly in an elevator in the San Francisco Hall of Justice while they were going to separate legal appearances. Kesey to enter a not guilty plea on his flight to avoid prosecution charge and the Diggers to appear in municipal court for their 31 October 1966 arrest for creating "a public nuisance" on Haight Street on 31 October 1966. As Kesey was about to get off the elevator, one of the Diggers tugged at his leather jacket and said, "Further." Kesey grinned and said simply, "Yes."

Source: ("D'ye Ken Ken Kesey?" Berkeley Barb (11 November 1966) 8.)
Entry by: Doyle
Nov 11, 1966First Chronicle article mentioning Diggers
(Friday)Ralph Gleason mentions the Diggers in his column on "the New Youth."

Add'l Info:
Ralph Gleason's column on "the New Youth": "the prevailing philosophy . . . is the belief that feeling is more important than logic." His mention of the Diggers (first published reference in the SF Chronicle --?--): "The Diggers, who feed anyone who comes by their stand at their stand at Oak and Ashbury every day at 4 p.m., may not represent a logical, rational, explicit social or political system of thought, but the feeling that their idea and their very existence inspires is exhilirating."

Source: Chron, 11/11/66, p. 47
Entry by: e.p.n.
Nov 15, 1966Love Book and Psych Shop Busted
(Tuesday)Police raid the Psychedelic Shop and arrest Allen Cohen, 26, the store clerk, for selling "The Love Book" by Lenore Kandel, on grounds of obscenity. The subsequent trial of Cohen, Ron Thelin and a City Lights Bookstore clerk becomes the longest criminal trial in San Francisco history to that point. A San Francisco jury convicts all three and finds the Love Book to be obscene.

Add'l Info:
Two San Francisco police officers (Inspectors Maloney and Weiner) and two others raided the Psychedelic Shop and arrested Allen Cohen, 26, the store clerk, for selling "The Love Book" by Lenore Kandel, on grounds of obscenity. Several witnesses reported that the police detained ten customers for half an hour and took down their names. An hour after the bust, a demonstration took place outside with signs that read "Fascist Police", and "Cops Go Home." Lenore Kandel rushed to the scene. The next day at Cohen's preliminary hearing, police arrested Jay Thelin, 27, co-owner of the store, for displaying "The Love Book" on the grounds that "it excites lewd thoughts." A week earlier, Thelin had received an eviction notice for the store. See also 11/17/66 bust at City Lights Bookstore. Ultimately the case wound its way to the California Supreme Court but at every level of appeal, the courts refused to overturn the obscenity conviction. Finally, in Federal District Court, Judge Alphonse Zirpoli overturned the conviction of Allen Cohen, the only remaining defendant who was appealing the conviction, However, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals vacated Zirpoli's decision and remanded the case to the lower court. After the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear Cohen's appeal, the case ended up back in Zirpoli's court, where, in 1974, he affirmed his original decision that overturned the obscenity conviction seven years prior.

Source: Chron, 11/16/66, p. 1. (Photos on p. 1 and p. 15.) Chron, 11/17/66, p. 1. (Mentions arrest of Jay Thelin. Note that later accounts have Ron Thelin as the brother who stood trial.) See also Chron, 11/18/66, p. 1 (City Lights Bookstore clerk Ronald Muszalski arrested for selling The Love Book.) See Chron, 11/20/66, p. 24 (Article on the two-man Special Obscenity Squad.) See Chron, 11/22/66, p. 1 (Six SF State professors plan to defy the Love Book ban and give public readings.) See also Chron, 11/24/66, p.1 (Judge orders three-judge panel to hear the case.) See also Chron, 11/26/66, p. 1 (Mayor Shelley calls "Love Book" "hard-core pornography.") See also Chron, 11/27/66, This World, p. 15 (Commentary on the busts.) Related busts: Chron, 3/10/67, p. 10, "Cops Seize Love Posters" (3 hippies arrested yesterday on obscenity charges for selling posters in hippie retail stores.)
Entry by: e.p.n.
Nov 15, 1966Art Resources Development Committee makes report
(Tuesday)The Art Resources Development Committee makes its recommendations to Mayor Shelley after eight months of investigating the arts scene in San Francisco.

Add'l Info:
The Art Resources Development Committee makes its recommendations to Mayor Shelley after eight months of investigating the arts scene in San Francisco. Shelley created the committee after the municipal cultural bonds proposition lost in 1964. The committee's work was financed by the Zellerbach Family Fund. This is the same group whose luncheon the Mime Troupe crashed on May 2, 1966, at which Ronnie Davis read a manifesto to the assembled committee.

Source: Chron, 11/15/66, p. 1. Chron, 11/16/66, p. 2.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Nov 17, 1966Love Book Bust at City Lights Bookstore
(Thursday)Police arrest a clerk at City Lights Bookstore for selling "The Love Book."

Add'l Info:
The same two undercover cops (Weiner and Maloney) who busted the Psychedelic Shop two days earlier arrested Ronald Muzalski, 31, a clerk at City Lights Bookstore, for selling "The Love Book." Sixteen copies of the book were seized. This is part of the Police Department's anti-obscenity campaign that started in February.

Source: Chron, 11/18/66, p. 1.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Nov 18, 1966Digger article, Berkeley Barb
(Friday)Third article to be published in the Berkeley Barb about the Diggers, "The Ideology of Failure" by George Metesky (Berkeley Barb, Nov. 18, 1966, p.6) presents the most articulate vision of the early Digger idea. "And so, we stay dropped-out. We won't, simply won't play the game any longer. We return to the prosperous consumer society and refuse to consume. And refuse to consume. And we do our thing for nothing. In truth, we live our protest. Everything we do is free because we are failures. We've got nothing to lose, so we've got nothing to lose."

Add'l Info:
Continues: "We're not foiled anymore by the romantic trappings of the marketeers of expanded consciousness. Love isn't a dance concert with a light show at $3 a head. It isn't an Artist Liberation Front "Free" Fair with concessions for food and pseudo psychedelia. It is the SF Mime Troupe performing Free Shows in the parks while it is being crushed by a furious $15,000 debt. It is Arthur Lisch standing under a blue flag in Hunters Point scraping rust off the tin-can memorial to Matthew Johnson from two to five everyday. It is free food in the Panhandle where anyone can do anything with the food they bring to each other. It is Love. And when love does its thing it does it for love and separates itself from the false-witness of the Copsuckers and the Gladly Dead.

"To Show Love is to fail. To love to fail is the Ideology of Failure. Show Love. Do your thing. Do it for FREE. Do it for Love. We can't fail. And Mr. Jones will never know what's happening here, do you Mr. Jones.

It is clear that this article, like the previous one that was signed "George Metevsky", is written by one of the Diggers, most likely Emmett Grogan. Note the many phrases that resonate with other Digger writings ("any fools on the street", "do your thing" etc.).

Source: Berkeley Barb 3:20, 18 November 1966, p. 6.
Entry by: e.p.n.

Nov 19, 1966Berkeley Provos offer daily free food
(Saturday)The Berkeley Provos, a group modeled on the San Francisco Diggers and the Provos of Amsterdam, begin daily servings of free food at 4:00 P.M. in Berkeley's Civic Center Park (soon to be known as "Provo Park").

Add'l Info:
The Berkeley Provos, a group modeled on the San Francisco Diggers and the Provos of Amsterdam, begin daily servings of free food at 4:00 P.M. in Berkeley's Civic Center Park (soon to be known as "Provo Park"). Their stated purpose was "to foster community, warmth, unity, fellowship" and their sole rule (adopted without attribution from the Diggers) was their refusal to accept cash donations. They listed their headquarters as being at 2362 San Pablo Ave. in Berkeley.

Source: ("For Love Not Lucre," Berkeley Barb 3:21 (25 November 1966) 3. An accompanying photo shows Provos dishing out hot stew from a ten-gallon milk can in identical fashion to the Diggers (as pictured in the Barb on 21 October 1966).)
Entry by: Doyle
Nov 20, 1966Article on the poster art of Wes Wilson, Mouse, et al.
(Sunday)"These are the boys [..] that made the art that sparked the scene that turned on the cats that rocked the halls that set the beat that bugged the fuzz that keep the peace that rules in the town that Jack runs."

Add'l Info:
Text by R. B. Read. Calls the Fillmore the place for teenyboppers distinct from the Avalon. Helms found the slogan, "May the Baby Jesus [,,]" on the wall of a men's room. Article is sympathetic to Family Dog and Helms as opposed to Graham.

Source: SF Chronicle-Examiner (Sunday), 11/20/1966, California Living, p. 12
Entry by: e.p.n.
Nov 21, 1966SF State Professors Defy Love Book Ban
(Monday)Six San Francisco State College professors, including Mark Linenthal, Leonard Wolf, Jack Gilbert, and Patrick Gleason, announce they will defy the ban against The Love Book and give public readings. Two will read from The Beard and four will read from The Love Book.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 11/22/66, p. 1. See also Chron, 11/24/66, p. 24. (Protest poetry reading took place 11/23, no busts.)
Entry by: e.p.n.
Nov 22, 1966Haight Independent Proprietors Form
(Tuesday)A press conference announces the formation of the Haight Independent Prorietors after the Haight Street Merchants association refused to let the new merchants in.

Add'l Info:
A press conference announces the formation of the Haight Independent Prorietors after the Haight Street Merchants association refused to let the new merchants in. Lenore Kandel was present. "A Prophecy of a Declaration of Independence" was handed out. The timing on the third anniversary of JFK's assassination is not coincidental.

Source: Chron, 11/23/66, p. 2
Entry by: e.p.n.
Nov 25, 1966Digger article, Berkeley Barb
(Friday)Fourth appearance of a (most-likely Digger authored) article in the Berkeley Barb. "In Search of a Frame" (Berkeley Barb, Nov. 25, 1966, p. 6, signed "Zapata") throws down the most clearly stated challenge to the developing counterculture to date: "There has been talk of a psychedelic revolution (overthrow or return to source). It is yet to be seen. There is perhaps a germinal revolution, barely born, but already torn at and choked by residue from the past. We are at a loss for a frame of reference within which to operate freely, harmoniously and generously."

Add'l Info:
Specifically, the article asks what kind of revolution is it when undergound magazines sport full page shoe ads and fashion spreads that feature local rock 'n roll bands such as Big Brother and the Holding Company. "Big Brother had his image lifted while he wasn't looking. Whatever the revolutionary implications of his band are, none threaten Town Squire and Bally and all they stand for. By sponsoring the magazine the merchants simply attached the rock-revolution image to their product the same way they would have attached Loretta Young's in the '40s or Mickey Mantle's in the 50's."

The crux of their argument: "Why is it necessary to pay two and a half dollars to go to a dance. What's revolutionary about that? Bands don't have to join the union. The unions don't care a damn about consumers, they're out for their slice of the pie. Why join except to get your slice? Why pay rent on a hall? Why not pressure the city into putting on block dances, parking lot dances, FREE dances. Would Chet Helm and Bill Graham oppose that? That would be a revolution; something joyous and free in America."

"Where will Jefferson Airplane, Grateful Dead et al go but up to bigger gigs, better publicity, managers -- etc. until they are ***STARS***. Where's the revolution? Long-hair? Beautiful clothes? Would our soldiers be substantially different if we dressed them mod? John Wayne in Carnaby St. clothes."

"The "hip" merchants along Haight Street with notable exception (Psych shop and Phoenix) are talking about ridding the street of "loiterers" (on public streets?) and panhandlers -- the kids that made the scene they are there to capitalize on. "Money doesn't talk, it swears" so do it for free. Do it for love. That way is safety.

"One more frame of reference: Man is a herd animal. Ecologically the herd is a protective device. It is also warm and comforting in the dark."

Source: "In Search of a Frame", (Berkeley Barb, Nov. 25, 1966, p. 6)
Entry by: e.p.n.

Nov 26, 1966Tree Planting at Mathew Johnson Memorial
(Saturday)A park is being built at the site of Mathew Johnson's slaying in Hunter's Point.

Add'l Info:
A park is being built at the site of Mathew Johnson's slaying in Hunter's Point. Carlo Rhodes and Robert Tyler are supervising the work. All services are being donated by major contracting firms. Connie Williams dished out gallons of baked beans yesterday. Sam Jordan, "Mayor of Butchertown", cooked barbequed beef. Thirty cedar trees, donated by an anonymous donor, were planted.

Source: Chron, 11/27/66, p. 31.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Nov 29, 1966Charges dropped against Digger puppeteers
(Tuesday)Charges were dropped against the five Diggers arrested for the Halloween puppet show and Intersection Game.

Add'l Info:
Charges were dropped against the five Diggers arrested for the Halloween puppet show and Intersection Game. San Francisco Municipal Court Judge Elton C. Lawless accepted (apparently reluctantly) the recommendation of the Deputy District Attorney Arthur Schaffer, who urged, "further investigation indicates that the charges (of creating a public nuisance) should be dismissed in the interests of justice." This is the first time any of the Diggers were named publicly. The caption to the front-page photo which showed the now-famous pose listed: "Robert Morticello, the sculptor who created the nine-foot puppets; Emmett Grogan and Pierre Minnault, actors; Peter Berg, a writer; and Brooks Bucher, unemployed."

Source: Chron, 11/30/66, p. 1. ("In The Clear")
Entry by: e.p.n.
Nov 30, 1966Diggers appear in front page Chronicle photo
(Wednesday)First page photo in SF Chronicle of five Diggers in famous pose outside City Hall.

Add'l Info:
The photo and caption ("In The Clear") by Bob Campbell:

"Charges were dropped yesterday against these five young men, who gave a Halloween puppet show at the corner of Haight and Ashbury streets.

San Francisco Municipal Court Judge Elton C. Lawless acted reluctantly at the urging of Deputy District Attorney Arthur Schaffer, who said, "further investigation indicates that the charges (of creating a public nuisance) should be dismissed in the interests of justice."

Celebrating their release were (from left): Robert Morticello, the sculptor who created the nine-foot puppets; Emmett Grogan and Pierre Minault, actors; Peter Berg, a writer, and Brooks Bucher, unemployed."

Emmett Grogan, in Ringolevio, claimed that this photo gave rise to the hippie peace sign after people adopted a reverse version of the gesture he made to the photographer, the Irish version of the American middle finger.

Emmett describes this event:

The case went before Municipal Court Judge Elton C. Lawless within forty-eight hours--on Emmett's 22nd birthday. His honor reluctantly dismissed the case before anything got started, at the urging of Deputy District Attorney Arthur Schaffer, who said, "Further investigation indicates that the charges of creating a public nuisance should be dismissed in the interests of justice." The further investigation he mentioned was some cocktail conversation he had with the defendants before eating lunch with them. This penal code 370, which they were charged with violating, had been chosen by the park station cops as the main weapon in their declared war of harassment against the Haight Street people, and the puppet quintet was happy to be cut loose. They were in a good mood when they walked out of Lawless's courtroom, and their loudness attracted Bob Cambell, a newspaper photographer who was assigned to cover the municipal court building, which was quiet with the inactivity of a dull afternoon. He got the story from the deputy D.A. and asked the five defendants if they would stand on the outside steps for a photo. They did without thinking anything of it.

The next morning, Emmett walked down his block for a newspaper and a cup of coffee. On the corner there was a sealed container that unlatched a Chronicle when it was fed a dime. He dropped his ten cents into the slot, opened the lid, and what he saw made him lift out two copies instead of one. On the front page was a five-by-seven picture of him and the others, outside the court building after their release the day before. The photo was headlined, "In the Clear" and captioned with their names and a brief synopsis of who they were and what had gone down. He was referred to as an actor, but thankfully there was no mention of the Diggers or even the Mime Troupe. The photo captured each of them striking a pose: La Mortadella was shown with his pinky and forefinger raised in the sign of the cornuto or the cuckold; Slim Minnaux was leaping with arms-stretched, fists-clenched ecstasy; the Hun had his thumb jammed up into an imaginary asshole, and his face was pinched like .someone who just smelled a load of shit; Butcher Brooks was dressed in someone else's style and leaning forward in a stiff, fraternity stance, Emmett, still wearing his army boots, with a scarf knotted around his neck, an IRA cap flopping on his head, and a cigarette loosely hanging from the corner of his smile, was one step upstage from his pals, staring out at the reader from above the middle finger and index finger of his right hand, raised in the sign of a backwards [end page 253] V which to the English and Irish means "Up Your Ass!" and is the equivalent of the American, lone, uplifted, middle finger.

The photo seemed as big as life to Emmett, and he wondered if it meant any trouble. He didn't like too many people knowing about him, and now half the city was probably going to know all their names before the day was out. He finished his coffee and then thumbed a ride up Haight Street to Clayton. As he was walking up the hill to the house where the stew was being fixed and the station wagon was parked, several people called out to him by name and flashed him a V-sign. He stopped a few of them and explained that they had it all wrong. "You've got to turn your hand around 'n flash it backwards. Like giving someone the finger. See . . ." and he showed them. But there were too many to bother about and by the time he went over to the Panhandle at 4 P.M. for something to eat, everyone was waving the V-sign to him and to one another, saying things like, "Peace, brother." "When are you going to run for mayor, Emmett?" It was depressing. There he was, on the front page of the town's only morning newspaper, telling everyone to shove it all up their ass, and they thought he was just imitating Winston Churchill or something. "Fuck it!" He decided there was no way to make the hippies hip to it, and besides he had better things to do.



Source: Chron, 11/30/66, p. 1. The photo is captioned "In the Clear." See Ringolevio, p. 254.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Dec 02, 1966Judge Assails Parties in Love Book Case
(Friday)Judge Joseph G. Kennedy assailed the Mayor, the Police, and the Defense in the Love Book case, for publicity seeking. Marshall Krause is the ACLU defense attorney.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 12/3/66, p. 3
Entry by: e.p.n.
Dec 04, 1966Provo Conference Reported
(Sunday)Article on recent Provo conference in Maastricht, Holland.

Add'l Info:
Article on recent Provo conference in Maastricht, Holland. Several Euro groups boycotted the meeting, including English anarchists led by Charles Radcliff. The Provos discussed pollutionless cars, end to smoking, emancipation of sex, liberation of the Third and Fourth worlds, and white bicycle tour of the world. Named Provo spokesperson: Joop van Est. Provo philosopher: Dr. Roel van Buyn. A speaker at the conference: Carl Jasper Grootvald.

Source: Chron, 12/4/66, p. 6, Punch.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Dec 04, 1966Los Angeles Sunset Strip Riots
(Sunday)Background article on the Sunset Strip riots. Peter Fonda, 26, was arrested.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 12/4/66, p. 7, This World. See also Chron, 12/11/66, p. 29 (This World), "The Battle of Sunset Strip" and the police selective enforcement of the curfew.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Dec 07, 1966Student Rally on Berkeley Campus
(Wednesday)One thousand Cal students attend a rally as they go back to classes. Beginnings of the "Yellow Submarine" movement.

Add'l Info:
Students rally as they go back to classes. One thousand attend the rally, sponsored by "Campus Friends of the Lone Ranger". The report of the event names those involved in the planning, including Mario Savio, Frank Bardacke, and Michael Rossman. The Beatles' "Yellow Submarine" played to the crowd. A leaflet explained that the song was "an unexpected symbol of our trust in the future and our longing for a place fit for us all to live in."

Source: Chron, 12/8/66, p. 1. See also 12/11/66, Chron, p.4, "Cal Rebels' Theme Song: 'Yellow Submarine'" by Lynn Ludlow. See also 12/12/66, p. 41, Ralph Gleason on the Yellow Submarine proclamation (compares it to the "Marseillaise").
Entry by: e.p.n.
Dec 08, 1966Article on English Anarchists' White Bike Plan
(Thursday)Charles McCabe's article describes an English group's White Bike Plan modelled after the Provos.

Add'l Info:
Charles McCabe's article, "Love is a White Bike", describes an English Anarchist group's plan to spray paint 20 bicycles white and leave them around the streets of Oxford for free use. John Birtwhistle, 20, says the idea is borrowed from the Provos of Amsterdam. "In a city full of cars, it seems sensible to encourage people to ride bikes. Secondly, we hope to wake people up. The scheme's got charm. It's gay. And, thirdly, it's attractive to anarchists because it is attractive to many other people and they may think about the bicycles and then begin to question the present idea of private property. Why lock things up and label them 'mine'?" "You can just get on and ride, leaving the bike when you have finished for someone else. I don't think people will steal the bikes. I think people are basically honest."

Source: Chron, 12/8/66, p. 28.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Dec 08, 1966Charges against The Beard thrown out
(Thursday)Charges against the play "The Beard" are thrown out because the law is not applicable to stage performances.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 12/9/66, p. 1.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Dec 11, 1966Article on underground buttons
(Sunday)Describes the popularity and business of underground buttons.

Add'l Info:
Article on the store Underground Uplift Unlimited, located on St. Marks Place in New York City, started by Randy Wicker last May. He pays 12.5 cents for each button and sells them 5 for $1.00. Ships 10,000 per month. October sales were $10,000. By May, 1967, he hopes to clear $50,000. Wicker invents 20% of the button slogans. He runs a contest that supplies 65% and he "appropriates" 15%.

Source: Chron, 12/11/66, p. 2 (Sunday Punch).
Entry by: e.p.n.
Dec 14, 1966Denver hearing for three Mime Troupe members
(Wednesday)Hearing in Denver for three Mime Troupe members arrested in the Minstrel Show.

Add'l Info:
Hearing in Denver for three Mime Troupe members arrested in the Minstrel Show. Peter Cohon, 24, William Lyndy, 32, and Earl L. Robertson, 37. The judge will rule on the request for dismissal on Jan. 4.

Source: Chron, 12/15/66, p. 50.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Dec 16, 1966Mime Troupe Carollers Arrested
(Friday)Ten members of the Mime Troupe were arrested for begging while singing Christmas carols outside the Condor.

Add'l Info:
Ten members of the Mime Troupe were arrested for begging while singing Christmas carols outside the Condor. Article mentions Ann Willock, 24, of 222 Haight Street, and Jane Lisch, 25, of 1480 Waller.

Source: Chron, 12/17/66, p. 24.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Dec 17, 1966"Death and Rebirth of the Haight" (aka "Death of Money") parade
(Saturday)The Diggers held an event that celebrated the death of money and rebirth of the Haight-Ashbury.

Add'l Info:
The Chronicle reported the event under the headline "Haight Angels Jailed" and went on to explain that seven Hells Angels riding west on Haight met the parade of 200 hippies walking in the opposite direction at 5:00pm. The Angels were invited to join the parade. Henry Kot, 37, (1606 12th Avenue) and Charles "Chocolate George" Hendricks, 34, (1020 Davidson), took up the lead on their motorcycles. Several blocks later, two police officers stopped and arrested Kot for "allowing a girl to ride standing on his buddy seat." Hendricks was also arrested in the confusion, and a paddy wagon took them both away to the police station. The paraders made their way to Park Station and sourrounded it, with candles lit, singing Christmas carols, and chanting "We want George". The mass surged into the station house, and were repulsed by seventy-five cops. The two Angels got transported to the Hall of Justice downtown. Their bail was set at $313. Kot was charged with permitting a passenger to ride illegally and resisting arrest. Hendricks was charged with interfering with an arrest. Within an hour, the paraders raised the bail and headed to the Hall of Justice, last seen by the reporter at Octavia and Market where they stopped to re-light their candles and sing a Christmas carol. Photo included with article.

Source: Chron, 12/18/66, p. 1. See also "A Hippie Plan to Foil the 'Fuzz'", Chron 1/17/67, p. 3 re disposition of the case against the Angels (Municipal Judge Lawrence S. Mana dismissed the charges against Kot and Hendricks for lack of evidence. Article mentions that the arrests took place at the Haight Street "Love Happening" last December.)
Entry by: e.p.n.
Dec 17, 1966George Metesky Seeks Release
(Saturday)George Metesky, 60 (the "Mad Bomber") seeks release from a New York State Hospital for the Criminally Insane, in order to stand trial. He has been in the hospital for ten years.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 12/18/66, p. 12.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Dec 19, 1966Article on the Hobbit culture
(Monday)The Hobbit culture abounds. People are writing in Elvish, and using the language of the book "Lord of the Rings" by J.R.R. Tolkein.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 12/19/66, p. 44.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Dec 20, 1966Superspade in Court on Drug Charges
(Tuesday)Superspade (William Thomas, 25, of 848 Clayton) and five others appeared in court on drug charges.

Add'l Info:
Superspade (William Thomas, 25, of 848 Clayton) and five others appeared in court on drug charges. (Includes the two Hillsborough kids). The article mentions a button that Superspade wears which reads "Superspade faster than a speeding mind." He got the nickname from "some chick" and "it just grew".

Source: Chron, 12/21/66, p. 3.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Dec 22, 1966Article on Hip Job Co-op
(Thursday)Herb Caen mentions that Sharon Sweeney opened the Hip Job Co-op.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 12/22/66, p. 27.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Dec 25, 1966Ralph Gleason on Hippie Culture
(Sunday)Gleason's article, "Advance Guard of U.S. Culture?" is prescient in predicting the far-flung influences that the hippies will have on American culture.

Add'l Info:
He traces the evolution from "hipster" (based on Negro jazz., a philosophy of life outside the law., seeing money and pleasure) to "beatnik" (rejection of social structure by dropping out into "egotistical isolation") to the "transformation of the beatnik into the hippy., the hipster into the psychedelic. From an ethic in which there was no belief except in self, the hippy of the sixties emerged with a view of life that rejected 'plastic uptight' America but opted in favor of love and truth and beauty in all its forms. The hippy didn't believe in money as the hipster did, nor in flaking out in egotistical isolation like the beatnik. The hippy is first of all positive. Productivity in art in all its aspects is a prime characteristic of the psychedelic colony." . . . "Preteristic implications aside (the continuous wild west show is really only a reflection of the TV generation) the hippy secretly is making fundamental changes in our lives. It seems only logical to say that law, language, medicine, morals, and much more will ultimately reflect the changes it has already wrought in art."

Source: Chron, 12/25/66, p. 25 (Datebook).
Entry by: e.p.n.
Dec 28, 1966Article on The Fugs
(Wednesday)Background story on the avant-garde musical group.

Add'l Info:
Article, "The Hippest of the Hip" is about The Fugs. Explains where they got the name (from Norman Mailer's "The Naked and the Dead" -- it was a euphemism.) Their audiences are 1/2 teenyboppers and 1/2 adult hippies. Ed Sanders' freak slang comes from "crooks, hustlers, queens, amphetamine heads and poets" he met working at a Times Square cigar store. They use poems of Hesiod, Eliot, Charles Olson, Blake, Sappho, etc. plus their own.

Source: Chron, 12/28/66, p. 40.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Dec 30, 1966Diggers announce New Year's Wail
(Friday)Ralph Gleason in his column: "A New Year's Wail, sponsored by the Diggers and the Hells Angels, will be held Sunday at 2pm in the Panhandle at Oak and Ashbury, with Big Brother and the Holding Co., Buddha and the Wildflower, the Chamber Orkustra, and others."

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 12/30/66, p. 29.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Week of Dec 30, 1966Closing of first Digger free store
The Free Frame of Reference on Page Street is closed down.

Add'l Info:


Source: Berkeley Barb, Dec. 30, 1966, p. 9. See also Barb, Dec. 16, p. 8.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jan 01, 1967"New Year's Wail" held in Panhandle
(Sunday)A New Year's Day event sponsored by the Hells Angels and the Diggers. The Angels were grateful for the support shown to Chocolate George and Hairy Henry after their arrests at the Diggers' Death of Money parade.

Add'l Info:
In the Chronicle article, Buddha made a comment on "the joyous moment." Paul Krassner made a short speech. The Chamber Orkustra performed. The gathering in the Panhandle enjoyed sunny weather on New Year's Day. The Rec and Park Department ordered the loud speakers turned off but Buddha announced the music would continue from just the amplifiers. "And on until it was dark they played their music and danced and rode their motorcycles and wore their strange clothes and tossed their long hair. And then they packed their guitars and drums and blankets and bottles of wine and rode off into 1967."

Source: "Angels Join the Hippies for a Party," by David Swanston, Chron, 1/2/67, p. 1. See Ringolevio, p. 263. See also Gleason's announcement two days before the event, Chron, 12/30/66, p. 29.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jan 08, 1967Police Bust Digger Free Store
(Sunday)Police bust the second Digger Free Store at 520 Frederick Street.

Add'l Info:
Emmett Grogan (identified as Eugene in the newspaper account) was busted along with six others. They were showing W.C. Fields movies at "the abandoned storefront." Grogan was charged with "maintaining a place where narcotics are dispensed." The police were answering a noise complaint and searched the place after Grogan "became belligerant." A small amount of grass and other drugs were found in the basement. The two police officers mentioned were Patrolman Anthony Delzono and James Bailey. The Barb reported that this was part of a continuing pattern of harassment of the Diggers.

Source: "Some Pot Among The W.C. Fields," Chron, 1/9/67, p. 3. Barb, Jan. 13, 1967, p. 3, "Counter-Frame Leads To Bust For Frame 2." Barb, Jan. 20, p. 5, "Diggers Beat Bust So Building Condemned?" by Silenus. (Robert Watkins, who was in the Free Store on Frederick, was busted 1/16/67 for not having the proper ID, but the Judge dropped the charges. Then later in the week, a condemned notice was put up on 512 Frederick, the building that houses the Free Store. Mentions the Free Store has been there a month. On Monday, 1/16/67, Swami Bhaktivedanta moved next door to the Diggers. ) In Gleason, 1/23/67, p. 37, he uses the name "Free Frame of Reference" for this Free Store.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jan 08, 1967First Police Crackdown on Hippie Chalkings
(Sunday)The "hippy" custom of colorful chalk sidewalk drawings started three months ago.

Add'l Info:
Sergeant Frank Edgar ordered William Pounds to stop chalking a sidewalk north of Children's Playground in Golden Gate Park. This "hippy" custom started around three months ago around Alvord Lake in the Park at the end of Haight Street where it intersects Stanyan Street. Colored chalk and crayon free form artworks appeared on the sidewalks there and north of the Playground. Much of the chalking was done at night. The police officer said the park gardeners complained since they're supposed to keep the sidewalks clean.

Source: Chron, 1/9/67, p. 3.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jan 12, 1967Beat poets hold a free benefit for the Diggers
(Thursday)Held at Gino and Carlo's Tavern, this was billed as "the first San Francisco Poets 'Thank You' to the Diggers." The Diggers, true to form, refused to accept cash donations collected at the event.

Add'l Info:
The pantheon of San Francisco Beat and post-Beat poets showed up to support the Diggers. Included were "Gary Snyder, Lenore Kandel, George Stanley, Ron Lowensohn, Lew Welch, Richard Brautigan, David Meltzer and William Fritchey." Emmett Grogan describes this event and how the Diggers turned down the offers of money, and gave back all the money that had been accidentally collected. In a followup article, Gleason noted, "The Diggers, the Haight-Ashbury informal group which provides free food each afternoon at 4 in the Panhandle at Oak and Ashbury, won't accept benefits from any group. 'If you want to give the Diggers a benefit,' a spokesman says, 'give a party to which everybody can come free.'" Note that Gleason reported the event to take place at Dino and Carlo's and the brief announcement the next day had it "Deno and Carlo" and had the address as 728 Vallejo. (The address of Gino and Carlo's was 548 Green St.)

Source: Chron, 1/11/67, p. 43 (Gleason). 1/12/67, p. 41 (brief announcement), 1/20/67 Gleason, p. 39. See Ringolevio, p. 278. Address for Gino & Carlo was 548 Green St. in the Sept. 1966 San Francisco telephone directory. Note the spelling of Carlo, not Carlo's as it was popularly spelled. Phone number was 421-0896. Polk's San Francisco City Directory for 1966 lists Teresa's Restaurant & Bar for 728 Vallejo St.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jan 14, 1967The San Francisco Human Be-In
(Saturday)The event, aka the "Gathering of the Tribes" which took place in the Polo Field of Golden Gate Park, was the prototype of all Sixties Counterculture celebratory events. (Think "Woodstock 1969). The Diggers provided Free Food.

Add'l Info:
There were arrests on Haight Street afterwards. H.I.P. denounced the arrests and a community meeting to "consider the arrests" was called for Monday.

Source: Chron, 1/13/67, p. 39 (Gleason). Chron, 1/15/67, p. 1. Chron, 1/16/67, p.3. Followup on the arrests: Chron, 3/1/67, p. 6. Four of the 32 arrested after the Human Be-In on Jan. 14 were found guilty on 2/28/67. Four others in the trial of nine were acquitted, and in the ninth person's case, no decision was reached by the jury. The four guilty: John Keskulla, Richard March, Gregory Oldfield, David H. Kast. The four acquitted: Harris Freeman, Alan Roukauf, Michael R. Luckie, Ethan D. Figen. The one no-decision: Nancy Day (the only woman of the nine). Possible sentence on the misdemeanor charge: six months. Brian Rohan was the defense attorney. Judge Donald B. Constine set March 2 for a new trial date for Ms. Day and March 22 for sentencing. The "32 hippies" were arrested for "failing to disperse on Haight Street between Clayton and Ashbury streets while listening to a sidewalk saxophone player." See B arb, 1/20/67, p. 7, "On Bein' at the Be-In; Saw You There!" (Mentions the Diggers feeding the multitude.)
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jan 23, 1967Meeting of the Artists Liberation Front
(Monday)The meeting was to take place at Glide Memorial Church at 8pm. Mentioned in Gleason's column.

Add'l Info:
Most likely a planning meeting for the Invisible Circus.

Source: Chron, 1/23/67, p. 37 (Gleason).
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jan 23, 1967Article on the Digger free store
(Monday)Ralph Gleason describes the Frederick Street Free Store ("Free Frame of Reference") at 520 Frederick St.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 1/23/67, p. 37 (Gleason).
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jan 23, 1967Article in SF Chronicle on the Diggers
(Monday)Describes free food, the free store, etc. (With a photo of a man and a boy sitting on a casket.)

Add'l Info:
"The Digger's Mystique" by David Swanston (who wrote many of the articles on the Haight at this period.)

Source: "The Digger's Mystique" by David Swanston, Chron, 1/23/67, p. 6.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jan 31, 1967Diggers sue police over harassment
(Tuesday)The ACLU filed the suit in Federal Court on behalf of the Diggers (not named as such in the afticle) for several arrests.

Add'l Info:
Those named as plaintiffs are Peter Berg, Eugene Emmett Grogan and Brooks Bucher (for the Oct. 31, 1966 Halloween bust) and Robert L. Watkins for a New Year's Day arrest. Chief Cahill is one of the defendants, along with Sgt. Jos. E. Buckley, Officers Arthur Gerrans, Ernest Gisler and Billie Dillon.

Source: "Suit Accuses Cops of Harassment," by Bill Cooney, Chron, 2/1/67, p. 3.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Feb 12, 1967Article on the upcoming fight over Diablo Canyon
(Sunday)First article in the Chronicle that presages the two decades-long battle against the Diablo Canyon nuclear power site. Written by environmental reporter Harold Gilliam.

Add'l Info:
The Sierra Club had agreed not to protest the Diablo Canyon site in exchange for protection of Nipoma Dunes, 12 miles south. "It developed, belatedly, however, that Diablo Canyon is also part of a scenically valuable shoreline. The National Park Service had rated the area as highly as the Nipoma dunes and recommended it for public acquisition. This region is the last long stretch of the California coast -- south of Mendocino county -- unmarred by highways, railroads or any other form of development. Within Diablo Canyon are meadows, stands of laurel and tanbark oak, big-leaf maples and native rhododendrons along the stream, and groves of some of the biggest California live oaks growing anywhere including one tree that may be the largest of its species in the world." Gilliam recommends a study before further work on the project, to consider future needs including open space.

Source: "Now It's The Battle of Diablo Canyon," by Harold Gilliam, SF Chon, 2/12/67, World, p. 29.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Feb 18, 1967Haight Street Riot
(Saturday)On this Sunday afternoon, a riot lasting for some five hours occurred between police and hippies in the Haight-Ashbury district.

Add'l Info:


Source: (Eye-witness reports appear in the Berkeley Barb 6:9 (23 February 1968) 4-5. Also see the article "The Winter Before [sic] the Summer of Love," by Marvin Garson et al., San Francisco Express Times 1:5 (22 February 1968) 1.)
Entry by: Doyle
24-26 February 1967The Invisible Circus in San Francisco
Billed as a "72 Hr. Environmental Community Happening" sponsored by the Diggers, Artists Liberation Front and Glide Foundation, the Invisible Circus was San Francisco's Digger underground answer to the Trips Festival that had taken place the previous year, and to the Human Be-In the previous month. The Diggers staged this event at Glide Church, where the Artists Liberation Front had held one of the first Free Fairs the previous fall.

Add'l Info:
Originally billed as a "72 hour environmental community happening," the event started Friday night and ended with the Sunday morning celebration/service. However, after the first night, and after consultation among the Church ministers and some of the organizers along with two SF Police Dept captains, the decision was to move the festivities to Ocean Beach. By midday Saturday, all the participants had left. Many returned for the Sunday celebration the next day. The stories about the Invisible Circus became legend in San Francisco's hip community for years.

Chester Anderson and Claude Hayward brought the Gestetner equipment that constituted the free printing presses of the Communication Company, and set up shop in one of the church offices. From there, they issued bulletins and news flashes every few minutes. The resulting body of printed sheets comprises an instant archive of the event, of the free space created within the walls of this liberated Tenderloin neighborhood sanctuary.

Chester was fond of telling about one such sheet, a story which typifies the spontaneous nature of a digger event. He had taken a breather and went for a drink to a bar across the street from Glide. There he overheard a heated discussion between two of the bar's patrons. Chester, the ever-vigilant correspondent, whipped out his notepad and jotted notes of this conversation. He then repaired to the Communication Company temporary facilities and typed up his notes, ran off a few copies of this instant news bulletin, ran back across the street and astounded these very patrons with copies of their conversation memorialized in print.

There were several centers of action throughout the Church, as thousands of people arrived around 8pm on Friday. There was a rock band in the Fellowship Room in the basement, and an orgy room next door filled with shredded plastic. The elevator was also filled with plastic and revelers called "elenauts" sang "Yellow Submarine" as they rode from floor to floor. The main sanctuary on the first floor saw a variety of activities including Hindu chanting, candlelit processions, poetry readings, incense burning, a naked man roaming the room, African drumming, belly dancing, light shows and lovemaking. Meanwhile, the Fellowship Room was host to a discussion on obscenity, including a police officer from the vice squad. There was a film on satellites projected on one wall while rock music blared and a group of belly dancers suddenly burst into the room, drawing partners into a mass sensual dancing. The Diggers fed everyone at 11pm, and the events continued until the wee hours of Saturday morning. Eventually the Church leaders freaked and asked that the festivities move elsewhere. There were plans to move the happening to several locations in the City, but the group that reached Ocean Beach by Playland are confirmed by the Barb account.

Meanwhile, every cubicle of Glide was happening. The elevator to the basement opened to a hallway filled with styrofoam. Wading through this fill was like a dream sequence of being stuck in place while trying mightily to move. In another room, there was a panel discussion on pornography. When it came time for the police vice squad officer to speak, one of the diggers opened up a glass display case from its hidden access panel in the next room, and laid his penis on the shelf. The audience broke apart in hilarity over the irony of these two juxtaposed images, the staid cop discussing in a quite serious tone the dangers of porn, while the anonymous flasher performed his silent interpretation of "do your own thing" behind the podium. The cop never caught on.

See the Digger Web page (http://www.diggers.org/diggers/incircus.html) for more information.

Source: "Hippie Show in the Tenderloin," Chron, 2/25/67, p. 2. (Claude Hayward calls the Invisible Circus "an anarcho-syndicalist thing.") "Hippie's Strange Offer to Narcotics Chief", Chron, 2/27/67, p. 5, describes a meeting on Sunday morning in the basement of Glide. Lt. Norbert Currie, head of the SF narcotics detail was present. Rev. Mamiya said 5000 people had attended the event Friday night, then the action had gone out to the beach on Saturday night. Peter Cohon (age 25) is quoted. See also "GLIDE Set for Hips and Straights," Berkeley Barb 4:8 (25 [24?] February 1967) 3], and "Hippy Happy Hour Makes Glide Glow", Berkeley Barb 4:9 (3 March 1967) 1-2: [illustrated by 5 photos]. See also Charles Perry, The Haight Ashbury: A History (New York: Random House/Rolling Stone Press, 1984), 145-147; and Cecil Williams, I'm Alive! An Autobiography (San Francisco, &c.: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1980), 83-104. Doyle notes about Williams' account, "The latter conflates this event with one called "Born Free" which the church sponsored during its regular Sunday morning service on 18 June 1967, misdating the Invisible Circus to that weekend.)" Read Williams' description of the epiphanic effect of his finding graffiti left behind in the basement restroom after the revelers departed. See also Barb, Jan. 13, 1967, p. 5, "GLIDE Set To Glow." (the idea started with the success of the Free Fair at Glide last Fall. Mentions the concept of having different rooms in the hands of various groups, such as the Diggers, the Mime Troupe, the Committee.)
Entry by: e.p.n.

Feb 27, 1967Police raid two Digger crash pads; hippies protest
(Monday)The two houses that the police raided were 848 Clayton and 1775 Haight. The next day, a demonstration takes place at Park Station protesting the raids, and police harassment, especially directed toward Patrolman Arthur Gerrans. Lt. John Curran estimated that 40 people stayed at each apartment on a nightly basis.

Add'l Info:
The cops raided both communal apartments and arrested any juveniles without ID. Leonard Sussman is mentioned as the official tenant of 1775. Lt. Curran said the police had received complaints about both places. Rodney Fletcher, a resident of 1775 said that if it weren't for such places, "the streets would be flooded with people at all hours of the night." Signs at the demonstration on Tuesday, Feb. 28, 1967, protesting police harassment, read "Tune In Turn On Drop Art" in reference to Officer Arthur Gerrans.

Source: "A Hippie Protest Over New Raids," Chron, 3/1/67, p. 1.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 01, 1967Testimony Against Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant
(Wednesday)Testimony against the proposed plant.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 3/2/67, p. 50.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 03, 1967Diggers protest "The First Annual Love Circus"
(Friday)The Diggers picketed outside Winterland where a group calling itself The Love Conspiracy Commune puts on an event billed as "The First Annual Love Circus," an obvious rip-off of the Invisible Circus, See various Communication Company leaflets.

Add'l Info:
Gleason had announced that the Grateful Dead, Love, Moby Grape would perform. The Barb reported that 150 "Digger-inspired" pickets showed up at 7pm to protest the "exploitation of love." One of the Com/Co sheets announced, "The Diggers will not pay for this trip. Suckers buy what lovers get for free." Judy Berg has described how the Diggers chanted the "Banana Rantra" outside Winterland. (See reference to article on "The Banana Turn-On"). The Barb transcribes the chant as: "BA-NA-NA, NA-BA-NA, NA-NA-BA, BANANA!" Don Fredericksson, a 41-year-old ex-lawyer spokesperson for the Commune, defended their charging for the event. In a letter to the Barb, he attacks the idea of "free" and questions why the Invisible Circus couldn't "draw a band" to play. He also wonders "where the Glide Foundation money went." He also submits an income and expense sheet that lists $10,620 of expenses which came "out of backer's pockets" and 2270 tickets sold for income of $7584.50 (net loss of $3,035.50). Their "backer" was the owner of several S.F. night clubs (the Diggers had charged that the Commune was backed by a syndicate interested in the hippie scene, which seems to be true from Fredericksson's admission.)

Source: Chron, 3/3/67, p. 43 (Gleason). Barb, March 10, 1967, p. 1, p. 7. Chron, 3/4/67, p. 1, "Kicks for Hippies: The Banana Turn-On" by Don Wegars. (An anonymous letter reported the banana high in the Berkeley Barb. Signs on storefronts in the Haight give a recipe for "mellow yellow." Jerry Rubin said bananas "work every time" and Berkeley City Council candidate Charlie Artmanhad a comment.) Chron, 3/6/67, p. 3, "Bananas Flunk the Hippie Test" (lack of enthusiasm for the reputed psychedelic effects. One "bearded youth" quoted as saying it's a United Fruit Company plot. Chron, 3/14/67, p. 1, "A Banana 'Smoke-In'" yesterday at UC on the steps of Sproul Hall (12 people took part, 35 minutes it lasted.) See also Berkeley Barb, 3/10/67, p. 1, "Love Community Conspiracy Clash" by Jeff Jessen.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 09, 1967Cops Seize Love Posters
(Thursday)SF police arrest three managers or employees at separate hippie retail stores on obscenity charges for selling posters with erotic and political content, including a David Hodges poster depicting the various positions of the Kama Sutra.

Add'l Info:
Those arrested were: Doyle Phillips, 27, proprietor of The Deadly Excess (2143 Powell), Daric Jerome, 26, manager of The Blushing Peony (1452 Haight), and Michael R. Morris, 20, from the House of Richard (1541 Haight). Phillips was arrested for two photos, one of a nude couple and the other of a guy holding a sign "Fuck War." Jerome and Morris were arrested for the blue and orange Hodges poster. The Hodges poster had small lettering which proclaimed, "Let's Liberate Posters." Jerome claimed the police were picking on him because he had complained earlier about inadequate police protection. One of the arresting officers was Patrolman Arthur Gerrans. The police arrested a fourth person who was in the area: Richard D. Fahrner, 29, of 555 Clayton. All those arrested were released on $550 bail.

Source: Chron, 3/10/67, p. 10, "Cops Seize Love Posters". See also: Chron, 3/11/67, p.2, "Hallinan's Hippies and 'Gestapo'" (Terrence Hallinan, representing three of the people arrested on Thursday, 3/9/67, all three for selling the Kama Sutra poster, charged the arrest was a plot by the police to drive the hippies out of town. The three pled not guilty. Trial set for next Tuesday. Chron, 3/14/67, p. 6, "A Legal Hand for Hippies" in the "Obscene Poster Flap" -- ACLU will sue unless police return hundreds of confiscated posters. (Judge Kennedy ordered confiscated Love Books returned in that case). Chron, 3/15/67, p. 3, "The Erotic Poster Battle" -- the police returned Kama Sutra posters to Marshall Krause, the ACLU attorney. T.L. (Chris) Christianson, a partner in the Blessed Trinity (which published the posters at $1 each) said sales have been booming since the bust.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 10, 1967Article on the Mime Troupe's New Show
(Friday)The Condemned of Altona showing at the Geary Temple.

Add'l Info:


Source: Barb, 2/10/67, p. 6, "The Mimers Live! Dig 'Em Now!"
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 11, 1967Berkeley Provos planned event
(Saturday)Berkeley Provos planned to hold a Be-In at Tilden Park. (Cancelled due to rain.)

Add'l Info:
Officially called "A Reversal of Planet Earthquake Picnic." Gleason surmised that the event might "achieve the Yellow Submarine . . . community envisioned by some who hope to see the two merge." [The political and non-political.] Gleason announces the following week that the Provos will try again on Sunday, March 19, at Constitution Park in Berkeley with six bands: The Loading Zone, Motor, New Delhi, River Band, Haymarket Riot, Soul Purpose, and Blue Cheer.

Source: Chron, 3/10/67, p. 41. (Gleason). Chron, 3/17/67, p. 45. See also 3/20/67 p. 47 re: the Berkeley Provos providing Free Food at a Poor People's Concert.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 14, 1967Three Mime Troupe Members Arrested in Calgary, Canada
(Tuesday)The three are charged with possession of marijuana. The Troupe was subsequently banned from the campus of the University of Calgary. All three remain in jail without bond.

Add'l Info:
Eight members of the Troupe arrived on March 14 in Calgary for a scheduled appearance of The Minstrel Show the next day. Orlin L. Vaughn, 27, 625 Scott Street, was arrested for possession of marijuana after police searched the Troupe members the evening of the 14th. After the University banned the performance, the Troupe decided to perform off-campus, but after another police search, Ronald Guy Davis, 33, founder of the Troupe, and Ronald J. Stallings, 23, 722 Brunswick Street, Daly City, were both arrested for "twigs and seeds" found in their clothing. Vaughn was released on bail and returned to San Francisco but was re-arrested when he attempted to return to Calgary for the court hearing. A benefit will be held at the Geary Temple March 25 (the day after the SF Chron article appeared about the arrests.)

Source: Chron, 3/24/67, p. 5, "Canada Jails Three of S.F. Mime Troupe." Note: this article puts the date of the arrests as 14 March. This should be verified with other sources.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 19, 1967Panhandle Chalk-In
(Sunday)Hundreds of people showed up to participate in this event, sponsored by the SF Recreation and Park Department.

Add'l Info:
The SF Recreation and Park Department held this event to counteract the new hippie trend in the past few weeks to create chalk drawings on sidewalks in the Panhandle and the Golden Gate Park. At this event, twelve gross of chalk donated by Pacific School Supply were handed out by 1:00pm. Each person got an envelope of chalk and a 4-foot square in which to work. Bill Pounds, a student teacher who complained when police made him stop drawing on pavement in Golden Gate Park recently, was enthusiastic. He thought it was an attempt to meet people halfway. (He uses special pastel sticks). Of the chalk designs created at this event, flowers, peace signs, and slogans abounded. (One such said, "Weeds are whatever grows where they're not supposed to.")

Source: Chron, 3/20/67, p. 3, "Chalk-In Is Big Drawing Crowd". See also: Chron, 3/20/67, p. 2, "Where You Do It" about Police Officer Gerrans arresting three hippies for drawing "psychedelic murals" on the sidewalk in front of Tracy's Do-Nuts (1569 Haight) at the same time as "hundreds of hippies" were participating in the Rec & Park Dept chalk-in. [There are other articles to add to this reference, from earlier in the same year, about the phenomenon of the chalkings.] See also Chron, 3/26/67, World, p. 4, photo of the Chalk-In and mention that rain washed everything away the next day.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 20, 1967Happening House Holds Low-Key Be-In
(Monday)The event was billed as "The Haight Ashbury Easter Cosmic Egg Week Human Be-In" in the Panhandle.

Add'l Info:
Allen Cohen declared it a "non-happening", not a Be-In, because nothing was supposed to happen. Instead, "No electricity, no rock and roll. Just poets reading their poetry, people learning about yoga or how to work a loom." Leonard Wolf (who is from Romania) handed out hamantashes made by his wife. Various people involved in Happening House talked of their plans. Steve Levine, 29, hopes to see a class on natural childbirth. Wolf, 44, hopes Happening House will be a street college that will help define the needs of those who come to it. He said police harassment has increased since the Love Book bust. Nat Freedland, editor of the LA Free Press, showed up with a bucket of dried banana scrapings and everyone smoked joints of it. He announced plans to go into business selling envelopes of it for $5 (the Mellow Yellow Company). Hubert Lindsay ("freckled evangelist") was there, and turned down the banana joints (also eucalyptus ones), saying "Ah'm turned on already."

Source: Chron, 3/21/67, p. 3, "Bananas and Beads in the Panhandle" "A Hippie Non-Happening". See also Chron, 3/18/67, p. 3, "A Panhandle Easter Be-In". Announcement of plans to hold "the Haight Ashbury Easter Cosmic Egg Week Human Be In" starting next Monday and going all week in the Panhandle. Happening House is sponsored by SF State College. This will be the second "venture" sponsored by Happening House. Leonard Wolf, the director of the program, announced that they are looking for a space where Happening House can locate. They will be conducting a series of college-level courses though not at SF State expense or credit. The aim is to act as a bridge between the "straight" and "turned-on" generations. Allen Cohen is the associate director. Their phone numbers are given to call for leads on spaces. Leonard Wolf is a professor of English at SF State.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 21, 1967Diggers Warn About Upcoming Hippie Invasion
(Tuesday)Arthur Lisch "of the Diggers" and Roy Ballard [founder of the Black Man's Free Store] warn about upcoming invasion of hippies to San Francisco this summer.

Add'l Info:
Lisch and Ballard addressed the monthly meeting of the San Francisco Deanery Clericus of the Episcopal Diocese of California. They warned that hundreds of thousands of young would be coming to San Francisco this summer and preparations must be made to clothe, house, and feed them. Lisch likened it to a "world-wide pilgrimage." He told what his group, the Diggers, do, for example housing 300 people Monday in their "informal dormitory." Rev. Leon Harris praised the Diggers as the "executive branch of the hippie movement." The clergy voted condemnation of a Recreation and Park Department ban last month on sleeping in city parks at night. The article mentions the original 17th century Diggers. Ballard warned that "if the Diggers do not receive the help they are asking for in advance, as far as the black community is concerned there will be no riot this summer -- there will be war." His comments were not reported in the Chronicle, but were in the Berkeley Barb. Lisch commented that the Diggers were getting swamped with all the "things that need to be done." Ballard said, "The black people need food and clothing and shelter just like everybody else. The Diggers are moving in the right direction. It's time for the black man to do the same, and it's time for the City of San Francisco to help." The Barb mentions his hope to open "several all-black communes in the Digger tradition" by June." "We're going back to face reality and the basic needs of people. If we can't relate to each other as human beings the whole concept of love and brotherhood is lost."

Source: Chron, 3/22/67, p. 1. (See Cahill response 3/23, see Mayor’s reaction 3/24, see Gleason 3/24, see 3/10 re: B. Graham prediction of four million hippies.) See also: Berkeley Barb, 3/24/67, p. 1, "Hippies Warn SF, Police Chief Warns Hippies, Black Warns All" by Jeff Jassen. (Roy Ballard is the focus of the article, and his comments not reported in the Chronicle.) Ballard had harsh criticism for some of the Black clergy in the City, whom he called "as much embezzlers as the common criminal." "Why does a church have to look like a palace? Christ had no mansion. He showed people how to share, how to get along with each other. All that money could buy food." He mentioned that high percentage of black men fighting in the war in Vietnam (he is quoted as saying 20% of the front lines) and comments, "When they come back here they find the same war still going on at home, a battle for self-preservation in a more than affluent society."
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 22, 1967Police Chief Blasts Diggers, Warns Hippies
(Wednesday)San Francisco' police chief, responding to the prediction by Arthur Lisch and Roy Ballard the previous week about an upcoming invasion of young people, warns the hippies and denounces the Diggers.

Add'l Info:
San Francisco Police Chief Thomas Cahill announced he will do whatever he can to "discourage new arrivals to the hippie colony." He also blasted the Diggers, specifically for a leaflet signed "DIA" (which Cahill said stood for "Diggers Intelligence Agency") that warned people of narcs in the area. He fully supported the ban on park sleeping, citing health hazards posed by camping in the park. "Hippies are no asset to the community," he said.

Source: "Blunt Warning By Cahill on Hippie 'Pilgrims'", SF Chron, 3/23/67, p. 1.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Mar 23, 1967Mayor Denounces Hippies
(Thursday)The Mayor warns hippies to stay out of town.

Add'l Info:
"Mayor Acts", "THE WAR ON HIPPIES", "Mayor Warns Hippies to Stay Out Of Town." San Francisco's city government will actively discourage a hippie influx. Increased police patrols already are taking place in the Haight. Fire Chief Wiliam Murray will step up inspections of apartment buildings. There is discussion of increased health inspections. The Mayor sent a letter to the Board of Supervisors asking for a policy statement warning hippies to stay away from San Francisco. Muni will re-route the 43, 71, and 72 buses on the weekend because of the 30-minute waits from traffic congestion. The Public Utilities Commission will get a schedule change next week.

Source: "Mayor Acts," SF Chron, 3/24/67, p. 1. See also Chron, 3/28/67, p. 10: Shelley's proposed declaration that hippies are unwelcome is referred to a committee of the Board of Supervisors.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Mar 24, 1967SF Health Department Announces Crackdown on Hippies
(Friday)The Health Department will send a crack "12-man" team to the Haight-Ashbury starting on Monday to inspect the hippie crash pads.

Add'l Info:
Health Director Dr. Ellis Sox made the announcement. He cited bubonic plague and epidemic meningitis as the potential threats posed by the hippie "dormitory-like pads." San Francisco Assemblyman John Burton reported that "hippies are potentially the greatest threat facing the Nation's traditional social structure."

Source: Chron, 3/25/67, p. 1, "Health Crusade To 'Clean Up' The Hippies".
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 24, 1967Ralph Gleason Lambasts City Crackdown on Hippies
(Friday)SF Chronicle columnist Gleason rebuts Police Chief Cahill's attack on hippies. This column appeared on Good Friday.

Add'l Info:
Gleason points out all the economic concerns supported by the hippie culture, including the dance ballrooms, the Family Dog, Bill Graham's business, the poster printing, the Haight Street businesses, the Oracle newspaper, and (strange enough) the "printing company, Communications Co." Also mentions the Mime Troupe benefit the next day at the Geary Temple to raise bail and defense funds for the three Mime Troupers who were arrested the previous weekend in Calgary on trumped-up marijuana charges. Ronnie Davis and two others have been held without bail. Another note: Chet Helms is quoted saying that a typical run of an Avalon poster is 200,000 copies. Cahill's comments at a press conference this past week: "Hippies are no asset to the community."

Source: SF Chron, 3/24/67, p. 35, "S.F., Love, Easter And the Hippies" by Ralph Gleason. [Note: correction. This item was originally entered with the author as R.G. Davis.]
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Mar 25, 1967City Gets Heat for Anti-Hippie Stance; Officials Respond
(Saturday)A group of five lawyers send a letter to Mayor Shelley expressing concern that the City will be violating hippies' rights. Police Chief and Health Director respond.

Add'l Info:
The five attorneys work for the War On Poverty (and got into trouble with the chairman of the program, Judge Joseph Kennedy.) Police Chief Cahill and Health Director Sox said they aren't going to drive away hippies, but just enforce the laws to control the situation. Sox said it was just a coincidence his announcement of the health inspections and the report of an influx of hippies. Cahill said the press conference he held helped keep away an influx of hippies over the Easter holidays.

Source: Chron, 3/26/67, p. 1, "City Toning Down Its 'War' on Hippies; But Laws Will Be Enforced".
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 25, 1967ML King, Jr. Participates in Peace Demonstration
(Saturday)This is the first time that Dr. King participated in a peace demonstration. Took place in Chicago. Dr. Spock took part as well.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 3/26/67, p. 1.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 26, 1967Easter Be-Ins in Los Angeles and New York
(Sunday)4,000 people gathered at Elysian Park in Los Angeles. 10,000 gathered in Central Park's Sheep Meadow in New York.

Add'l Info:
In New York, James Fouratt was quoted as saying, "We wanted a celebration of being alive. It's an affirmation of not being afraid." Listed as organizers (in New York?? or L.A.??) were: Paul Williams (editor of Crawdaddy), Claudio Badal (Chilean poet-playwright) and Susan Hartnett (of Experiments in Art and Technology.)

Source: Chron, 3/27/67, p. 7, "Hippies' L.A. 'Love-In'" "The Sights and Sounds of Sharing". (Includes photo.)
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 26, 1967Easter Sunday Hippie Uprising on Haight Street
(Sunday)With Digger provocation and spontaneous group action fueling the situation, hundreds of hippies take over Haight Street and tie up traffic for three hours.

Add'l Info:
What the SF Chronicle termed a "mill-in" started late in the afternoon on Easter Sunday with traffic at a standstill. The Diggers took the occasion to pass out Communication Company leaflets to the tourists in their cars. A spontaneous game of football using a plastic bleach bottle created a focus for the hippies on the street who gathered in front of the Print Mint to cheer on the participants. After the size of the crowd created a traffic hazard, the police arrived and decided to close off the street to all cars. The street revelers then poured into the empty street shouting "Streets are for the people" and "Keep cars off Haight". Some of the participants sat down in the street. Others played "tie up the traffic" by criss-crossing the intersection. The police started arresting bystanders and participants. A total of between 12 and 20 were arrested over the next few hours. [An article in the Barb later surmised that the police were expecting mass arrests, on the order of 300, and were disappointed when so few managed to get arrested.] One of those arrested was the Digger named Apache, whom the police busted for directing traffic. In an outcome reminiscent of the beginning of the Free Speech Movement, the crowd surrounded the arresting officers' patrol car. Eventually, the police let him loose and he was carried away on the shoulders of friends. Allen Cohen and Father Leon Harris attempted to negotiate with the police. Allen then attempted to calm the crowd. Cohen said, "Today is Resurrection Day but that doesn't mean we have to be crucified! There are conscious ways to fight evil." In the same spirit of countering the street confrontation, some people passed out incense, flowers and cookies. Two people named as arrestees: Jimmy Van Allen and a young black man known to the crowd as Mystery, both for no apparent reason. [Note: this was likely inspired by the Digger's Intersection Game from the previous Halloween, Oct. 31, 1966. No direct evidence that the Diggers planned this event.]

Source: Chron, 3/27/67, p. 1, "Hippies vs. Police At a Big 'Mill-In'". Re: no direct evidence of Digger planning. See Grogan, Ringolevio, p. 291: The street people of the Haight reacted to the police harassment with Sleep-Ins at night in Golden Gate Park to protest the city's ordinance against such activities, and with Mill-Ins at the main intersections of the district to demonstrate for the repeal of Penal Code 370 and express their belief that "the streets belong to the people!" See also: Chron, 3/28/67, p. 10, "Youth Sentenced In Hippie Mill-In." (A black Richmond teenage boy pled guilty to inciting to riot and received a 30-day suspended sentence. Four others pled not guilty. Here it says the 'mill-in' tied up traffic for an hour at the Haight-Ashbury intersection. Seven people appeared before Judge Kennedy.) See also: Chron, 3/28/67, p. 36, editorial: "The Hippies' Tie Up." (Denounces the mill-in Sunday. "If the hippies wish to be welcome here, they should behave in the spirit of their and our patron saint, St. Francis, and have nothing to do with the fomentation of group hostilities." ..."we find some difficulty in understanding how the hippies, if they mean what they say about their peaceful, love-filled attituded toward the rights of others, could go to the rather silly extreme of tieing up traffic and forcing the police to take action against them." Berkeley Barb, 3/31/67, p. 4, "Hippies, Arise!" by Sam Silver. Also: Barb, 3/31/67, p. 4, "Lovers Foil Fuzz'z Plan For 300 Busts" by Jeff Jassen.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 27, 1967Health Department Raids Digger Crashpad
(Monday)The Health Department sent inspectors into the Haight and issued abatement notices on 39 buildings, one of which was 848 Clayton, a Digger crashpad.

Add'l Info:
Eight teams of Health Department inspectors visited 691 buildings yesterday, issuing 5-day abatement notices to 39 of them, including six occupied by hippies. One of these was 848 Clayton Street, a crashpad, which the inspectors cited for 15 violations. A photo shows Big John and three women at 848 Clayton. A spokesperson named "The Digger" talked with the inspectors. The press was invited into the house for a tour.

Source: Chron, 3/28/67, p. 1, "Health Dept. Raid" "INSIDE HIPPIES' PADS".
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 28, 1967Digger Arrested for Possession of Venison
(Tuesday)John Stephens Simons was arrested for "possession of venison out of season" after a photo appeared of him and another man butchering a deer in the backyard of 848 Clayton Street.

Add'l Info:
There was more to this story than at first appeared. In a followup article the next day, a Humane Officer for the Bird Guardians League said it was he who gave the Diggers a yearling buck deer he found dead on the Coast Highway. This confirmed the story of John Stephen Simon, 28, aka Spider, who was arrested Tuesday. (Note different spelling of middle name.) Simon appeared in court on Thursday (3/30) and Judge Axelrod dropped the charges against him. However, the Humane Officer, Robin Taber, was by then in some hot water. Fish and Game officers (who had initially signed the warrant for Simon's arrest) wanted to question Taber. The president of the Bird Guardian League said that Taber had been kicked out by the Board of Directors on March 9 because he was too involved with other wildlife groups. Humane officers are empowered by the Superior Court to enforce laws against cruelty to animals.

Source: Chron, 3/29/67, p. 4, "A Deer in Hippieland -- And Arrest." (Simons is not identified as a Digger in this first article.) See also: Chron, 3/30/67, p. 2, "How the Diggers Came By a Buck." (First explanation of how the deer got to the Diggers.) Also: Chron, 3/31/67, p. 2, "Flap Over Digger's Deer." (Re: Taber and the Fish & Game officers.)
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jun 07, 1967Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinic Opens
(Wednesday)The Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinic opens at 588 Clayton St. It is the first volunteer-run, 24-hour, free clinic in the country. Founded by David Smith, M.D. Some 250 patients showed up seeking treatment on its first day.

Add'l Info:


Source: (Julie Bourland, "Health Care is Your Right," The City, San Francisco's Magazine 2:7 (August 1991) 11.)
Entry by: Doyle
Jun 12, 1967Supreme Court nullifies ban on interracial marriage
(Monday)In Loving v. Virginia, the Supreme Court rules that prohibiting interracial marriage is unconstitutional. Sixteen states that still banned interracial marriage at the time are forced to revise their laws.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: infoplease.com
Jun 16, 1967Monterey International Pop Festival
(Friday)The Monterey International Pop Festival held at the Monterey, CA, Fairgrounds. It is attended by between 50,000-90,000 people.

Add'l Info:


Source: (The most comprehensive description and analysis of the festival is Robert Christgau, "Anatomy of a Love Festival," originally written for and published in Esquire magazine (January 1968), and reprinted in his anthology, Any Old Way You Choose It: Rock and Other Pop Music, 1967-1973 (Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, INC., 1973), 12-34. See also Ralph J. Gleason's "On the Town" column, "The Beautiful Pops Festival," San Francisco Chronicle (21 June 1967) 47.)
Entry by: Doyle
Jun 18, 1967Digger event
(Sunday)The Digger-sponsored event called "Born Free" takes place at the Glide Memorial United Methodist Church on the edge of San Francisco's Tenderloin district. It features Lenore Kandel and Ann Weldon reading their poetry during the regular Sunday morning service.

Add'l Info:


Source: (Cecil Williams, I'm Alive! An Autobiography (San Francisco, &c.: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1980), 101-103; Digger broadside distributed ca. mid-June 1967 with the first line of "Middle Class Brothers," announcing free upcoming events between 18-22 June 1967, around the time of the Summer Solstice.)
Entry by: Doyle
Summer 1967Summer of Love in San Francisco
The impulse for this Archive

Add'l Info:


Source: [One of the events on the LSD Timeline at Erowid.org]
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
July 12-17, 1967Newark Racial Uprising
Newark, New Jersey, explodes in racial strife after police arrest a taxi driver. These are the most violent riots since Watts two years earlier. Twenty-six people die in the rioting. 1500 injured, 1400 arrests, 300 fires.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
July 15-30, 1967Dialectics of Liberation Conference, London
The conference which Emmett Grogan attended and where he gave a speech that was received with rousing applause until Emmett mentioned that it was one which Hitler had given.

Add'l Info:
From the website, dialecticsofliberation.com:

The Congress on the Dialectics of Liberation (for the Demystification of Violence) took place in London’s Roundhouse between the 15th and 30th July 1967. Organised by the American radical educationalist and anti-psychiatrist Joe Berke and his colleagues in the Institute of Phenomenological Studies, it was a bold attempt to ‘demystify human violence in all its forms, and the social systems from which it emanates, and to explore new forms of action.’

The congress emerged out of Joe Berke’s involvement with the free universities movement in the United States and out of Alexander Trocchi’s idea for a ‘spontaneous university’ as a ‘detonator’ for revolutionising contemporary existence.

The event drew together the bohemian culture of New York’s Lower East Side with Europe’s own rebel groups in art, literature, politics and psychiatry, producing what has been justly described as the ‘numero uno seminal event of [London] 67’, a sometimes joyous but often angry anti-coalition of ‘politicos’ and ‘culture wizards.’

‘All men are in chains’, runs a flyer for the congress. ‘There is the bondage of poverty and starvation: the bondage of lust for power, status, possessions. A reign of terror is now perpetrated and perpetuated on a global scale. In the affluent societies, it is masked. There, children are conditioned by violence called love to assume their position as the would-be inheritors of the fruits of the earth. But, in the process, they are reduced to little more than hypothetical points on a dehumanized co-ordinate system. …We shall meet in London on the basis of a wide range of expert knowledge. The dialectics of liberation begin with the clarification of our present condition.’

The congress opened on the morning of the 15th with a lecture by the anti-psychiatrist R.D. Laing and closed on the 30th with a lecture by the digger Emmett Grogan, following an happening by Carolee Schneemann and a performance by the British pop group The Social Deviants the previous evening. Gregory Bateson, Stokely Carmichael, Paul Goodman and the German philosopher, Herbert Marcuse were amongst other public figures who spoke. There were seminars in the afternoons and films and poetry readings in the evenings. ‘The Provos were there from Amsterdam. There were students from West Berlin, political activists from Norway and Sweden as well as a large contingent from the New Experimental College, Thy, Denmark. There were representatives from the West Indies, Africa, France, Canada, America, Holland, India, Nigeria and Cuba,’ remarks the poet Susan Sherman, one of Berke’s friends, who covered the congress for Ikon magazine.

The congress radicalised many black (and white) people in the audience and acted as an (ironic) influence on the Women’s Liberation movement. It also led to the foundation of the anti-university of London in Shoreditch in 1968, a further important experiment in radical education.

Source: Ringolevio, p. 416. Also: www.dialecticsofliberation.com.
Entry by:

July 23-30, 1967Detroit racial uprising
Riots start after a police raid on an after-hours drinking club. The riots are the most deadly and costly in U.S. history to this point. Federal troops and National Guard are called in to help stop the widespread arson, looting and sniping. 40 people are killed, 2000 are injured, and 5000 left homeless. Damage estimated at $2 billion.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jul 23, 1967Black Power conference in Newark, N.J.
(Sunday)The national conference calls for partitioning the United States into independent Black and White nations.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jul 27, 1967Kerner Commission to study race uprisings
(Thursday)President Johnson appoints Illinois Gov. Otto Kerner to head a commission on civil disorders to study the causes of the riots.

Add'l Info:
The commission warns the next year that the nation is "moving toward two societies, one black, one white - separate and unequal." The report names white racism as chief cause of the explosive conditions that sparked the riots. But it also warns that black separatism advocated by militants "can only relegate Negroes to a permanently inferior economic state."

Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jul 30, 1967Emmett Grogan Speech at Dialectics of Liberation Conference
(Sunday)(See note for July 15, 1967)

Add'l Info:
From Ringolevio, p. 426+:

The giant main event of the week-long "Dialectics of Liberation" conference was to occur that night, beginning at 8:00 P.M., and a few short hours before that, Emmett made a mistake. He went with some of the men, whom he considered his elders because of their "beat experience," across town to a communal house where many of the old-timers and founding fathers of white hipsterism lived (426) together as expatriates from their various countries or simply as British artists who felt outcast in their own land. It was a spectacular place full of singular originals - the men and women artists and their work. There was also plenty of dope, but unfortunately only two varieties of it, Lebanese hashish and pure London, drugstore heroin which was, of course, legal there for any registered addict.

The group sat in a quick cluster on the thick, Persian-rugged floor of what appeared to be the living room, - all the rooms looked so much alike it was hard to tell any difference between them with the exception of the kitchen and W.C. There was a tray on the floor, and Emmett helped himself to the papers, cigarette tobacco and hash, using about six or seven papers and mixing the loose tobacco with lots of hash to roll a "splif" which is a joint about as fat as a cigar and just as long. It took him nearly half an hour to smoke it with no help from anyone, because they all had their own or were not interested in anything else but the high-grade pharmacy scag. So was Emmett, and by the time he was loaded on smoke, he started getting a real yen to get off behind some of that fine A-1 stuff, and he did, doing himself up as if he had his last fix the day before, instead of a decade ago.

The moment the rush hit and the dope ran through his veins, every cell in Emmett's body snapped with remembrance of the sensation they had never really forgotten during the ten, long, clean, past years. He nodded out right after what was only a cellular memory became again a real feeling enveloping his body in its own erotic warmth. He didn't even have time for any regrets- if he had any - just enough time to nod his head plop! Down on his chest which wasn't heaving with its asthmatic wheeze any longer.

Emmett's nod became a deep sleep with him propped up in the corner of the room, leaning against the interesting walls undisturbed by anything or body. One of the poet elders in the house woke him up after three or four hours, because night was rapidly falling, and Emmett had to get to the "Dialectics of Liberation" conference being held in a gigantic, fantastic, huge dome of a building appropriately called the Roundhouse. It had once been the warehouse, storage depot and garage for the numerous vehicles of London's Metropolitan Transport system.

When Emmett arrived there a little before eight o'clock that Saturday night, he liked the industrial, working-class smell and leftover accoutrements of the brilliantly designed, hollow-mammoth Roundhouse, but he didn't particularly like the look of the weekend crowd (427) of four or five thousand sitting in row after row of collapsible wooden chairs and drinking beer from large gallon cans which was the only way to juice that Saturday night, because all the pubs would be shut down by the time this main session of the conference ended.

Emmett was still loaded with the sleepiness of heroin and very much on the nod, his eyes pinned and glassy and all the love taken from them by a heavy look of coldness. He kept himself together, though, knowing that he had to, because in a few minutes he'd be sitting on the stage with all the left-wing superstars and would make a ten-minute speech. A speech he planned and even researched, but now was too fucked up to deliver properly. He had even forgotten his notes back at the house, but it was no big thing, really, because he'd have another chance the following day when the only speaker billed for the afternoon was him, and he had been assured that the response to hear him rap was well worth his having traveled there. So, tonight he figured he would relax and tomorrow do what he came to do.

They were all standing backstage, and Allen Ginsberg fulfilled his usual sincere diplomatic role by introducing him to everybody, one at a time. Suddenly she was standing in front of him, an elegant, gracefully tall black woman with a coiffeured Afro and dressed in a West African robe. She said her name was Angela Davis and that she had been hearing about Emmett and the Diggers in San Diego where she was a student and teacher in the philosophy department at the University of California. She invited him to look her up whenever he was in that part of the state and then let him go as Allen pulled him away towards the cluster of black people surrounding the man in whose entourage Angela Davis was traveling at the time- Stokely Carmichael.

Allen excused and pardon me'd his way through the group, holding onto Emmett and dragging him toward the center and the man who was all decked out in a bright orange shirt. When they reached him, Allen treated the introduction with the decorum he thought appropriate for a historic meeting. The two men were standing face to face only a few feet apart, and the backstage crowd quieted down to maybe hear what was going to be said as Stokely Carmichael stuck out his hand, his face broadening into a smile, intending to say something like "Glad to meet you, brother." But he didn't, because Emmett didn't raise his hand in greeting or change the cold, hard expression on his face or even give any sign that he intended to. He (428) just stood there, deadpanning Carmichael and his outstretched hand and the smile on Carmichael's face quickly dropped into a frown as he began to realize that this longhaired Digger dude, Emmett Grogan, was making him look like a goddamn fool in front of everybody.

Stokely Carmichael was obviously outraged by this stone affront to his dignity as one of the proclaimed leaders of American radicalism, and he did an abrupt about-face, stomping away and huffin' 'n puffin' thunder and smoke about "Who's that longhaired, motherfuckin' hippie punk think he is … I" He walked away fast and furious with his bodyguards and fellow Black Power advocates following him and glaring back at Emmett, mumbling to one another that they should've guarded their leader better and not have permitted that "white motherfucker!" to insult him.

The rest of the backstage groupies were whispering hard and heavy about what they just witnessed, and reporters were asking around about Emmett, like who he really was and why he didn't shake Carmichael's hand. A few even concluded that he was a racist and didn't want to touch black skin.

Someone finally asked Emmett himself, and he told them he didn't like Stokely Carmichael and hadn't wanted to meet him, but somebody unwittingly brought them together, and he felt he would've been lying the way all politicians, be they radical or conservative, lie, and so he simply refused to smile back at and shake the hand of a man he disliked extremely. "But it was nothing personal, you understand. In fact, very few things I'll do here or ever do anywhere are personal - they're political."

Shortly afterwards, Emmett was led onto the stage where he sat on the same kind of a wooden folding chair in which the five thousand or so persons in the audience were also seated, facing him with their ten thousand eyes, and he was suddenly very glad that he'd worn his wire-rimmed sunglasses to shade the pinning of his eyes.

The speeches were routine and predictable and were all sponsored by token honorariums from the London Institute of Phenomenological Studies, except Emmett's which was free. Psychiatrist R. D. Laing said everyone was crazy, including himself; John Gerassi had recently returned from Cuba and spoke about the necessity for a violent revolution; Gregory Bateson talked about the scientifical apocalyptic aspect of the anxiety syndrome from which everyone was suffering; Allen Ginsberg insisted that the best tactic of psychopolitical action was to "make public all the private hallucinations (429) and fantasies of our priest-hero-politician-military-police leaders, like those of John Edgar Hoover, for instance"; the keynote speaker, Stokely Carmichael, still very upset with Emmett, lashed out at the longhaired hippies who, he claimed, were advocating peace in time of revolutionary warfare and were traitors to the radical movement, because their upper-middle-class affluence afforded them the choice of nonviolence and the means with which to drop out of the fight for liberation which he quoted as "only coming through the barrel of a gun!"; Paul Goodman suggested that governments might begin applying immediate social welfare ideals and principles by paying, for example, people on New York's welfare rolls to live in the country, instead of in the city. "Give them the same money, and say, 'You don't have to live in New York, you can live out of New York!' "; Herbert Marcuse didn't say anything because he wasn't there, having hopefully found something more important to do with the time; Emmett spoke last.

He had been sitting on the stage for over an hour, wavering in and out of the focus of his consciousness behind his tinted, pennybun glasses and every once in a while listening to what someone had to say. The only one he was hardly able to hear was Stokely Carmichael who yelled so goddamn loud that the tone finally became the point of his speech rather than the words. The crowd had given him an enthusiastic round of applause which they directed at the singer and not his song. Then, all of a sudden, Emmett found himself standing stage-center in front of the microphone and removing his shades for want of something to do and because none of the other speakers who were wearing them had taken them off to address the audience. It took him a moment to adjust his eyes to the startling lights, and, when he cleared them of the brilliance he focused on one individual out of that whole crowd of five thousand - William Burroughs, seated in the fourth or fifth row way over to the left of everyone with his tortoiseshell glasses, and his thinning hair combed flat to one side of his head, and his black, porkpie hat of ten years resting on his lap with his bony hands holding on to it so it wouldn't be snatched by one of his old-time pals and sold or exchanged for a nicer cap. He looked like an aging Hitler youth, sitting there erect and waiting with his thin lips pressed together and all dressed in black, waiting to be impressed, his narrow, Missouri face turned upwards, looking dead at Emmett with the wry knowledge of its own evil presence.

They locked eyes together for the longest moment as Emmett (430) remembered that this was the writer-poet-genius man who got his wife to place an apple or avocado on her head at a stoned-tequila-drunken party in Mexico, because his marksmanship was challenged by one of his pals or somebody. Then he carefully aimed the .45 pistol or whatever it was, firing a slug point-blank into the center of his wife's forehead which made her cerebrum hemorrhage and the police gasp. But they quickly called it an "accidental homicide," and everybody else said, "Wow!" except Bill Burroughs, who just sat there, like he was sitting there now, knowing full well that no one was ever going to know the secret that lies hidden in his brain.

Bill Burroughs and the rest of the audience were going to have to wait until the following evening to be impressed by Emmett, because he was too tiredly stoned to say what he wanted. What he did do, therefore, was to open his speech with "Today is the first day of the rest of your life!" which was a line he either made up or picked up somewhere during the last year. Shortly after he said it that night, it began appearing on posters and postcards and everywhere, not as a quote attributed to anyone, but just as a simple, declarative sentence to be sold by persons who never had an original thought in their dollar-billed lives.

He kept his speech short and to the point, which was to say, he refuted all of Carmichael's screamed remarks, not by giving away any secrets about himself or the people with whom he worked, but by simply explaining that the work they did together wasn't any Salvation Army trip, and concluding that neither he nor any of his people were so-called flower children, because they'd known ever since they were little boys and girls that " … flowers die too easy, even when they have thorns!"

Then he left. He walked off the stage and down into the audience where he sat and spoke with Michael X, a London black man whom he'd known when he was in London the first time around. Michael X was also the West Indian black leader who was going to end up paying for Stokely Carmichael's bottomless rabble-rousing against "whitey." Michael X was going to pay by being arrested for Carmichael's inciting the residents to riot in the streets of London's black ghetto of Brixton after the conference, creating hysteria and then immediately splitting the country with the promise that he'd be right back, knowing that he'd never return and thereby leaving Michael X to hold the bag which he was to do, for over a year in prison.

Emmett talked solely and briefly with Michael X about money (431) and how and whether he was getting enough to sustain the political-education operation that he and his brothers and sisters had organized and were attempting to maintain for the black people of Brixton. When he heard that money was very scarce and particularly hard for them to come by, Emmett gave Michael X an angle which eventually financially supported the work he and his comrades were doing for at least the following twelve or thirteen months. It had nothing to do with stealing or hurting anyone, and still has nothing to do with you, no matter who you are.

Early the next evening, Emmett found himself standing in front of the same microphone before about one thousand of the younger, heavier members of the same audience. This time, however, he was alone with no one else on the stage. He also felt a lot younger than the previous night, when his chippy shot of drugstore scag made him feel as old as the hills and as numb-dumb-cold-dry as a dead dog. He still couldn't figure out why he hit himself in the vein with the poison of his youth. Had it just been for old time's sake or had he been trying to impress his Beat elders with his own down hipster style? He gave up attempting to answer himself with a vow that he'd never chip again.

The rows of radicals who came to hear what he had to say were anxious but attentive, and Emmett was ready for them. He had memorized his speech the day before and had thoroughly gone over it that afternoon, blocking out its dramatic pauses and polishing up his delivery. When the moderator of the day's symposium of "Liberation," or whatever it was supposed to be, finished introducing Emmett as a "Digger, a hippie, an acidhead and a living mythical legend in his own time," he stepped forward to the applause and waited for it to subside, feeling " … righteously righteous and stone justly just," as his good friend and family doctor once said in a song.

The handclapping died down, and Emmett spoke strong and clearly into the microphone like an actor delivering a soliloquy, and the finger-popping revolutionaries listened to what they wanted to hear:

"Our revolution will do more to effect a real, inner transformation than all of modern history's revolts taken together! … In no stage of our advance, in no stage of our fighting must we let chaos rule! … Nobody can doubt the fact that during the last year, a revolution of the most momentous character has been swelling like a storm among the youth of the West. Look at the strength of awareness (432) of the young people today! Look at our inner unity of will, our unity of spirit and our growing community of thought! Who could compare us with the youth of yesterday? We are unanimously convinced that strength finds its expression not in an army, in tanks and heavy guns, but rather ultimately expresses itself in the common working of a people's will! The will that is uniting our groups with the conviction that men and women must be taught the feeling of community to safeguard against the spirit of class warfare, of class hatred and of class division! … We are approaching a life in common, a common life of revolution! A common life to work for the revolutionary advancement of peace, spiritual prosperity and socialism! Toward a victorious renewal of life itselfl … Our job is to wake everyone up and do away with illusions! So that when the people are finally awakened, never again will they plunge into sleep!

"The revolution will never endl It must ·be allowed to develop into streams of revolutions and be guided into the channel of evolution . . . History will judge the movement not according to the number of swine we have removed or imprisoned, but according to whether the revolution has succeeded in returning the power to the people and in the bridling of that power to enforce the will of the people everywhere I … Power to the people!"

The entire speech lasted for over ten minutes, and Emmett was satisfied with his convincing delivery that now had the whole audience up on its feet giving him an enthusiastic, standing ovation. He stood motionless by the microphone, where seconds before he was gesticulating like mad, dramatizing every word. He stood still, not bowing, or waving, or moving his lips to say, "Thank youl Thank youl" He just stood there and waited for the crowd to settle back down, so he could finally tell them what he really came there to say.

It was a couple of minutes before it was quiet enough for him to again place his mouth near the microphone and say, "I can sincerely appreciate your enthusiasm and honestly understand your excited applause, but, to be perfectly truthful, I can accept neither. You see, I neither wrote nor was I the first person to have ever given this speech. I really don't know who wrote it. I have an idea, but I really don't know. However, I do know who was the first man to make this speech. His name was Adolf Hitler, and he made his delivery of these same words at the Reichstag in, I believe, 1937. Thank you, 'n be seein' you." (433)

…. There wasn't a sound in the huge main hall of the Roundhouse for a full thirty seconds or more. Nobody even moved. Then, all at once, it exploded with the fury of one thousand persons who thought they'd been had, been messed over, come out on the short ~nd of a dirty deal I They directed their rage at Emmett who got his ass out of there real quick, and then they completely flipped, breaking things up, setting stuff on fire, and spilling their anger outside onto the street where they began fighting with those few who thought that Emmett Grogan had showed them just how jive rhetoric really was by putting them all on, beautifully.

Emmett was still laughing the next day when he returned to the Roundhouse for a discussion workshop that was arranged by those few hundred radicals who dug what he taught them about themselves and revolution. They wanted to learn anything else he could teach them before he left later that afternoon on his week-long return trip to the United States through more than a dozen cities in six or seven countries.

So he opened up his bag of experience, showing them everything he knew that wasn't supposed to be kept secret, and closed the bag by advising them that some of Adolf Hitler's early speeches weren't bad or wrong at all. It was just another case of people " … picking up on the singer and not the song, which, of course, usually blows the singer's mind, like it did Schicklgruber's who began to take seriously the lunacy of his own fantasies and proceeded to actualize them, using the people as his pawns. I mean, the cat knew they were digging him and the way he said things, rather than what he had to say. He was all he had to say, as far as they were concerned! You can see that in any old newsreel film clip of him standin' up at some podium in the middle of a few hundred thousand screamers and all he's sayin' is numbers! EINS! ZWEll DREI! You know what I mean?''

What Emmett did best was advise communes or collectives of black or white or yellow or brown or pink radical street people on how to get whatever they needed, how to get themselves economically together to continue their work. After the conference, he spent a rush-hour week, flying around to all the different countries· of Europe on the same tourist class ticket for his return flight to New York. He visited every city where he knew something heavy was happening to meet the people responsible, like the Provos in Amsterdam; Joe the Fever in Prague; Communes #1 and #2 and the Free University in Berlin; the Mistral Bookshop and Post Office and (434) a whole lot of young heavies in Paris; everyone from the Exploding Galaxy to Peggy Duff to the Co-op Printing Society to Bromley by Bow's Kingsley Hall in London; and ten more cities on the continent in which there were groups of sincere, serious people at work, trying to lay the foundation for an intercommunal planet where there would be no boundaries dividing up the world, just different tribes of people free to live their lives the way they want, instead of have to - which is the only way to keep it all from dying.

Source: Ringolevio, p. 416. Also: www.dialecticsofliberation.com.
Entry by:

Aug 03, 1967Caen mention of David Simpson trial
(Thursday)Caen quotes Mime Trouper Lynn Brown at David Simpson's trial. When the prosecutor warned jurors not to trust Simpson's sincerity, after all he's an actor, Brown blurted out, "What about Ronnie [Reagan], George [?] and Shirley [Temple]?"

Add'l Info:


Source: SF Chron, 8/3/67, p. 29
Entry by: e.p.n.
Aug 15, 1967Communication Company take-over
(Tuesday)Diggers Take Control of Communication Company: "Chester Anderson published a six-page bulletin to the underground press, 'Hippie Siamese Twins Split,' announcing the final break between him and the Diggers at com/co. His last street rap had been published on June 8 [1967]. After that date the Gesteteners were taken to the basement of the Trip Without a Ticket, and he was permanently barred."

Add'l Info:


Source: (Charles Perry, The Haight-Ashbury: A History (New York: Random House/Rolling Stone Books, 1984), 230.)
Entry by: Doyle
Aug 24, 1967Yippies Throw Money Onto Stock Exchange
(Thursday)The future Yippies disrupt the New York Stock Exchange.

Add'l Info:
A band of hippies throw dollar bills onto the floor of the New York Stock Exchange. James Fouratt along with Abbie Hoffman led the demonstration. "It's the death of money." About a dozen in the group participated in the action around 11am. Reporters who were told about the event beforehand showed up and were waiting when the group arrived. The group was escorted to the visitors gallery by the guards. Outside they chanted "Free Free". Abbie Hoffman set fire to a $5 dollar bill in the circle. The account gave an estimate of 30 or 40 $1 dollar bills thrown onto the exchange floor, but one hippie said $1000 had been thrown.

Source: NY Times, August 25, 1967, p. 23.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Sep 22, 1967Governor Romney Visits Diggers
(Friday)Emmett Grogan takes the Governor and his wife to the Panhandle to meet the real hippies up close.

Add'l Info:
Michigan Governor George Romney visited San Francisco on his 17-city tour. He started the day at Glide Church then visited the Fillmore. He stopped by the Black Man's Free Store, and later went to Roy Ballard's home for a half-hour at the end of the day. After leaving the Fillmore, he and his wife went to Huckleberry's where Emmett Grogan, "a founder and leader of the Diggers" suggested that they go join the feed-in at the park. Romney and wife Lenore rode in the cab of Grogan's green pickup with a busload of newsmen following behind. At the Panhandle, Romney was accosted by people demanding an end to the war and troops out of Detroit. Romney pleaded that he had come to find out what the hippies had to say, not to make speeches. One hippie jumped up and denounced those who were yelling at Romney. "He came to learn." Romney stayed twenty minutes. Photo p. 6 by Christopher Springmann at the feed-in.

Emmett recounts the incident in Ringolevio, p. 448-454:

One day a strange thing happened which afforded Emmett a golden opportunity to scare the living shit out of a man who might have been and still may be elected President of the United States. It was late in the afternoon, and he had just finished delivering most of the Free Food with only a few more stops to make before he completed his rounds, when he turned south of Buena Vista Park and drove down to Broderick Street, where there was a giant crowd gathered in front of Huckleberry House, the referral center for runaways. The street being blocked by the throng, he pulled over to have a look at what was taking place.

As soon as he stepped from the pickup, he heard someone calling to him from atop the front stairs of Huckleberry House, insisting, "Emmett! Emmett Grogan! Come on up here! Come on!" It was one of the ministers and leading officials of Glide Church which administered the referral center, and Emmett did what he was told and went up the stairs and inside where he was introduced, with the usual reference to his being a "legendary myth," to none other than the then Governor of Michigan, George Romney, and his pert, little wife Lenore, both of whom were touring the country to test the water for his upcoming campaign as a candidate in the Republican primary elections for President of the whole goddamn country~

Emmett was impressed when George Romney told him that he'd been hearing about his fine charitable work among the poor and misguided youth who found themselves alone and hungry and away from home on the streets of Haight-Ashbury, and he had the utmost [end page 448] respect for the alms-giving services that Emmett and his fellow "What do you call them? Oh, yes, Diggers!" were doing for the young people of the nation who strayed to San Francisco.

A coincidence popped into Emmett's mind, and he couldn't pass up the chance to see if he could pull off a fabulous score--the kidnapping of the governor and his wife. In the most sincere and charming tone of voice he could muster, Emmett informed George and Lenore Romney that coincidentally, at that very moment, there were more than one hundred Indians from his home state of Michigan eating in the park with the "hippies," and it would be wonderful and extremely thoughtful of the governor and first lady to stop by and visit with the people from home. He didn't have to say anything about what good publicity it would be for the folks back in the Midwest. The good governor had already weighed its value, and Emmett watched as it registered with a click of his eyes and a cluck of his tongue.

What happened next, Emmett didn't exactly expect, but immediately picked up on it. The governor threw his arms around him and said with a smile, "Emmett, suppose you take me and my wife over there to meet with your people and the Indians from our state. What about it?"

"My truck's right out front, Governor, and I'd be more than happy to oblige. In fact, sir, it'd be an honor."

The three of them moved quickly outside, and George Romney helped his wife, Lenore, into the cab of Emmett's Free Food pickup, just like a midwestern farmer would've helped his wife into a pickup truck, all dressed up for Sunday and on their way to church. Maybe that's when Emmett decided not to do what he didn't, and then again, maybe not.

Besides the three of them, everybody else was confused; the state troopers, the city cops, the FBI, the reporters, the Methodist ministers, everyone, and the only thing they all could think of doing was to go along with the three, in the flatbed open back of the pickup truck. They all started climbing onto the rear of the truck at once. There were over a hundred of them, all fighting for a place to stand, with the reporters pushing and shoving each other but remaining very careful to avoid nudging any of the FBI men, who were already standing up straight in each of the four corners of the truck's rear. They had everything covered.

The half-ton pickup was just about to collapse under the weight of the maddening crowd, when Emmett yelled to the governor to [end page 449] "please tell all them suckers to get off o' the truck, Governor, sir, 'cause it's the only one still running good 'nough to deliver the Free Food, 'n they're gonna break it down for keeps!" George Romney didn't hesitate for a moment. He stood right out up there on the running board and told all them guys to "get down out of this man's truck, immediately! Can't you see what you're doing to it? He needs this pickup more than any of you need a ride, so get off, 'n get off now! You hear me?" Then he waited until every last one of them got out of the vehicle, including the heat, before he sat back down in the front seat, slammed the door closed, and put his arm 'round his wife, Lenore. And maybe that was when Emmett decided not to do it.

A man in a blue suit and sunglasses popped his face into the window on the driver's side and asked where they were going. Emmett looked at the governor, and the governor looked back at him, asking, "Where are we going?" Emmett answered, 'Golden Gate Park. We'll meet them there!"

Emmett must have been at least two or three blocks away when the security man realized that Golden Gate Park was a very, very big place and turned back to ask "Where in Golden Gate Park?" only to find that they had already gone with no one following them or anyone knowing where they went except him, and all he knew was that they were going to Golden Gate Park which is thousands and thousands of acres square and extremely easy to get lost in, and practically impossible to find someone in if you have no idea in what direction they're headed. The guy got sick, and hysterically hurried the Greyhound coach carrying the governor's entourage of reporters to Golden Gate Park where he dispersed the cops on motorcycles and in squadrols throughout the huge area, ordering them to search every goddamn inch, "But find the governor!'~

Emmett had purposely not specified where in Golden Gate Park, because they didn't drive to Golden Gate Park. At least, not what was considered by most to be the Park proper, but was known as its Panhandle. It was to that long strip of green ground that extends about a dozen blocks from the park's entrance between the two main avenues in and out of town, that Emmett brought George Romney and his wife to meet not a hundred Indians from Michigan, but one Indian, who was or claimed to be a hundred years old, and about five hundred stone-street-freaks and crazies who didn't like the governor very much.

It was only a short, ten-block drive from Huckleberry House to [end page 450] that place in the Panhandle where the Free Food had been eaten every day at 4:oo P.M. for over a year by then. But Emmett didn't go directly there. Instead, he swung around in the opposite direction to make sure none of the cops or the Greyhound would find or catch up to his '~6 green Chevy pickup truck, because he wanted to be alone with Governor George Romney and his petite wife for a while or maybe even longer than that, but definitely for as long as it took him to display what he knew about power.

It only took Emmett a couple of sentences to stop the governor's enthusiastic attempt to appear sincerely concerned about the plague he considered Haight-Ashbury to be and to halt the stream of hollow questions that were sure to follow.

"Governor, do you always take these kinds of risks?"

"What do you mean?"

"I mean, you don't know me. Nobody knows me. And yet here you are with your wife, being driven in a pickup truck by me without even knowin' where you're goin' and with no one following us to make sure we ever get there. You see what I mean?"

The governor abruptly turned his head around to look through the cab's rear window back along Oak Street to see if what he just heard was true. And it was. There was no Greyhound bus and no cops anywhere behind them or even within sight.

"Technically speaking, Governor 'n Mrs. Romney, I've just kidnapped both of you. Don't worry about it, though. I ain't gonna do nothin' but talk to you for a minute 'n try to explain something that I think I ought to. Then we'll go eat some corn on the cob with your home folks, okay? Good. Now listen careful, 'cause we only got a minute or two, 'n don't interrupt me until I finish, because I want to say it to you."

Emmett shot a look at the two of them and saw that they were no longer smiling, and the way both of their faces were set told him that they knew whatever happened next was entirely up to him-- which was the thing Emmett wanted to show the governor about power.

He talked plain and clear for two solid minutes and one red light about how there will sooner or later no longer be any need for politicians like Governor Romney, because the people, meaning those people who didn't already know and needed to know more than anyone, were going to realize, understand, be educated to the truth, the fact that politics wasn't supposed to be the business of just a few who claimed to be representing the many. It wasn't supposed [end page 451] to be a business! "Politics is life! All our lives, 'n not no profession like you guys make it out to be, 'n want to keep it, so you won't lose your jobs!" And he went on to explain how and why the professional politicians' days were numbered and the games they played in every country in the world, except maybe one, were going to be phased into extinction.

"You see, what you got sitting next to you here ain't just a man, a plain old homo sapiens; he's a political animal. And a political animal is anyone who knows whatever the score is and still refuses to submit to someone else's rule. Anyone who wants to live his own life, and be the only one to control the way he wants to live without messin' over anyone else's right to live the way they damn well want, and vice versa. Now in order to become a political animal, you gotta understand that politics isn't just everyone's business, it's every one of our lives, and it's never been anyone's vote!

"After learnin' that, then you have to figure out how you can get hold of enough power to live your life the way you want. And you can't get that kind of power by making a whole lotta money, or by stealing a whole lotta money, or by joining a club that allows you to transcend your blues once a week, or by getting yourself into public office where you can exercise control over the way others live their lives. No, that's all make-believe. It does satisfy quite a few people, but it's never gonna be able to satisfy a whole lotta young people who are just now growing up, and a whole bunch more whose fathers and mothers haven't even met yet. And that goes for all the races, all over the world.

"We're gonna get the power to live our lives the way we want through revolution. And not the same kind of revolution like it's always been, where the few rich people are killed and their property taken away and redistributed among the ones who get there first. Ours is going to be a revolt against power and against leaders and against property. We want it to be free, autonomous, and classlessly equal! All of it! And how we achieve that will be entirely up to you and those like you, because we only believe in defending ourselves when attacked, and we don't want anything from you, except to be left alone! We meaning those people sitting on the grass out your window, over there."

Emmett pulled the truck into a space alongside the Panhandle and told Governor George Romney and his wife, Lenore, that they were now where they should be, and he had nothing more to say, except "Let's go 'n eat some corn!" The man and his wife stepped [end page 452] out onto the grass and began walking towards the seated crowd, but before Emmett himself got out of the truck, he tugged his revolver from its brackets and called for the governor to return to the pickup for a second. When he did, Emmett pointed to the .38 Iying on the seat inside the cab and asked Governor Romney if he'd forgotten something.

"No . . .

"Well someone did, and it sure looks like they're not fooling," Emmett said, as he led the governor back to his wife and toward the hundred-year-old Indian from Michigan and the five hundred or so people who were going to keep the governor and his wife in the state of near panic that Emmett had induced. He decided, however, not to exaggerate their panic by holding them, say, for the exchange of unquestionably political prisoners like John Sinclair, a Detroit poet sentenced to ten years for one marijuana cigarette and his radical, political leadership, and many, many others, too numerous to list. Emmett didn't feel like it.

As soon as Emmett moved the governor and his wife into the center of the still-seated circle of a thousand faces, he introduced them, got someone to get each of them a cob of hot, buttered corn, and left them standing there, all alone, to be terrified by the intense sincerity of the contempt that each of those young, surrounding faces had for him, Governor George Romney, and for her, his wife Lenore. The two of them were forced to stand there for twenty minutes heavy with abuse and accusations regarding "his" and "her" roles in the continuing Vietnam genocidal war, and in the police riot in Detroit, and in the Algiers Motel executions, and everything else that the political animality of those young people told them the governor and his first lady were responsible for, or had participated in.

A squad car noticed the scene and radioed to the others that they'd found Governor Romney. The Michigan state police with their siren blaring led the Greyhound bus down Oak Street to the spot in the Panhandle where the shouting and waving of clenched fists had reached the point where it looked like there was going to be a hanging with somebody having already gone to get the rope. The governor's aides arrived none too soon and whisked him away without so much as a goodbye, but with about a dozen joints that kids shoved in his coat pockets, hoping for god-knows-what to happen.

Emmett hadn't seen any of that go down, but heard about it later from Slim Minnaux whose photo was in all the papers during that [end page 453] week, standing tall above the seated crowd pointing his long outstretched arm and a stern finger at Governor George Romney, his face all on fire and his mouth shouting, "J'accuse! J'accuse!"

Emmett hadn't seen any of that because he drove away after leading the good governor and his first lady into the eye of the storm. He left them there alone because he felt he did all he could by delivering them to the Panhandle and, more important, because he had to complete the rest of his rounds to the customers of the Free Food Home Delivery Service.



Source: "Romney Joins The Hippies In The Park", by Larry Houghteling, Chron, 9/23/67, p. 1.
Entry by: e.p.n.
October 1967Founding Member of Kaliflower Commune Arrives in SF
Irving Rosenthal moves to San Francisco from New York City. / Born ca. 1937, Allen Ginsberg convinces him he should move there. Rosenthal had formerly edited the Chicago Review and Big Table magazines and published poetry books in New York.

Add'l Info:


Source: ([Irving Rosenthal], Deep Tried Frees, a special issue of Kaliflower n.s. No. 3 (30 April 1978).)
Entry by: Doyle
Oct 06, 1967Death of Hippie (Event and Parade)
(Friday)Another in the series of Digger pageants that played out on the streets of the Haight Ashbury and the City. This one occurred one year to the day from that of the Love Pageant Rally.

Add'l Info:


Source: Chron, 10/7/67, p. 2
Entry by: e.p.n.
Oct 16, 1967Mobilization Against the War in Vietnam
(Monday)National "Stop the Draft Week" sponsored by SNCC, SDS, and the National Mobilization Against the War in Vietnam, among other organiztions. Protests were scheduled to be held in Berkeley, Washington, D.C., Portland, Seattle, Boston, New York, Los Angeles, and Madison.

Add'l Info:


Source: ("Stop Draft Week set to Foil Fuzz," Berkeley Barb 5:10 (8 September 1967) 5.)
Entry by: Doyle
Oct 18, 1967Straight Theater Conference
(Wednesday)The "Runaway Emergency Conference" was held at the Straight Theater in the Haight-Ashbury district.

Add'l Info:
Sponsored by Huckleberry's, which provides temporary housing and referral services to runaway minors, and Happening House, the symposium, according to its press release, hoped to bring together "[c]lergy, police, juvenile authorities, young people parents, professionals, and certain elements of the free community." The audience of 500 were startled when the Digger/Free City Collective (operating under the code name of agit-free) staged a kind of testimony happening. "[L]ights in the theater began to flash menacingly and runaways, wearing black hoods, came in to testify and some loud-mouth puppets joined the panel, and voices began to come out of the wall. The voices were yung, taped in the street, and they spoke in revealing cliches. Their words were punctuated by the sounds of surf, heartbeats, and a baby crying." The substance of their remarks were how they were (mal)treated at home and why they ran away, and how they have found life on the streets of the H-A. / "And while the panelists talked to the puppets and the voices spoke from the walls, 'instant newspaper' handbills were distributed in the audience. Some were about wildlfe: 'On leaving home, the young woodrat either takes up residence in a nearby abandoned home erected by another woodrat or starts building one of its own.' Another read: 'You are the information.' There were a dozen more. /"The climax of the symposium was a series of nude dances, accompanied by a rock group. Six members of the Jane Lapiner dance group -- three men and three women -- danced completely nude before the audience of five hundred. (The dances had been performed at the Straight Theatre for several weeks.) Suddenly someone shouted that the police were entering. The audience rose as one and rushed to the dance floor to cover the dancers while they dressed. The police were foiled. / "But not entirely. Dr. Leonard Wolf, forty-four, a San Francisco State College professor and director of Happening House, allegedly approached the police and claimed responsibility for the event. Police charged him with contributing to the delinquency of minors."

Source: (The fullest account of this event is by Don McNeill, "Parents and Runaways: Writing a New Contract," Village Voice (14 December 1967) 1, 21-27. It was reprinted in his posthumously published anthology, Moving Through Here (New York: Citadel Press, 1990 [1970]), 150-165 (see especially pp. 156-158).)
Entry by: Doyle
Oct 21, 1967Anti-war protest at Pentagon
(Saturday)Anti-war demonstrators in Washington, D.C., organized by the National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, stage a siege of the Pentagon. Some protesters, including Berkeley Vietnam Day Committee founder Jerry Rubin, attempt to levitate the building.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Nov 01, 1967Ken Kesey Released
(Wednesday)Ken Kesey released after serving a five-month sentence at the San Mateo County Jail and SMC Sheriff's Honor Camp.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Nov 30, 1967Kaliflower Commune Startup
(Thursday)Irving Rosenthal helps to organize Kaliflower commune in a rented house on Sutter Street (near Buchanan Street).

Add'l Info:


Source: ([Irving Rosenthal], Deep Tried Frees, a special issue of Kaliflower n.s. No. 3 (30 April 1978).)
Entry by: Doyle
Jan 26, 1968Free distribution of Brautigan poem
(Friday)A group of "fifteen public-spirited citizens" distributed 2500 copies of Richard Brautigan's poem "The San Francisco Weather Report" in the financial district of San Francisco at noon.

Add'l Info:
The San Francisco Weather Report

Gee, You're so Beautiful That It's Starting to Rain

Oh, Marcia, I Want your long blonde beauty to be taught in high school, so kids will learn that God lives like music in the skin and sounds like a sunshine harpsichord. I want high school report cards to look like this:

Playing with Gentle Glass Things
A

Computer Magic
A

Writing Letters to Those You Love
A

Finding out about Fish
A

Marcia's Long Blond Beauty
A+!



Source: San Francisco Express Times, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2/1/68, p. 11.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Feb 15, 1968Free City Gathering at City Hall
(Thursday)The Free City Collective holds an event in City Hall to create solidarity with prisoners at San Quentin.

Add'l Info:
The event started at 10:30am with two flute players circling the rotunda and businessmen and officials in suits watching on. A balloon tied to a rock has written on it, "Honor the Spirit of Francis of Assissi [sic]" and a sign reads, "Soon this balloon shall be free." At noon, thirty "Free City" people march into City Hall and, in typical Digger fashion, a multi-level event proceeds to unfold. While flutes and drums played, the balloon was released. A man sat on a toilet in the middle of the rotunda. A woman holds a palm leaf standing at the top of main stairway. A banner is unfurled that reads, "Prisoners of San Francisco | Unite With Prisoners | Of San Quentin".

Later that afternoon, a gathering of hundreds outside San Quentin enjoyed the Grateful Dead and The Phoenix. The event was in solidarity with prisoners who had been reported to be planning a strike as reported in the Berkeley Barb. The strike did not materialize according to the Warden. One Free City spokesperson said, "People aren't going to know what prison is until they see a lot of freedom."

The reporter asked one of the participants what Free City was. The woman, dressed in a prison outfit, replied, "Free City is a lot of things. For one, it's a newspaper that comes out irregulary. It's distributed in different parts of San Francisco. I live in the mountains."

Source: "The Magic Flute" by Jan Garden, San Francisco Express Times, Vol. 1, No. 5, Feb. 22, 1968, p. 4.
Entry by: e.p.n.

Feb 18, 1968Police Riot on Haight Street
(Sunday)Police sweep Haight Street after a spontaneous gathering blocks traffic in the afternoon. The police action lasts several hours.

Add'l Info:
Several injuries were reported as result of the police hitting people with clubs. Emmett Grogan is quoted in the article. "Even Emmett Grogan, reknowned for the coolness of his head, said Sunday night that 'San Franciso is a free city, and no matter what the police do, we're going to maintain the status of San Francisco as a free city -- and will defend the free city with our lives and with our deaths.'"

Source: "The Winter Before the Summer of Love" by Marvin Garson, San Francisco Express Times, Vol. 1, No. 5, Feb. 22, 1968, p. 1.
Entry by: e.p.n.
April 1968Diggers inspire Free Print Shop
Diggers convince Irving Rosenthal to bring his offset press to San Francisco and set up a free print shop.

Add'l Info:
At a Free City event on the steps of City Hall, David Simpson and Vinnie Rinaldi engage in conversation with Irving and suggest he bring his print shop out from New York. Iriving later described this in Deep Tried Frees:

The commune [which Irving had helped organize after he arrived from New York in October, 1967] grew rapidly, and early in 1968 the Diggers started delivering free produce to our door. In April, following a Digger rally on City Hall steps, Dave Simpson and Vinnie Rinaldi convinced me to send for my New York print shop and set it up in San Francisco as a free operation. The conversation ran something like this: "I hear you have a print shop in New York." "Yeah." "We could sure use a free print shop in San Francisco. " "How could I get it here?" (Vinnie:) "I'm willing to go to New York and bring it back." It seemed like a hyperbolic offer, and I doubted whether someone would actually go to that much trouble, but Vinnie did.

Source: Deep Tried Frees, Kaliflower, N.S. 3, April 30, 1978, p. 3.
Entry by: Doyle

Apr 04, 1968Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
(Thursday)There are widespread demonstrations of rage and anger throughout the country in response.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
Apr 11, 1968Civil Rights Act of 1968 signed into law
(Thursday)President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968, prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: infoplease.com
May 01, 1968Free City Convention
(Wednesday)The Diggers/Free City Collective hold the Free City Convention in San Francisco.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
May 07, 1968SF Diggers/Free City Poetry Bust
(Tuesday)After a month of noontime poetry readings on the steps of City Hall, the San Francisco police arrested five of the participlants. [This is the event that was captured in the film Nowsreal.]

Add'l Info:
The Free City Collective held a press conference and presented a "Modest Proposal" contaning five requests of The City administration, including refurbishment of empty city-owned buildings for free housing, distribution of surplus food and materials through a network of ten neighborhood free stores, setting up presses and trucks for free news distribution throughout the city, providing resources for neighborhood celebrations, and the opening of the parks for free life acts "all permit authority to be rescinded." After the proposal was read, one of the Diggers began reading a poem on America while wearing an American flag shirt. The police arrested him for violating a law against defiling the flag. A second man was arrested for profanity after shouting "Fuck" (the newspaper account described it as "a four-letter word meaning to make love." Ron Thelin (not named, but captioned in a photo) was arrested for wearing a mask after Judge Albert Axelrod informed that it was a violation of the Penal Code. A fourth man was arrested while trying to prevent Ron's arrest. A woman was also arrested, but no reason indicated. Terrence Hallinan, the Diggers' lawyer, charged that talks with the Mayor's Office had produced no results except for pressure from The City on produce market vendors to discontinue supplying free fruits and vegetables to the Diggers. He also said that the police had ordered the noon poetry events off the Polk street steps of City Hall. The SF Chron article quotes "Peter" aka "William Bonney" as saying that "San Francisco can 'burn or turn into a model for the rest of the cities to follow, with radical alternatives to riots and all those corny numbers.'" The Diggers provided free apples to the crowds. Other days they had provided free oranges and strawberries.

Subsequently, all charges were dropped on all five defendants at a court hearing on May 22 at the request of the assistant district attorney who declared that "there was a lot of confusion as to what went on at that poetry bust." Those who had been arrested included: Ronald Thelin, 30, 1324 Willard St. (arrested for "intent to conceal his identity," Section 650a of the Penal Code); Thomas Baker III, 26 (arrested for wearing an American flag); Charles Perkel, 21, 1360 Fell St. (arrested for profanity); Phyllis Wilner, 19, 110 Pierce St.; Israel Jacton, 1324 Willard St. The article mentions that the Asst. D.A. (Granklin Gentes) at one point "began to fidget nervously with a sheaf of papers" and that after the end of the proceeding, he "walked hurriedly out of court."

Source: "Police Crush Diggers' Read-In at City Hall" by Jerry Burns, SF Chronicle, May 8, 1968, p. 1; "Poetry Read-In Charges Dismissed," S.F. Chronicle, May 23, 1968, p. 2. See also the May 8 event.
Entry by: e.p.n.

May 08, 1968Diggers/Free City "Masked Lunch" at S.F. City Hall
(Wednesday)The Diggers/Free City event was in response to the arrest of five at the noontime poetry event the previous day (see May 7, 1968 Poetry Bust).

Add'l Info:
Several hundred onlookers were in attendance as "a couple of dozen hippies staged an inevitable 'mask-in' at noon on the steps of City Hall." A large assemblage of masked apparel was in evidence, including "masks, handkerchiefs, veils and even brown paper bags." Terence Hallinan expressed outrage over the previous day's arrests: "If the police treat white middle class hippies reading poetry like this, how will they treat militant young blacks and Chinese this summer?" The article quotes a Digger "spokesman": "We're going to keep doing our thing all over the city, including at City Hall. It would be boss if all men in the city started doing their thing." The names and charges of those arrested yesterday were as follows: Thomas C. Baker III, 26, painter, 1324 Willard St. (arrested for "defiling the United States flag"); Israel Jacton, 1324 Willard St. (arrested for interfering with a police officer); Phyllis Wilner, 19, 110 Pierce St. (arrested for interfering with a police officer); Charles E. Perkel, 21, poet, 1360 Fell (arrested for profanity).

Source: "Hippies Make Faces at City Hall" by Dick Hallgren, S.F. Chronicle, May 9, 1968, p. 3
Entry by:
Jun 14, 1968Free Print Shop Distributes Whalen Book
(Friday)The Free Print Shop hands out free copies of Philip Whalen's Invention of the Letter at the Rolling Renaissance free poetry reading at Glide Church.

Add'l Info:
The Diggers convinced Irving Rosenthal to bring his offset press from New York and set up a Free Print Shop. Richard Brautigan had then suggested in May that Irving distribute for free the two books he had printed in New York. This poetry reading was one of the month-long Rolling Renaissance events in San Francisco. In Deep Tried Frees, Irving describes the event:

In May Richard Brautigan pointed out to me that free was just as good a way to distribute a book as any other, and in reflecting on it, I realized that a book could be given away to its rightful audience in one fell swoop. On June 14, and with the author's blessings, commune members handed out 900 copies of the Whalen book into the audience of a big free poetry reading at Glide Church, just as Philip Whalen came to the podium. Free Wheelin' Frank's book 666 was handed out by the Diggers at the same reading. The Marshall book was given out later at a couple of early gay liberation events.

Source: Deep Tried Frees, Kaliflower, N.S. 3, April 30, 1978, p. 4.
Entry by: e.p.n.

Jun 21, 19681968 Summer Solstice celebration
(Friday)The Diggers/Free City Collective hold their final event in San Francisco before dispersing: a summer solstice celebration.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Jul 01, 1968SF Mime Troupe Moves to Mission District
(Monday)The San Francisco Mime Troupe moves to 450 Alabama St., an industrial district situated between Portrero Hill and the Mission district.

Add'l Info:
The new facility offered space for a library, kitchen, office, and access to the rooftop. San Francisco Newsreel took an office there too, beginning in August 1968. This group consisted of radical filmmakers and distributors with Maoist leanings who were also influenced by the Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers.

Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Oct 24, 1968Federal law criminalizing possession of LSD takes effect
(Thursday)Possession of LSD is banned federally in the U.S. after the passage of the Staggers-Dodd Bill (Public Law 90-639) which amended the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.   

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
6 November 1968 [- April 1969]SF State College Student Strike
The student strike at San Francisco State College began. [End date also indicated].

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
January 1969Black Panther Party announces Free Breakfast Program
The Black Panthers organize a new program to feed Oakland school children free breakfasts every morning before school at two locations.

Add'l Info:
The announcement of the program calls on the community to support this service. "The schools and the Board of Education should have had this program instituted a long time ago. How can our children learn anything when most of their stomachs are empty? Black people in the Black Community-mothers, welfare recipients, grandmothers, guardians, and others who are trying to raise children in the black community where racists oppress us - are asked to come forth to work and support this needed program. Soul food: grits, eggs, bread, and meat for the stomachs is where it's at when it comes to properly preparing our children for education. LET'S DO IT NOW. Support this community program."

The two locations where the program is happening in Oakland are St. Augustine's Church, 27th and West, and the Black Community Center, at 42nd and Grove Streets in West Oakland.

David Hilliard, Chief of Staff of the Black Panther Party, in his autobiography, attributes the inspiration for the Free Breakfast Program to the Diggers free food delivery service. 'Bobby's [Bobby Seale, Chairman of the Black Panther Party] gifts for inspiration are invaluable to the Party. A practical visionary, he convinces crowds they can make a revolution, and has the same effect on the cadre. One day, he enters the office after Emmett has left off bags of beans and rice. "Damn, this is a good idea," he says. "We should do this." "We are doing it," the officer of the day says. "No, we should establish it. Every day. A Free Food Program. Get contributions from the local businessmen and put together packages. Help people survive." And the Free Food Program starts.' (This Side of Glory: The Autobiography of David Hilliard and the Story of the Black Panther Party, page 181.)

Source: "Breakfast for School Children", Black Panther Party Ministry of Information Bulletin, No. 9, January 6, 1969, p. 2.
Entry by: e.p.n.

Apr 01, 1969SF State College Student Strike
(Tuesday)The student strike at San Francisco State College ended. (It began on 6 November 1968.)

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Apr 24, 1969First issue of Kaliflower
(Thursday)Kaliflower commune's Free Print Shop publishes its premier issue (vol.1, no.1) of the intercommunal newsletter Kaliflower.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Jun 28, 1969Stonewall Uprising
(Saturday)Patrons of the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village riot when police officers attempt to raid the popular gay bar around 1am.

Add'l Info:
Since its establishment in 1967, the bar had been frequently raided by police officers trying to clean up the neighborhood of "sexual deviants." Angry gay youth clash with aggressive police officers in the streets, leading to a three-day riot during which thousands of protestors receive only minimal local news coverage. Nonetheless, the event will be credited with reigniting the fire behind America's modern LGBT rights movement.

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Summer 1969Orange sunshine LSD first appears
Orange sunshine acid first appears.

Add'l Info:


Source: Lee MA, Shlain B. Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD and the Sixties Rebellion. Grove, 1985.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Aug 01, 1969Manson Murders
(Friday)Charles Manson and his followers murder pregnant actress Sharon Tate (wife of director Roman Polanski) and six of her friends.

Add'l Info:


Source: (David Stout, "True Crime Stories That Sell Themselves," New York Times (14 November 1993) sec. 4, p. 2.)
Entry by: Doyle
Dec 31, 1969First Cockettes show
(Wednesday)The Cockettes open their first show at the Palace Theater in San Francisco.

Add'l Info:
The theater group is the first in which bearded hippie men dressed in drag perform. The group would have a two-year meteroric rise culminating in a splash in New York in 1971. (November 7, 1971 at the Anderson Theatre.) John Waters called them "really new at the time, the first acid freak hippie drag queens. . . . It was complete sexual anarchy." George Harris ('Hibiscus') founded The Cockettes, as well as The Angels of Light, out of his experience living at the Kaliflower Commune. Hibiscus, an early victim of AIDS, died May 6, 1982 at the age of 32.

Source: From the film, "The Cockettes" (San Francisco, 2001). By David Weissman and Bill Weber. Death notice: United Press International release, May 7, 1982.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jan 01, 1970Estimate of LSD use in United States
(Thursday)An estimated 1-2 million Americans have used LSD.   

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
June 1970New varieties of street LSD
Windowpane acid (gelatin squares) first reported by the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs in the U.S. [Details]

Add'l Info:
While Acid Dreams by Martin Lee and Bruce Shlain reports that Windowpane first appeared in 1972, the BNDD's Microgram publication reports an analysis of 3-6 mm square and .38 mm thick gelatin "flakes" in June 1970.

Source: Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs. Microgram. Jun 1970;3(4):2.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Jun 28, 1970First commemoration of the Stonewall Uprising
(Sunday)Christopher St. Liberation Day commemorates the one-year anniversary of the Stonewall riots.

Add'l Info:
Following the event, thousands of members of the LGBT community march through New York into Central Park, in what will be considered America's first gay pride parade. In the coming decades, the annual gay pride parade will spread to dozens of countries around the world.

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Oct 27, 1970New federal legislation schedules marijuana, LSD, etc.
(Tuesday)The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act is passed. Part II of this is the Controlled Substance Act (CSA) which defines a scheduling system for drugs.

Add'l Info:
It places most of the known hallucinogens (LSD, psilocybin, psilocin, mescaline, peyote, cannabis, & MDA) in Schedule I. It places coca, cocaine and injectable methamphetamine in Schedule II. Other amphetamines and stimulants, including non-injectable methamphetamine are placed in Schedule III.

Source:
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Early 1970sNew varieties of street LSD
LSD impregnated paper ("blotter") first hit the streets. Very quickly the paper began being printed with colorful art.   

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Apr 20, 1971Supreme Court upholds school busing
(Tuesday)The Supreme Court, in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, upholds busing as a legitimate means for achieving integration of public schools. Although largely unwelcome (and sometimes violently opposed) in local school districts, court-ordered busing plans in cities such as Charlotte, Boston, and Denver continue until the late 1990s.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: infoplease.com
Jun 01, 1971Free Food Conspiracy
(Tuesday)Irving Rosenthal and members of the Kaliflower commune operate the Free Food Conspiracy and the Free Food Family operation in San Francisco.

Add'l Info:


Source: ([Irving Rosenthal], Deep Tried Frees, a special issue of Kaliflower n.s. No. 3 (30 April 1978).)
Entry by: Doyle
Sep 03, 1971Leary and Hoffmann meet
(Friday)Albert Hofmann meets Timothy Leary for the first time.

Add'l Info:
The father of LSD, Albert Hofmann, and LSD's most vocal prophet, Timothy Leary, meet in Lausanne, Switzerland, while Leary was there in exile from the United States, where he was facing a possible ten years in prison for charges related to possession of a small amount of cannabis.

Source: Horowitz M. "Interview with Albert Hofmann". High Times 11:24-31,81 (1976) Available at: https://www.erowid.org/culture/characters/hofmann_albert/hofmann_albert_interview1.shtml
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
May 1972Publication of Ringolevio
Emmett Grogan's seminal work, Ringolevio: A Life Played For Keeps, his story of the Diggers, is first reviewed in the New York Times, May 26, 1972 by C. Lehmann-Haupt, p. 33.

Add'l Info:


Source: New York Times, May 26, 1972, p. 33.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jun 05, 1972UN Conference on the Human Environment starts in Stockholm
(Monday)The first international environmental conference. Peter Berg went as an observor with copies of his latest manifesto.

Add'l Info:
The question that seemed to express the intent of this gathering was "If we can't save the whales, how can we expect to save ourselves?" The conference led to the Law of the Sea Treaty. The theme book of the conference was "Only One Earth" by Rene Dubos and Barbara Ward. Peter Berg brought copies of his "Automated Rites of an Obsolete Future" for distribution. The issue of acid rain was first raised as an international issue at the conference.

Source: The Washington Post, 6/1/81, p. B4 ("Britain's Barbara Ward Dies"); The London Times, 11/28/89 ("Inns and Outs"); UN Chronicle, May 1983 ("Acid Rain"); "Declaration Of The United Nations Conference On The Human Environment", http://www.unep.org/Documents/Default.asp?DocumentID=97&ArticleID=1503;
Entry by: e.p.n.
Jun 22, 1973Final issue of Kaliflower
(Friday)The Free Print Shop at Kaliflower commune publishes what it states is the final issue of Kaliflower 4:7 (22 June 1973).

Add'l Info:


Source: (I examined this issue at Eric Noble's "Summer of Love Archives," 23 February 1993. However, the newsletter was subsequently revived in a new series since a bound 10th anniversary edition was published following the 30 November 1977 issue, covering the period 1967-1977. N.B. the beginning date of 1967 is reckonned differently than the date of 24 April 1969 which was when the issue identified as Vol.1, No. 1 appeared. Also Irving Rosenthal's memorial tribute to Emmett Grogan entitled "Deep Tried Frees" was published as a special issue of Kaliflower n.s. No. 3 (30 April 1978).)
Entry by: Doyle
Aug 09, 1974Nixon Resigns the Presidency
(Friday)Richard Nixon, after collapse of all support among his political supporters, resigns and leaves Washington amid the scandal that overtook his presidency.

Add'l Info:
It was revealed that Nixon had participated in obstruction of justice after the Watergate break-in. Had he not resigned, Nixon would likely have been impeachment and convicted by the Senate. On the same day, Gerald Ford, his vice-president, is sworn in as the 38th president and pardons Nixon one month later.

Source:
Entry by: e.p.n.
mid-1970sBlotter paper becomes the preferred medium of distribution of street LSD
Blotter paper begins to emerge as the most common form of LSD sold on the street. Previously it had been tablets and powder, but blotter and gel-tabs proved more consistent in purity and potency.

Add'l Info:


Source: Stafford P. Psychedelics Encyclopedia. Ronin, 1992.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
January 1976First openly gay politician elected to office
Kathy Kozachenko becomes the first openly gay American elected to public office when she wins a seat on the Ann Arbor, Michigan City Council.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Jun 07, 1977Anita Bryant leads anti-gay crusade
(Tuesday)Singer and conservative Southern Baptist Anita Bryant leads a successful campaign with the "Save Our Children" Crusade to repeal a gay rights ordinance in Dade County, Florida.

Add'l Info:
Bryant faces severe backlash from gay rights supporters across the U.S. The gay rights ordinance will not be reinstated in Dade County until December 1, 1998, more than 20 years later.

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Oct 14-15, 1977Colloquium held on LSD
LSD--A Generation Later: Colloquium I   

Add'l Info:
Santa Cruz, CA. Sponsored by the Psychology Board of the University of California, Santa Cruz. Included Richard Alpert (Ram Dass), Bruce Eisner, Stephen Gaskin, Allen Ginsberg, Willis Harman, Albert Hofmann, Oscar Janiger, Stanley Krippner, Timothy Leary, Ralph Metzner, William McGlothlin, Claudio Naranjo, and Myron Stolaroff. Approximately 600 attendees filled the lecture hall when Dr. Hofmann spoke, with many more listening from outside.

Source:
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Nov 08, 1977Harvey Milk wins election as first openly-gay San Francisco official
(Tuesday)Harvey Milk wins a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors and is responsible for introducing a gay rights ordinance protecting gays and lesbians from being fired from their jobs.

Add'l Info:
Milk also leads a successful campaign against Proposition 6, an initiative forbidding homosexual teachers. A year later, on November 27, 1978, former city supervisor Dan White assassinates Milk (and Mayor George Moscone). White's actions are motivated by jealousy and depression, rather than homophobia.

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Apr 01, 1978Death of Emmett Grogan
(Saturday)Emmett Grogan [born Eugene Leo Michael Grogan on 28 November 1942] found dead on the subway at Coney Island. Autopsy attributes the cause to an overdose of heroin.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
1979Hoffmann's history of LSD published
Albert Hofmann publishes "LSD: My Problem Child."

Add'l Info:


Source: Hofmann A. LSD: My Problem Child. J.P. Tarcher, 1979.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
May 21, 1979Gay riots in San Francisco upon sentencing of Harvey Milk's assassin
(Monday)Dan White is convicted of voluntary manslaughter and is sentenced to seven years in prison.

Add'l Info:
Outraged by what they believed to be a lenient sentence, more than 5,000 protesters ransack San Francisco's City Hall, doing hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of property damage in the surrounding area. The following night, approximately 10,000 people gather on San Francisco's Castro and Market streets for a peaceful demonstration to commemorate what would have been Milk's 49th birthday.

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Oct 14, 1979First national march on Washington for gay rights
(Sunday)An estimated 75,000 people participate in the National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights.

Add'l Info:
LGBT people and straight allies demand equal civil rights and urge for the passage of protective civil rights legislature.

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Jul 08, 1980Democratic Party endorses gay rights
(Tuesday)The Democratic Rules Committee states that it will not discriminate against homosexuals.

Add'l Info:
At their National Convention on August 11-14, the Democrats become the first major political party to endorse a homosexual rights platform.

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Dec 08, 1980Assassination of John Lennon
(Monday)John Lennon was assassinated outside his home at the Dakota apartment building across from Central Park by a deranged admirer.

Add'l Info:


Source:
Entry by: Doyle
Jul 03, 1981First report of a previously unknown disease among a cohort of gay men
(Friday)The New York Times prints the first story of a rare pneumonia and skin cancer found in 41 gay men in New York and California.

Add'l Info:
The CDC initially refers to the disease as GRID, Gay Related Immune Deficiency Disorder. When the symptoms are found outside the gay community, Bruce Voeller, biologist and founder of the National Gay Task Force, successfully lobbies to change the name of the disease to AIDS.

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Aug 12, 1981Introduction of the IBM Personal Computer
(Wednesday)Expected to sell 250,000 units, IBM eventually sold nearly 3,000,000 of this model.

Add'l Info:


Source: CNN broadcast, 8/11/01.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Sep 28, 1981PG & E announces design flaw in Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant
(Monday)On the same day that another wave of protesters attempted to blockade Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant, PG & E announced that fuel loading would stop pending review of design flaws.

Add'l Info:
See articles.

Source: UPI, 9/28/91.
Entry by: e.p.n.
Mar 02, 1982First state to ban discrimination against gays and lesbians
(Tuesday)Wisconsin becomes the first U.S. state to outlaw discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.

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Entry by: PBS timeline
Apr 19, 1985Bicycle Day first celebrated
(Friday)Bicycle Day is first celebrated as a counter-culture holiday.

Add'l Info:
llinois college professor Thomas B. Roberts invents the meme of celebrating the anniversary of Albert Hofmann’s first intentional personal bioassay of LSD, calling his celebration "Bicycle Day" in honor of Dr. Hofmann's under-the-influence bike ride from Sandoz to his home.

Source: Roberts, T. "Why is Bicycle Day is April 19th, not the 16th?" Available at http://www.academia.edu/536054/Why_Bicycle_Day_is_April_19th
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Mar 10, 1987Founding of ACT UP
(Tuesday)AIDS advocacy group ACT UP (The AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) is formed in response to the devastating affects the disease has had on the gay and lesbian community in New York.

Add'l Info:
The group holds demonstrations against pharmaceutical companies profiteering from AIDS-related drugs as well as the lack of AIDS policies protecting patients from outrageous prescription prices.

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Oct 11, 1987National March for gay rights at the height of the AIDS epidemic
(Sunday)Hundreds of thousands of activists take part in the National March on Washington to demand that President Ronald Reagan address the AIDS crisis.

Add'l Info:
Although AIDS had been reported first in 1981, it is not until the end of his presidency that Reagan speaks publicly about the epidemic.

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Mar 22, 1988Civil Rights legislation
(Tuesday)Overriding President Reagan's veto, Congress passes the Civil Rights Restoration Act, which expands the reach of non-discrimination laws within private institutions receiving federal funds.

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Entry by: infoplease.com
May - June, 1988AIDS informational mailing
The CDC mails a brochure, Understanding AIDS, to every household in the U.S. Approximately 107 million brochures are mailed.

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Entry by: PBS timeline
Dec 01, 1988First observance of World AIDS Day
(Thursday)The World Health Organization organizes the first World AIDS Day to raise awareness of the spreading pandemic.

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Entry by: PBS timeline
Aug 18, 1990Ryan White Care Act provides for AIDS patients
(Saturday)President George Bush signs the Ryan White Care Act, a federally funded program for people living with AIDS.

Add'l Info:
Ryan White, an Indiana teenager, contracted AIDS in 1984 through a tainted hemophilia treatment. After being barred from attending school because of his HIV-positive status, Ryan White becomes a well-known activist for AIDS research and anti-discrimination.

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Entry by: PBS timeline
1991AIDS support ribbon adopted
Created by the New York-based Visual AIDS, the red ribbon is adopted as a symbol of awareness and compassion for those living with HIV/AIDS.

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Entry by: PBS timeline
Apr 16, 1993Bicycle Day Commemorates 50th Anniversary of LSD
(Friday)Bicycle Day: Celebrating 50 Years of LSD   

Add'l Info:
Held at the University of California, Santa Cruz, this event was partially sponsored by the Island Group.

Source:
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Oct 21-22, 199350th Anniversary of LSD
50 Years of LSD: Current Status and Perspectives of Hallucinogens

Add'l Info:
Held in Lugano-Agno, Switzerland and produced by the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences, proceedings from this event were published as 50 Years of LSD: Current Status and Perspectives of Hallucinogens, edited by A. Pletscher and D. Ladewig.

Source: Proceedings published as 50 Years of LSD: Current Status and Perspectives of Hallucinogens, edited by A. Pletscher and D. Ladewig.
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Dec 21, 1993US military issues policy of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell"
(Tuesday)The Department of Defense issues a directive prohibiting the U.S. Military from barring applicants from service based on their sexual orientation.

Add'l Info:
"Applicants... shall not be asked or required to reveal whether they are homosexual, " states the new policy, which still forbids applicants from engaging in homosexual acts or making a statement that he or she is homosexual. This policy is known as "Don't Ask, Don't Tell."

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
May 20, 1996Romer v. Evans decision overturns anti-gay legislation
(Monday)In the case of Romer v. Evans, the United States Supreme Court decides that Colorado's 2nd amendment, denying gays and lesbians protections against discrimination, is unconstitutional, calling them "special rights."

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Entry by: PBS timeline
Sep 21, 1996Defense of Marriage Act enacted
(Saturday)President Clinton signs the Defense of Marriage Act into law. The law defines marriage as a legal union between one man and one woman and that no state is required to recognize a same-sex marriage from out of state.

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Entry by: PBS timeline
Apr 01, 1998Coretta Scott King supports gay rights
(Wednesday)Coretta Scott King, widow of civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., calls on the civil rights community to join the struggle against homophobia. She receives criticism from members of the black civil rights movement for comparing civil rights to gay rights.

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Entry by: PBS timeline
Apr 26, 2000First state to recognize same-sex civil unions
(Wednesday)Vermont becomes the first state in the U.S. to legalize civil unions and registered partnerships between same-sex couples.

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Entry by: PBS timeline
Jun 26, 2003Lawrence v. Texas overturns sodomy laws in United States
(Thursday)In Lawrence v. Texas the U.S. Supreme Court rules that sodomy laws in the U.S. are unconstitutional.

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Entry by: PBS timeline
May 18, 2004First state to legalize same-sex marriage
(Tuesday)Massachusetts becomes the first state to legalize gay marriage.

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The court finds the prohibition of gay marriage unconstitutional because it denies dignity and equality of all individuals. In the following six years, New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut, Iowa and Washington D.C. will follow suit.

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Jun 21, 2005Murderer of civil-rights workers convicted four decades later
(Tuesday)The ringleader of the Mississippi civil rights murders (see Aug. 4, 1964), Edgar Ray Killen, is convicted of manslaughter on the 41st anniversary of the crimes.

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Entry by: infoplease.com
Oct 24, 2005Death of Rosa Parks
(Monday)Rosa Parks dies at age 92.

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Entry by: infoplease.com
Jan 13, 2006Conference Held on LSD
(Friday)LSD: Problem Child and Wonder Drug Conference   

Add'l Info:
Held at the Convention Center in Basel, Switzerland, this event was presented by the Gaia Media Foundation as an International Symposium on the occasion of the 100th Birthday of Albert Hofmann.

Source: Link: http://www.lsd.info/
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
May 2006Survey results on beneficial effects of LSD
Survey results published in Neurology show that both psilocybin-containing mushrooms and LSD may reduce severity and frequency of cluster headaches.

Add'l Info:
Erowid participated in this research by working with Clusterbusters.com to publish and solicit responses to a survey about the use of psilocybin to treat cluster headaches. Some of the participants in the later Sewell survey were found through Erowid's earlier online survey.

Source: Sewell RA, Halpern JH, Pope HG Jr. "Response of cluster headache to psilocybin and LSD". Neurology. 2006;66(12):1920-2. (Also: https://www.erowid.org/plants/mushrooms/mushrooms_article8.pdf)
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Aug 09, 2007First presidential debate on gay rights issues
(Thursday)Sponsored by the Human Rights Campaign, the Logo cable channel hosts the first American presidential forum focusing specifically on LGBT issues, inviting each presidential candidate. Six Democrats participate in the forum, including Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama, while all Republican candidates decline.

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Entry by: PBS timeline
May 29, 2008Death of Albert Hoffmann
(Thursday)Albert Hofmann dies.

Add'l Info:
Swiss inventor of LSD, and discoverer of the active principles of magic mushrooms and morning glory seeds, Albert Hofmann, passes away from heart failure. He was 102 years old.

Source: Erowid. "In Memoriam: Albert Hofmann". Erowid Extracts, Jun 2008; 14:21. (https://www.erowid.org/culture/characters/hofmann_albert/hofmann_albert_obituary1.shtml)
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
Nov 04, 2008Proposition 8 which bans same-sex marriage is approved in California
(Tuesday)California voters approve Proposition 8, making same-sex marriage in California illegal.

Add'l Info:
The passing of the ballot garners national attention from gay-rights supporters across the U.S. Prop 8 inspires the NOH8 campaign, a photo project that uses celebrities to promote marriage equality.

Source:
Entry by: PBS timeline
Jun 17, 2009President Obama extends some benefits to same-sex partners of federal workers
(Wednesday)President Obama signs a Presidential Memorandum allowing same-sex partners of federal employees to receive certain benefits. The memorandum does not cover full health coverage.

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Entry by: PBS timeline
Oct 28, 2009Matthew Shepard Act extends hate crimes to include gender or sexual orientation
(Wednesday)The Matthew Shepard Act is passed by Congress and signed into law by President Obama on October 28th.

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The measure expands the 1969 U.S. Federal Hate Crime Law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity or disability. Matthew Shepard was tortured and murdered near Laramie, Wyoming on October 7, 1998 because of his sexual orientation.

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Entry by: PBS timeline
Aug 04, 2010Proposition 8 declared unconstitutional by federal district judge
(Wednesday)A federal judge in San Francisco decides that gays and lesbians have the constitutional right to marry and that Prop 8 is unconstitutional. Lawyers will challenge the finding.

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Entry by: PBS timeline
Dec 18, 2010"Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy repealed
(Saturday)The U.S. Senate votes 65-31 to repeal "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy, allowing gays and lesbians to serve openly in the U.S. Military.

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Entry by: PBS timeline
Feb 23, 2011President Obama ends support of DOMA
(Wednesday)President Obama states his administration will no longer defend the Defense of Marriage Act, which bans the recognition of same-sex marriage.

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Entry by: PBS timeline
Jun 24, 2011New York legalizes same-sex marriage
(Friday)New York State passes the Marriage Equity Act, becoming the largest state thus far to legalize gay marriage.

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Entry by: PBS timeline
April 29-early May, 2013Virtual death of Albert Hoffmann
Albert Hofmann dies again, virtually, as a wave of fresh mourners, 'friends', and those compelled to comment, twitter their thumbs while hoovering blog bytes and forwarding partially read news articles from five years ago.   

Add'l Info:
The "news" was mostly spread via social media sites, but it also hit the "comments" sections of some blogs as the quote below attests: <<10 Responses to "LSD inventor Albert Hofmann dead at age 102" This is truly sad news! Rollingwriter said this on May 1, 2013 at 9:52 AM>> and some people even created fresh blogs for the occasion.

Source: http://www.therealstevegray.com/2013/05/lsd-inventor-albert-hofmann-dies/ [Erowid's source, link is dead. 02/2016]
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)
March 2014First U.S. approved LSD research since 1966
First government-approved experimental study giving LSD to humans published since 1966. Study showed that giving dying patients the drug in a therapeutic context reduced anxiety. The study was conducted in Switzerland.

Add'l Info:
Twelve subjects with life-threatening illnesses and anxiety disorder. Some were given LSD at 200 ug, others 20 ug in a supportive, therapeutic context. Those who received 20ug could choose to participate in a full dose session. They then participated in a number of drug-free therapy sessions. The researchers found a reduction in anxiety from the LSD-therapy sessions.

Source: Gasser P, Holstein D, Michel Y, Doblin R, Yazar-Klosinski B, Passie T, Brenneisen R. Safety and Efficacy of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide-Assisted Psychotherapy for Anxiety Associated with Life-threatening Diseases. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2014. Also: http://www.maps.org/news/media/4918-press-release-lsd-study-breaks-40-years-of-research-taboo
Entry by: Timeline by Erowid (www.erowid.org)



 

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