Chronology (in progress)

Until I have a reasonably sensible design for an active server page to output the Sixties Date Machine database, this page will be a temporary place for the different chronologies of the Sixties that comprise the separate threads of looking at that era.

  • Diggers
  • SF Mime Troupe (Artists Liberation Front)
  • SF Beats/Underground Arts
  • SF Rock/Underground Music Scene
  • Kesey et al. (Pranksters/Trips Festivals/Acid Tests/Grateful Dead)
  • SF Haight-Ashbury
  • Free Speech Movement/New Left
  • Civil Rights Movement
  • Peace/Anti-War Movement
  • Communes of the Sixties
  • International Youth Movement (Provos, etc.)
  • Media Coverage of Hippies
  • Other Events of the Period


A preliminary discussion of the SF Mime Troupe, specifically the events that led up to the formation of the Artists Liberation Front, and continuing through the summer months of 1966 (including the ALF meetings, and also the wider context of the development of the Haight-Ashbury hippie community), is important to understand the soil out of which sprung the Diggers in late September.

09/27/66. Hunter’s Point Riot.

09/29/66. Birth of Diggers. (Or 9/28).

10/31/66. Intersection Game, Halloween at intersection of Haight and Ashbury.

11/11/66. First mention of Diggers in SF Chronicle (Gleason article).

11/29/66. Charges dropped in 10/31 arrest.

11/30/66. First page photo in SF Chronicle of four Diggers in famous pose outside courthouse. (Was this City Hall or Bryant?)

12/17/66. Death of Money Parade along Haight Street. Bust of two Hell’s Angels forges an alliance with Diggers. (See 1/17/67).

01/01/67. New Year’s Wail. (See 12/30 Gleason, see 1/2/67).

01/08/67. Bust of 520 Frederick, second Free Store. Eugene Grogan busted.

01/12/67. Poets’ Thank-you for Diggers. (See 1/11 Gleason, 1/12, 1/20/67 Gleason)

01/14/67. The Be-In. See articles on aftermath, busts, etc.

01/23/67. Articles in SF Chronicle re Diggers.

01/31/67. Diggers sue Police over harassment.

02/24/67. Invisible Circus, Glide Church. (2/24 to 2/26). (See 2/25, 2/27 Chron).

02/27/67. Police raid two Digger crash pads: 848 Clayton and 1775 Haight. The next day, a demonstration takes place at Park Station protesting the raids, and police harassment, especially directed toward Patrolman Arthur Gerrans. Lt. John Curran estimated that 40 people stayed at each apartment on a nightly basis. (Chron, 3/1, p. 1).

03/03/67. Love Circus protest by Diggers.

03/11/67. Berkeley Provos to hold Be-In (cancelled due to rain.) (See 3/20 re free food by Provos).

03/21/67. Lisch, Ballard warn about upcoming invasion of hippies. (See Cahill response 3/23, see Mayor’s reaction 3/24, see Gleason 3/24, see 3/10 re: B. Graham prediction of four million hippies.)

3/24/67. Health Dept announces campaign to “clean up the hippies.” Chron 3/25, p.1. See also 3/26, p.1 re: Cahill and Sox alleging their recent actions don’t have anything to do with the predictions of an influx.

3/26/67. Easter Sunday “Mill-In” at the corner of Haight and Ashbury. Hundreds of hippies blocked traffic for three hours by playing the Intersection Game (repeat of Halloween event.) Twelve people were arrested. Other Easter Be-Ins took place in Los Angeles and New York. (see Chron 3/27/67, p. 1, p. 7. See also editorial, 3/28/67, p. 36 decrying the “tie up”).

3/27/67. Announcement of a 10-year retrospective of David Simpson’s work at SF Museum of Art.

3/27/67. Health Department raids Haight hippie pads, issues 5-day abatement notices to 6 of them, including 848 Clayton St., a Digger crash pad. (See 3/28 Chron, p. 1).

3/27/67. Mayor Shelley’s declaration of unwelcome to the hippies was referred to committee yesterday at the Bd of Supervisors. (Chron, 3/28, p.10)

3/27/67. Seven people arrested at the Easter Sunday Mill-In appeared before Judge Kennedy. One pled guilty. This article says the traffic was blocked for an hour. (Chron, 3/28, p. 10)

3/28/67. Dr. Ellis Sox, head of the Health Department, reveals that the situation in the Haight is not as bad as he had thought. After two days of inspecting 1400 buildings, only 65 were cited, including 16 that were hippie pads. (Chron, 3/29, p.1)

3/29/67. John “Spider” Simon, 28, of the Diggers, arrested for violating game laws after a photo appeared of him butchering a deer in back of 848 Clayton. (This is mentioned in his book, The Sign of the Fool.) (Chron, 3/29, p.1) See also Chron, 3/30, p.1, for followup article that explains how a Humane Officer, Robin Taber, had donated the road-kill carcass to the Diggers. Simon appeared in court 3/30 and charges were dropped by Judge Axelrod. Subsequent article Chron 3/31, p.2, mentions that Taber is considered a maverick in the Bird Guardians League, and that Fish and Game officers want to question Taber.

3/29/67. Ralph Gleason, in an article on new rock groups, mentions The C.I.A, one of whose members plays finger cymbals and reads quotations from The 1649 Diggers’ texts by Gerrard Winstanley to begin their set.

4/2/67. Berkeley Provos hold a happening at the Civic Center park, with various groups performing. (Chron, 3/31, p. 47).


The Haight-Ashbury

09/16/66. Anti-Fascist Rally.

09/26/66. ALF plans announced. (See 10/12, 10/14 Rexroth on ALF)

09/27/66. Hunter's Point Rally.

09/28/66. (9/29) Jacobs and SDS pickets.

09/29/66. (or 9/28). Birth of Diggers.

10/02/66. Memorial for Mathew Johnson. (See 10/3, 10/13, 11/27). 

10/06/66. Love Pageant Rally.

[General] 11/08/66. Reagan elected Governor.

11/15/66. ARDC makes recommendations.

11/15/66. Psychedelic Shop busted. (See 11/23 etc.)

11/22/66. Haight Independent Proprietors (HIP) formed.

12/08/66. UCB article.

12/08/66. Provos. (See 12/11.)

12/11/66. Buttons reported as underground phenomenon.

12/11/66. Sunset Strip riots in L.A.


02/08/67. Press conference at All Saints Church.

04/14-16/67. Spring Mobilization to End the War in Vietnam. See 2/26. 4/15 the big rally. ("Anti-war" used).

03/01/67. Re: First funding for Neighborhood Arts Program.

03/10/67. Bill Graham predicts 4 million hippies to SF in summer. (Note: this precedes Lisch, Ballard warning.)

03/18/67. Announcement of upcoming Easter Be-In by Happening House.

3/19/67. Recreation and Park Dept., in a blatant rip-off of a hippie custom that they earlier helped bust, holds a "Chalk-In" at the Panhandle. (Chron, 3/2, p. 21, 3/20, p. 3)

3/24/67. Health Dept announces campaign to “clean up the hippies.” Chron 3/25, p.1. See also 3/26, p.1 re: Cahill and Sox alleging their recent actions don’t have anything to do with the predictions of an influx.

3/26/67. Easter Sunday “Mill-In” at the corner of Haight and Ashbury. Hundreds of hippies blocked traffic for three hours by playing the Intersection Game (repeat of Halloween event.) Twelve people were arrested. Other Easter Be-Ins took place in Los Angeles and New York. (see Chron 3/27/67, p. 1, p. 7. See also editorial, 3/28/67, p. 36 decrying the “tie up”).

3/27/67. Health Department raids Haight hippie pads, issues 5-day abatement notices to 6 of them, including 848 Clayton St., a Digger crash pad. (See 3/28 Chron, p. 1).

3/27/67. Mayor Shelley’s declaration of unwelcome to the hippies was referred to committee yesterday at the Bd of Supervisors. (Chron, 3/28, p.10)

3/27/67. Seven people arrested at the Easter Sunday Mill-In appeared before Judge Kennedy. One pled guilty. This article says the traffic was blocked for an  hour. (Chron, 3/28, p. 10)

3/28/67. The Muni Railway announces plan to re-route the buses to avoid the “Sodom” that Haight Street has become. Buses will run north and south of Haight Street, although the situation could change if 200,000 hippies appear this summer. (Chron, 3/29, p.1)

3/28/67. Dr. Ellis Sox, head of the Health Department, reveals that the situation in the Haight is not as bad as he had thought. After two days of inspecting 1400 buildings, only 65 were cited, including 16 that were hippie pads. (Chron, 3/29, p.1)

4/1/67. A “Spring Clean-In” takes place in the Haight, organized as a response to the Health Department inspections. Dumpsters will be conveniently located. Posters designed by well-known artists will be distributed. H.A.N.C. spoke out against the crack-down on the hippies. (Chron, 3/31, p. 47, Gleason.)


Artists Liberation Front

05/02/66. SF Mime Troupe crashes the first luncheon meeting of the newly appointed Arts Resources Development Committee.

05/03/66. Ronnie Davis and Kenneth Rexroth appear on the same panel discussing the Arts in San Francisco at the SF State Symposium. ("Culture and the City"?)

05/04/66. SF Mime Troupe cut off from the Hotel Tax funds for cultural groups.

05/10/66. First meeting of the Artists Liberation Front at the Mime Troupe studio on Howard Street.

05/31/66. Third ALF meeting.

06/13/66. ALF meeting.

07/17/66. ALF Benefit at the Fillmore.

07/20/66. ALF press conference.

07/25/66. ALF meeting.

08/28/66. ALF blasts ARDC.

09/26/66. ALF announces Free Fairs.

09/27/66. Hunter's Point Riot.

09/29 (or 28)/66. Birth of Diggers.

10/01/66. First ALF Free Fair.

10/08/66. Second ALF Free Fair.

10/15/66. Third ALF Free Fair.

10/22/66. Fourth (last) ALF Free Fair.

01/23/67. ALF meeting.

02/24/67. Invisible Circus, Glide Church. (2/24 to 2/26). (See 2/25, 2/27 Chron).


3/29/67. Clark Kerr, former president of the University of California, predicted that Ronald Reagan could be elected President of the U.S. because of a movement to the Right, and because of Reagan’s television skills. Chron, 3/30, p. 8.


From: http://www.setonhill.edu/~cary/sixties/1962/meredith.htm


Seton Hill College, Greensburg PA

PS338, Sixties Chronology Project

James Meredith and Riots in Mississippi

    James Meredith as born on June 25, 1933 in Kosciusko, Mississippi. He grew up on an eighty-four acre farm in rural Atlanta County, a place where "God, family, hard work, and equality before the law were the staples of life. Throughout his life he has stood up for traditional values of his community and fought the racism of whites and radicalism of blacks.

    Meredith served in the U.S. Air Force from 1951 till 1960, with a tour of duty in Japan. When he returned, he attended Jackson State College for two years. In 1962, he tried to enter the University of Mississippi to study government. When he filled out the application, he ignored the question on race because he thought it was irrelevant. Consequently, he was admitted, but when the University found out that James was black, they withdrew their acceptance. The University would not explain why they decided to withdraw his admission, so Meredith sued. He was later "victorious when the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled the state could not deny admission to an academically qualified, tax-paying citizen." (http://cr.virtualscholar.com).

    On October 2, 1962, the governor of Mississippi, Ross Barnett proceeded to block the registration of James Meredith in person. By the order of President Kennedy, Federal marshals and troops escorted Meredith during the enrollment process. When the fact of Meredith’s enrollment became known, demonstrations by white citizens and college students broke out across the campus. Before the National Guard arrived to reinforce the marshals, two students were killed.

    In 1966, Meredith published a book titled Three Years in Mississippi. Shortly after this, he organized the "Walk Against Fear", a march from Memphis to Jackson, Mississippi, to encourage African Americans to vote (www.seattletimes.com/mlk/movement). During this march, he was shot and wounded by a sniper hiding in the brush beside the highway, but luckily he recovered and later completed the march. This march received much press attention and it was at this time that the growing rift between the Southern Christian Leadership Conference of Dr. Martin Luther King and the youthful Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee became publicized. It was also when SNCC leader Stokely Carmichael inaugurated the phrase "Black Power."

Contributed by Jill Brant

Sources and References

Virtual Scholar    http://cr.virtualscholar.com/cr10.htm

Seattle Times, Civil Rights Movement pages    http://www.seattletimes.com/mlk/movement/  

University of Mississippi Archive pages    http://www.olemiss.edu/news/dm/archives/97/9710/971001/971001SE3legend.HTML


from http://www.uvm.edu/~jmoore/sixties/sixttime.html 


A Chronology of the Sixties


The Fifties: Consensus and Nonconformity


  • January 26 - Soviet Red Army liberates Auschwitz
  • April 12 - Four -term President Franklin Roosevelt dies in office; VP Harry Truman becomes President
  • May 7 - Germany surrenders ending War in Europe
  • July 18 -- 1st Atom Bomb tested in New Mexico
  • August 6 - 2nd Atom Bomb dropped on Hiroshima killing 200,000 Japanese
  • August 9 - 3rd Atom Bomb dropped on Nagasaki killing 150,000 Japanese
  • September 2 - Japan surrenders ending War in the Pacific
  • Penicillin and streptomycin introduced commercially
  • Aeorosal spray insecticides go on the market
  • Frozen OJ introduced

  • January - Major Post-War Strike Wave in the U.S.
  • March 5 - Churchill gives "Iron Curtain" speech
  • July 4 - Philippines become independent from the U.S.; Huk Rebellion continues
  • July 5 - 1st bikini bathing suit, named for U.S. A-bomb test site, modeled in Paris fashion show
  • September 30 - Nuremberg Tribunal condemns 12 Nazi leaders to death for war crimes
  • ENIAC, world's 1st digital computer developed at Harvard
  • Baby boom begins as servicement return home (3,411,000 births this year)
  • College enrollments swell due to the GI Bill of Rights (1944) reaching an all-time high of 2 million
  • Dr. Benjamin Spock's "The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care"

  • March 12 - Truman announces his "Doctrine" on the confinement of Communism; U.S. becomes involved in Greek Civil War
  • May 30 - Hungarian Communists seize power
  • June 5 - Marshall Plan proposed by U.S. Secretary of State to strengthen capitalist economies in Europe; perceived by the Soviets as a threat
  • August 15 - India and Pakistan become independent from Great Britain
  • December 25 -- Film industry blacklists the "Hollywood 10" after the refuse to testfy whether or not they are members of the Communist Party before the U.S. House Committee on Un-American Activities
  • Albert Camus's "The Plague"
  • Marlon Brando stars in Tennessee Williams's play, "A Streetcar Named Desire"
  • UFO sightings make headlines
  • Construction of mass-produced houses begins at the 1st Levittown on Long Island

  • January 4 - Burma gains independence from Great Britain
  • February 25 - Communist takeover in Czechoslovakia
  • May 14 - Israel independence proclaimed; war ensues with Arab neighbors
  • July 24 - Soviet blockade of Berlin countered by U.S./British airlift
  • November - Harry Truman wins reelection as President over Republican challenger, Tom Dewey
  • Republican California congressman Richard Nixon pushes a Congressional investigation of State Dept. employee, Alger Hiss as an alleged Communist spy
  • Textron becomes 1st conglomerate
  • Alfred Kinsey's "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male"
  • One million U.S. homes now have TV sets; popular shows are "The Ed Sullivan Show" and Hopalong Cassady"
  • Jackson Pollock pioneers Abstract Expressionism
  • 1st McDonald's fast-food restaurant

  • April 4 - NATO created
  • May 12 - Soviets lift the Berlin Blockade
  • May 23 - Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) established
  • September - Soviet Union explodes its 1st A-bomb breaking U.S. weapons monopoly
  • October 1 - People's Republic of China proclaimed by Mao Tsetung
  • October 7 - German Democratic Republic (East Germany) established
  • U.S. car production reaches 5.1 million; 1st Volkswagen "beetle" sold
  • Simone de Beauvoir's "The Second Sex"
  • George Orwell's "1984"
  • Arthur Miller's "Death of a Salesman"
  • 1st LP 12-inch vinyl phonograph records introduced by CBS; RCA introduces 45's; stereo components boom
  • 1st cake mixes introduced by General Mills and Pillsbury

  • January 25 - Alger Hiss found guilty of perjury for denying Whittaker Chambers's allegations
  • June 23 - Korean War begins
  • September 14 - UN forces under Douglas MacArthur land at Inchon
  • November 21 - US troops reach the Yalu River; China intervenes and throws UN forces back beyond the 38th Parallel
  • Republican Wisconsin Senator Joe McCarthy starts anti-Communist "Witch Hunt"
  • David Riesman's "The Lonely Crowd"
  • 1st Polaroid instant black-and-white cameras
  • Diners Club credit cards introduced

  • January 1 - Chinese and North Korean Forces takes Seoul
  • March 14 - UN Forces retake Seoul
  • March 30 - Julius and Ethel Rosenberg and Morton Sobell found guilty of having sold atomic secrets to the Soviet Union
  • May 8 - 1st H-Bomb exploded by the U.S. in the Pacific
  • September - Cleveland DJ Alan Freed starts his "Moondog Show"
  • 2nd Levittown goes up in suburban Philadelphia (Bucks County)
  • Albert Camus's "The Rebel"
  • J.D. Salinger's "The Catcher in the Rye"
  • James Jones's "From Her to Eternity"
  • Popular TV show: "I Love Lucy" (runs through 1957)


  • May -- 1st issue of "Mad Magazine"
  • October 20 -- Mau Mau Rebellion against British colonialism begins in Kenya
  • November - Republican General Dwight Eisenhower defeats Democrat Adlai Stevenson for President
  • Sony introduces 1st transistor radios
  • Polio epidemic kills and maim thousands in the U.S.
  • "Today" show debuts on NBC TV
  • Popular TV show: "The Adventures of Ozzie & Harriet" (runs through 1966)
  • Norman Vincent Peale's "Power of Positive Thinking"
  • Ralph Ellison's "The Invisible Man"
  • 1st Holiday Inn opens in Memphis, Tennessee

  • March 5 - Josef Stalin dies
  • June 17 -- East German rebellion
  • June 19 - Julius and Ethel Rosenberg executed
  • July 27 - Armistice signed at Panmunjom ends Korean War at 38th Parallel
  • August 19 - CIA-sponsored coup overthrows nationalist government in Iran and restores the Shah to power
  • December - 1st issue of "Playboy" features Marilyn Monroe
  • December - 1st TV dinner introduced by Swanson
  • "TV Guide" begins publication
  • 1st IBM Computer
  • Ralph Ellison's "Invisible Man"
  • Samuel Beckett's "Waiting for Godot"
  • Pizza catches on in the U.S.

  • March 1 - Puerto Rican Nationalists led by Lolita Lebron Shoot Up U.S. House of Representatives
  • March - May - France defeated militarily at Dienbienphu by the Viet Minh led by General Giap
  • April 17 - Nationalist General Gamal Abdel Nasser takes power in Egypt
  • April 22 - June 17 -- Senator Joe McCarthy conducts televised congressional hearings into alleged Communist infiltration of the U.S. Army
  • April 26 - July 21 - Geneva Conference on Vietnam; Ho Chi Minh becomes President of DRV (North Vietnam)
  • CIA-sponsored overthrow of nationalist government in Guatemala
  • October 31 - FLN begins revolt against French colonialism in Algeria
  • December 2 - Senator Joe McCarthy censured by the U.S. Senate
  • Marlon Brando and Lee Marvin star in László Benedek's "The Wild One"
  • New York State Thruway opens
  • Texas Instruments introduces 1st silicon transistors
  • Salk vaccine used against polio
  • RCA introduces 1st color TV set
  • William Golding's "Lord of the Flies"
  • C. Wright Mill's "White Collar"
  • Marlon Brando stars in Elia Kazan's "On the Waterfront"
  • Elvis Presley makes his 1st commercial recordings
  • Ray Kroc buys the original McDonald's and starts franchising it
  • Popular TV Show: "Father Knows Best" with Robert Young (runs through 1963)

  • March 12 - Jazz great Charlie Parker dies
  • July 17 - Disneyland opens in Anaheim, California
  • September 30 -- James Dean dies in Motorcycle Accident
  • November - "Village Voice" begins publication
  • AFL and CIO merge into AFL-CIO
  • Allen Ginsberg's "Howl"
  • Vladimir Nabokov's "Lolita"
  • Sloan Wilson's "The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit
  • James Dean stars in Elia Kazan's "East of Eden" and Nicholas Ray's "Rebel without a Cause"
  • Automobile sales surpass 7 million, mostly large V-6's and V-8's; Shopping Centers proliferate in the U.S.
  • Conservative publication "National Review" founded by William F. Buckley, Jr.
  • Popular TV shows: "Captain Kangaroo", "Howdy Doody", "The Mickey Mouse Club", and "Gunsmoke" (runs through 1975)
  • Popular songs: Bill Haley's "Rock around the Clock", Chuck Berry's "Maybellene"
  • Popular movie: "Invasion of the Body Snatchers"
  • 1st Kentucky Fried Chicken started by "Colonel Sanders"

  • February 14 - Khrushchev gives "Secret Speech" at Soviet Party Congress denouncing Stalin's crimes
  • June 28 - Polish workers riot against Communist government
  • June 29 - U.S. Congress authorizes funds for the construction of the Interstate Highway System
  • July 26 -- Egypt's Nassar nationalizes the Suez Canal leading to a war with France, Britain and Israel
  • November 4 - Soviet troops invade Hungary to put down rebellion after independent-minded Hungarian Premier Nagy renounces the Warsaw Pact
  • November -- Eisenhower reelected U.S. President over Adlai Stevenson
  • Elvis Presley has hits with "Love Me Tender" and "Heartbreak Hotel"; begins movie career in "Love Me Tender"
  • William H. Whyte's "The Organization Man"
  • Grace Metalious's "Peyton Place"
  • John Osbourne's "Look Back in Anger"

  • March 6 - Ghana becomes Independent from Britain under Kwame Nkrumah"
  • October 4 - Soviet Union launches first sputnik
  • Great Leap Forward Launched by Mao Tsetung in China
  • Nevil Shute's "On the Beach"
  • Jack Kerouac's "On the Road"
  • Boris Pasternak's "Doctor Zhivago"
  • Berry Gordy, Jr. founds Motown records
  • 1st Frisbee introduced by Wham-O
  • U.S. has record 4.3 million births
  • Popular TV Show: "Leave It To Beaver" (runs through 1963)
  • Dick Clark's "American Bandstand" premiers

  • May 31 - Charles de Gaulle become Premier of France in crisis over Algiers
  • July 15 - U.S. sends troops to Lebanon
  • October 2 -- Guinea under Sekou Toure becomes Independent from France
  • Jack Kerouac's "The Dharma Bumbs"
  • Lawrence Ferlinghetti's "Coney Island of the Mind"
  • Right-wing John Birch Society founded by Robert Welch
  • 1st Visa and American Express credit cards introduced
  • U.S. launches its 1st orbital satellite
  • Burdick and Lederer's "The Ugly American"
  • 1st Pizza Hut opens in Kansas City
  • 1st Hula Hoops introduced by Wham-O
  • U.S. has 41 million TV sets
  • John Kenneth Galbraith's "The Affluent Society"

  • January 1 - Cuban Revolution under former student leader Fidel Castro is victorious
  • February 2 - Buddy Holly dies in Iowa Plane Crash
  • June 26 -- St. Lawrence Seaway Dedicated
  • July 21 - New York Federal District Court lifts ban on D.H. Lawrence's "Lady Chatterley's Lover"
  • July 25 -- U.S. Vice-President Richard Nixon's "Kitchen Debate" in Moscow with Nikita Khrushchev
  • Guggenheim Museum designed by Frank Lloyd Wright opens in New York
  • French New Wave Cinema: Francois Truffaut's "The 400 Blows", Jean-Luc Goddard's "Breathless"
  • William Burrough's "The Naked Lunch"
  • University of Michigan Study Shows 20% of U.S. Families Live Below the Poverty Line
  • 1st Barbie doll introduced

  • Daniel Bell's "The End of Ideology"
  • Vance Packard's "The Waste Makers"



    The Civil Rights Movement


  • June 25 - President Roosevelt establishes Fair Employment Practice Committee after A. Philip Randolph of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters threatens a march on Washington to protest discrimination in war industries and government


  • June 21 - 22 - Detroit Race Riot

  • Mechanical Cotton Picker Invented

  • Jackie Robinson plays for the Brooklyn Dodgers to integrate Major League Baseball

  • May 3 - U.S. Supreme Court rules in Shelly v. Kramer that restrictive covenants are unenforceable
  • May 26 - Pro-apartheid Nationalist Party wins electoral power in South Africa
  • July 26 -- President Truman signs executive order 9981 banning segregation in the U.S. military

  • January 29 -- Anti-apartheid riots in Johannesburg

  • June 26 - Noncooperation campaign against apartheid laws begins in South Africa
  • Malcolm X joins the Nation of Islam

  • May 17 - U.S. Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education overturns Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) and declares "separate but equal" unconstitutional; NAACP represented by Thurgood Marshall

  • May 31 - "Brown II"
  • August 28 - 14-year old Emmett Till from Chicago brutally lynched in Money, Mississippi after he allegedly whistles at a white woman
  • November 25 - U.S. Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) bans racial segregation on interstate buses, trains and waiting rooms
  • December 1 -- Rosa Parks is arrested after she refuses to give up her seat on a city bus to a white man leading to the Montgomery, Alabama bus boycott
  • December 5 - December 21, 1956 - Montgomery bus Boycott organized by the NAACP

  • January 30 -- Martin Luther King, Jr.'s home bombed
  • March 11 -- Southern congressmen issue a manifestor pledging resistance to court-ordered desegregation
  • November 13 - Supreme Court rules on bus desegregation
  • December 25 -- Fred Shuttlesworth's home bombed

  • August - President Eisenhower sends federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas to integrate public schools after racists riot and threaten black school children
  • August 29 -- U.S. Congress establishes Civil Rights Commission in 1st Civil Rights Act since Reconstruction

  • January 3 - U.S. Civil Rights Commission begins operations
  • September 29 - U.S. Supreme Court in Cooper v. Aaron implements Brown decision and rules that Little Rock schools must integrate on schedule
    1959 December 10 - UN General Assembly condemns racial discrimation anywhere in the world


  • February 1 - Greensboro, North Carolina sit-in. Sit-ins spread to other cities in the South.
  • March 21 - Sharpesville Massacre. Police murder 56 blacks protesting the apartheid pass law in South Africa
  • April 17 - Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) founded
  • May 6 - Civil Rights Act signed
  • November - Kennedy elected President; Johnson elected Vice-President

  • May 20 - Freedom riders attacked by a racist mob at Montgomery, Alabama
  • September 22 - Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) desegregation ruling

  • April 27 - Los Angeles Riot
  • September 29 - President Kennedy federalizes Mississippi National Guard to protect James Meredith's efforts to integrate Ole Miss
  • October 2 - Racists riot at Ole Miss

  • January 1 - Centennial of Lincoln's "Emancipation Proclamation"
  • April - May -- Birmingham integration struggles
  • June 11 -- Alabama Governor George Wallace stands in the schoolhouse door
  • June 12 - Mississippi NAACP leader Medger Evers murdered by KKK
  • June 20 - President Kennedy meets with Civil Rights leaders concerning the March on Washington
  • August 28 - 200,000 black and white march on Washington to demand equal rights
  • September 15 -- Birmingham bombing kills 4 black children attending Sunday school
  • November 22 -- President Kennedy assasinated in Dallas

  • January 23 - 24th Ammendment to the U.S. Constitution eliminates poll taxes on Federal elections
  • Freedom Summer
  • June 21 - Civil rights workers Goodman, Schwerner, and Chaney murdered by the KKK
  • July 2 - President Johnson signs Civil Rights Bill
  • Riot in Harlem
  • August - Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party fights for seats at the Democratic Party Convention in Atlantic City
  • November - Lyndon Johnson elected President
  • December 10 - Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in Stockholm

  • January - March - Selma, Alabama struggles over voting rights; March on Montgomery protected by federalized National Guardsmen
  • March 25 - Marchers arrive in Montgomery; Viola Liuzzo murdered by the KKK outside Montgomery
  • February 21 - Malcolm X assasinated in Harlem
  • August 6 - President Johnson signs Voting Rights Act
  • August 11-16 - Watts Riots



    The New Left and the Anti-War Movement


  • I.F. Stone starts his independent leftist Weekly

  • Dissent founded by Irving Howe as an anti-Communist, anti-McCarthyite, social democratic journal

  • January 1 - Victory of the Cuban Revolution

  • February 1 - Greensboro NC Lunch Counter Sit-in
  • Anti-HUAC Demonstration in San Francisco
  • Thousands of students visit Cuba
  • SDS Organized

  • February 18 - Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba
  • April 17 - Bertrand Russell and Committee of 100 lead march of 20,000 & sit-down of 5,000 anti-nuke outside U.K. Defense Ministry
  • Congo leader Patrice Lumumba overthrown and assasinated in a CIA black op
  • Widespread civil disobedience against bomb shelters edicts

  • February 16-17 -- Boston SANE & fledgling SDS hold first anti-nuclear march on Washington
  • June 12-16 - Port Huron Statement
  • October 22-28 - Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Radical sociologist C. Wright Mills dies in a motorcycle accident

  • SDS moves into community organizing
  • June 12 - Buddhist monk immolates himself in Vietnam
  • August 28 - Civil Rights March on Washington
  • November 1 - Military coup in Vietnam overthrows President Diem
  • November 22 - The end of "Camelot": JFK Murdered in Dallas, Texas

  • March 6 - San Francisco protest against Sheraton Palace Hotel's discrimination in hiring
  • October 1 - Berkeley Free Speech Movement begins
  • June 19 - 200 college students leave Oxford, Ohio for Freedom Summer in Mississippi
  • August 7 - Tonkin Gulf Resolution

  • January 4 - Free Speech Movement holds 1st legal rally on Sproul Plaza at Berkeley
  • February 11 - Systematic Bombing of North Vietnam begins
  • April 28 - U.S. invasion of the Dominican Republic
  • May 15 - 1st anti-war Teach-In at the University of Michigan. Spreads to other campuses
  • June 28 - 1st fullscale combat offensive by U.S. troops in Vietnam
  • October 8 - Military coup in Indonesia supported by the CIA; Hundreds of thousands massacred
  • October 15 - Anti-war rallies in 4 U.S. cities
  • November 27 - 1st anti-war march on Washington; SDS grows to 100 chapters
  • December 21 -Tom Hayden, Staughton Lynd, Herbert Aptheker travel to Hanoi
  • 1st "Free University" (New York)

  • International Days of Protest in many world cities criticize U.S. policy in Vietnam.
  • January 25 - January 25, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee’s chairman J. W. Fulbright challenges the legality of U.S. military intervention

  • March 15 - President Ho Chi Minh responds to President Johnson’s proposal for direct U.S.-North Vietnam peace talks by demanding that bombing be halted and U.S. troops withdrawn from South Vietnam before the start of any talks.
  • February -- Martin Luther King speaks out against the war.
  • December 5 -- Protests against the Vietnam war and the draft continue in the United States. Among the 260 demonstrators arrested at New York are physician Benjamin Spock and poet Allen Ginsberg.

  • January 30 - Tet Offensive begins.
  • March 15 -- My Lai Massacre
  • March 31 -- After peace candidate Eugene McCarthy makes a strong showing in the New Hampshire Primary, Pres. Johnson announces that he will not run for another term.
  • May -- Cantonsville Nine.
  • June 13 -- Pentagon Papers begin to be excerpted in the "New York Times."
  • October 31 -- President Johnson has announced complete cessation of U.S. aerial, artillery, and naval bombardment of Vietnam north of the 20th parallel
  • November 14 -- National Turn in Your Draft Card Day features burning of draft cards and war protest rallies at many campuses as the U.S.




    Women's Liberation and Gay Liberation Movements

    1948 Sexual Behavior in the Human Male ("The Kinsey Report") demonstrates that a large percentage of U.S. males have had non-heterosexual forms of sexual relations at least some time in their lives.


  • The Second Sex appears in an English translation of the 1949 book by Simone de Beauvoir.
  • Mattachine Society formed in Los Angeles.

  • Daughters of Bilitis, the first lesbian organization, is founded in San Francisco.

  • The Food and Drug Administration approves birth control pills and the 1st oral contraceptive goes on the market.

  • Illinois becomes 1st state to decriminalize homosexual acts between consenting adults in private.

  • President Kennedy establishes Presidential Commission on the Status of Women.

  • The Feminine Mystique by U.S. feminist Betty Goldstein Friedan, 42, argues that women as a class suffer various forms of discrimination but are victimized especially by a system of delusions and false values that encourages them to find personal fulfillment through their husbands and children. She calls this "the problem that has no name." Five million copies are sold by 1970, laying the groundwork for the modern feminist movement.
  • Presidential Commission on the Status of Women issues report documenting discrimination against women in demployment and education.
  • June 10 - Equal Pay Act. Congress votes to guarantee women equal pay for equal work, but the law will prove difficult to enforce. . .It does not cover domestics, agricultural workers, executives, administrators or professionals. The legislation was first introduced in 1945.
  • 1st Gay Rights demonstration in the U.S. takes place in New York.

  • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act bars employment discrimination by private employers, employment agencies, and unions based on race, sex, and other grounds. To investigate complaints and enforce penalties, it establishes the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), which receives 50,000 complaints of gender discrimination in its first five years.
  • White women make up about half the students participating in Freedom Summer but find themselves relegated often to menial jobs in the "Movement".

  • June 7 - Connecticut’s 1879 law prohibiting sale of birth control devices is unconstitutional, the Supreme Court rules 7 to 2 in Griswold v. Connecticut. The case involved a New Haven clinic run by leaders of the state’s Planned Parenthood League.

  • The National Organization for Women (NOW) is founded to help U.S. women gain equal rights. Founder and president of the new civil rights organization is Betty Friedan. One of the principal reasons for founding the organization is dissatisfaction with the slow implementation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • 1st Gay community center opens in San Francisco.

  • California becomes the first state to re-legalize abortion.
  • Chicago Women's Liberation Group organizes, considered the first to use the term "liberation." New York Radical Women is founded. The following year they begin a process of sharing life stories, which becomes known as "consciousness raising." Groups immediately take root coast-to-coast.
  • The Advocate begins publication in Los Angeles.

  • New York Radical Women garner media attention to the women's movement when they protest the Miss America Pageant in Atlantic City.
  • The first national women's liberation conference is held in Chicago.
  • The National Abortion Rights Action League (NARAL) is founded.
  • The Voice of the Women's Liberation Movement appears in Chicago, edited by Jo Freeman and others. By 1971, over 100 women's movement newsletters and newspapers are being published across the country.
  • National Welfare Rights organization if formed by activists such as Johnnie Tillmon and Etta Horm. They have 22,000 members by 1969, but are unable to survive as an organization past 1975.
  • Shirley Chisholm (D-NY) is first Black woman elected to the U.S. Congress.

  • June 27 - New York’s Stonewall Inn riot launches a “gay rights” movement as homosexuals protest police raid on a Greenwich Village dance club and bar on Christopher Street.
  • 1969 The Boston Women's Health Book Collective publishes the self-help manual Our Bodies, Ourselves: A Book by and for Women , incorporating medical information with personal experiences. Nearly 4 million copies sold as of 1997.
  • California’s supreme court rules in September that the state’s anti-abortion law is unconstitutional. It infringes on a woman’s right to decide whether to risk childbirth and bear children, says the court.
  • Chicago women set up "Jane," an abortion referral service. During four years of existence, it provides more than 11,000 women with safe and affordable abortions.

  • July 1 - The most liberal abortion law in the United States goes into effect in New York State.
  • Kate Millett's Sexual Politics
  • Robin Morgan's Sisterhood is Powerful
  • The Equal Rights Amendment is reintroduced into Congress.
  • 1st Pride March takes place in New York to celebrate Stonewall.

  • The first battered women's shelter opens in the U.S., in Urbana, Illinois, founded by Cheryl Frank and Jacqueline Flenner. By 1979, more than 250 shelters are operating.
  • New York Radical Feminists holds a series of speakouts and a conference on rape and women's treatment by the criminal justice system. Susan Brownmiller's book, Against Our Will , is one result. Another: the establishment of rape crisis centers across the country.
  • The non-partisan National Women's Political Caucus is founded to encourage women to run for public office.
  • Shulamith Firestone's The Dialectic of Sex

  • Ms. magazine begins regular publication, reaching a circulation of 350,000 within a year.
  • The first emergency rape crisis hotline opens in Washington, D.C. By 1976 400 independent rape crisis centers operate nationwide offering counseling, self-defense classes, and support groups.
  • Title IX of the Education Amendments requires that "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance."
  • In Eisenstadt v. Baird the Supreme Court rules that the right to privacy encompasses an unmarried person's right to use contraceptives.
  • After languishing since 1923, the ERA is passed by Congress on March 22 and sent to the states for ratification. Hawaii approves it within the hour. By the end of the week, so have Delaware, Nebraska, New Hampshire, Idaho and Iowa.

  • January 22 - Abortion should be a decision between a woman and her physician, the Supreme Court rules in Roe v. Wade. The court’s 7-to-2 decision upholds a woman’s right to privacy in opting for abortion during the first 6 months of pregnancy. “Right-to-life” groups work to undermine the ruling. effectively canceling the anti-abortion laws of 46 states.
  • The U.S. military is integrated when the women-only branches are eliminated.
  • The National Black Feminist Organization is established.
  • National Gay ("and Lesbian" is added later) Task Force is founded; Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund is founded; Homosexuality removed by APA list of "psychiatric disorder".

  • Hundreds of colleges are offering women's studies courses; there are over 80 full programs in place. Additionally, 230 women's centers on college campuses provide support services for women students.
  • The Coalition for Labor Union Women is founded, uniting blue-collar women across occupational lines.


    Push Here to Go Back Home



    from http://www.sfu.ca/~scollis/english349.chronology.htm

    English 349 Lecture Notes: A Sixties Chronology
    Timeline    Notes



    1954    The U.S. Supreme Court rules school segregation unconstitutional

                The first American troops are sent to Vietnam

    1956    Allen Ginsberg, Howl

    1960    The Nixon/Kennedy debates are televised

    Paul Goodman, Growing Up Absurd

    1961    The Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba

        The Berlin Wall is built

        The SDS is formed, promulgates its “Port Huron Statement”

        The SNCC is formed; sit-ins and freedom riders

    1962    The Cuban Missile Crisis

                The Pill becomes available

                Rachel Carson, Silent Spring

                James Meredith / the integration of Mississippi University

    1963    Demonstrations in Birmingham Alabama (Apr-May)

        Integration of the University of Alabama (June)

        March on Washington – “I Have a Dream” speech (Aug)

        President Kennedy is assassinated (Nov)

        Andy Warhol moves into “The Factory”

        Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique

    1964    Johnson elected President

        “Freedom Summer”

        Berkeley “Free Speech Movement”

        1964 Civil Rights Act

        Ken Kesey & the “Merry Pranksters”

        Stanley Kubrick, Dr Strangelove (film)

        LeRoi Jones (Amiri Baraka), Dutchman and The Slave

    1965    Malcolm X assassinated

        Escalation of war in Vietnam

        Teach-in on war in Vietnam at Ann Arbour (March)

        Watts riots in L.A.

        Dylan goes electric

    1966    NOW formed in Washington

        Black Power Movement formed during a march from Memphis to Jackson

        Race riots in Chicago

        Thomas Pynchon, The Crying of Lot 49

    1967    125,000 march against the war in NYC

        “Stop the Draft Week” (October) – 100,000 march on the Pentagon

        Race riots in Newark and Detroit

        Haight-Ashbury and the “Summer of Love”

    1968    Assassinations of Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy (Apr & June)

                Memphis garbage strike (Feb-Apr)

                Occupations at Columbia University (Apr)

                Paris 1968 (May)

                Democratic national Convention in Chicago (Aug)

                Nixon elected President

                The first American National Women’s Liberation Conference

                So-called “bra-burning” demonstration at Miss America contest (Sept)

                Robert Duncan, Bending the Bow

    1969    My Lai / the first withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam

        New York Radical Feminists


        Dennis Hopper, Easy Rider (film)

    1970    Kent State shootings

        Women’s Strike Day demonstrations

        Kate Millett, Sexual Politics

    1973        Vietnam cease-fire

    Beginning of the energy crisis




    “the movements of the 60s were essentially movements of personal liberation, not movements of class against class, or alternative society against established society”


    “One of the most important developments of the American 1960s was the understanding that the personal is political …. that everyday life was an arena of politics and that everyday choices had political implications”


    Personalism: “the inviolable dignity of persons”



    Historical Context: 60s roots in 50s socialization

      Post WW II economic restructuring

    1. McCarthyism and the Cold War

    2. Baby-boom, affluence, and youth culture

    3. TV and consumerism

    4. Protest burnout

    5. Time (ageing)

    6. 70s economic crisis

    7. Successes

    8. Commercialization and socialization




    January 1, 1965
    New Year’s Eve costume ball at California Hall to raise funds for the Council on Religion and the Homosexual was harassed by police. It became a turning point in the San Francisco gay rights movement. ACLU took the case, which was dismissed.

    April 3, 1965
    Students at UC Berkeley circulated a flyer which claimed seismologist Dr. Charles Richter suggested the next big earthquake would be centered in the East Bay. It was a tongue-in-cheek ad for the Johnny Otis Show at Zellerbach Hall which, the flyer said, met all State earthquake requirements.

    May 14, 1965
    “Boss of the Bay,” KYA presents the Rolling Stones, the Byrds, Beau Brummels, Paul Revere and the Raiders, and the Vejtables, at Civic Auditorium.

    August 13, 1965
    The Matrix, San Francisco’s first folk night club, opened at 3138 Fillmore in the Marina District. New band called “The Jefferson Airplane“ performed.

    September 2, 1965
    Beatles concert at the Cow Palace in Daly City. Pandemonium broke out as fans rushed the stage.

    September 21, 1965
    The Jefferson Airplane opened for Lightnin’ Hopkins at the Matrix on Fillmore St. Norm Mayell backed Hopkins on drums.

    October 15, 1965
    The Great Society performed at the opening of the Coffee Gallery. Band members included Darby, Jerry and Grace Slick. San Francisco State College Vietnam Day Committee Teach-In. Country Joe and the Fish entertained.

    October 16, 1965
    Family Dog collective dance and concert, a tribute to Dr. Strange, at Longshoremen’s Hall with The Jefferson Airplane andthe Charlatans, and the Great Society. Russ “The Moose” Syracuse of KYA was master of ceremonies.

    October 24, 1965
    Family Dog collective dance and concert at Longshoremen’s Hall with the Lovin’ Spoonful.

    November 6, 1965
    San Francisco Mime Troupe Appeal party at Bill Graham’s Calliope Ballroom, 924 Howard Street. The Jefferson Airplane entertained

    December 10, 1965
    Warlocks become “The Grateful Dead,” and debut with the new name at the Fillmore Auditorium for the second San Francisco Mime Troupe Appeal Party. The Jefferson Airplane, The Great Society, the John Handy Quintet, the Mystery Trend, and Sam Thomas also appeared.

    January 8, 1966
    KYA Super Harlow A Go-Go dance and show at Longshoremen’s Hall with the Vejtables and the Baytovens. “Super” Harlow Meyers was Russ “The Moose” Syracuse’s radio engineer on KYA’s “All-Night Flight,” and a former disc jockey.

    January 21, 1966
    Three-day Trips Festival at Longshoremen’s Hall, 400 North Point St. featured the Grateful Dead, Big Brother and the Holding Company, The Loading Zone, Chinese New Years’ Lion Dancers and Drum and Bugle Corps, Stroboscopic Trampoline, and Ken Kesey and His Merry Pranksters.

    February 4, 1966
    Bill Graham presented The Jefferson Airplane at the Fillmore Auditorium, 1805 Geary Street.

    February 12, 1966
    Rock For Peace at the Fillmore Auditorium with the The Great Society, Quicksilver Messenger Service, and Big Brother and the Holding Company. Benefit for Democratic congressional candidates and the Viet Nam Study Group.

    Lincoln’s Birthday Party with Sopwith Camel at the Firehouse, former quarters of Engine Co. 26 and Truck Co. 10, 3767 Sacramento St. The Charlatans also appeared.

    February 19, 1966
    Family Dog and Bill Graham presented The Jefferson Airplane at the Fillmore Auditorium. Wildflower and Sopwith Camel at the Fire House.


    March 4, 1966
    The Charlatans and the Electric Chamber Orkustra appeared at Soko Hall, 739 Page St.

    March 12, 1966
    The Alligator Clip, the Charlatans, Sopwith Camel, and Duncan Blue Boy and his Cosmic Yo-Yo, at the Firehouse on Sacramento Street.

    March 15, 1966
    Thomas C. Lynch, Attorney General of the State of California, condemned the use of LSD and other drugs in a statement to the State Senate Judiciary Committee in Sacramento.

    March 19, 1966
    Big Brother and the Holding Company appeared at the Fire House. Sgt. Barry Sadler, who was to entertain, could not attend.

    March 22, 1966
    Sopwith Camel appears at the Matrix in the Marina District

    March 25, 1966
    Paul Butterfield Blues Band and Quicksilver Messenger Service opened at Fillmore Auditorium.

    April 7, 1966
    City Lights Books sponsored the appearance of Russian poet Andri Vozneskensy at the Fillmore. Lawrence Ferlinghetti read translations and The Airplane performed.

    April 8, 1966
    The Jefferson Airplane opened at California Hall on Polk Street.

    April 9, 1966
    Week of Angry Arts Vietnam Mobilization fund raiser at Longshoremen’s Hall, 400 North Point St.

    April 15, 1966
    Fifth-Annual San Francisco State College Folk Festival with Malvina Reynolds, Mark Spoelstra, and Dick and Mimi Fariñia.

    April 16, 1966
    Charlatans, Mystery Trend, Wanda and Her Birds and the Haight St. Jazz Band appeared at California Hall.

    April 30, 1966
    Jefferson Airplane and Quicksilver Messenger Service at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    May 6, 1966
    Jefferson Airplane, and the Jaywalkers at the Fillmore Auditorium

    May 18, 1966
    PH Phactor Jug Band opened at 40 Cedar Street, also known as Cedar Alley, near Polk and Geary.

    May 20, 1966
    Capt. Beefheart and His Magic Band opened at the Avalon Ballroom, Sutter and Van Ness.

    May 27, 1966
    Artist Andy Warhol and his Plastic Inevitable, Velvet Underground and Nico, plus the Mothers, at Fillmore Auditorium.

    May 30, 1966
    Benefit for the Haight-Ashbury Legal Organization (HALO) at Winterland. The Jefferson Airplane performed.

    June 4, 1966
    The Jefferson Airplane appear in Exposition Auditorium at Civic Center.

    June 6, 1966
    The Turtles, and Oxford Circle at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    June 22, 1966
    The Jefferson Airplane at the Avalon Ballroom.

    June 24, 1966
    Lenny Bruce and the Mothers of Invention appeared in concert at Fillmore Auditorium.

    KFRC Presents the Beach Boys Summer Spectacular at the Cow Palace. Other acts included the Jefferson Airplane, Lovin' Spoonful, Chad and Jeremy, Percy Sledge, The Byrds, and Sir Douglas Quintet,

    June 26, 1966
    Sopwith Camel opened for the Rolling Stones in performance at the Cow Palace. Jefferson Airplane also performed.

    July 1, 1966
    Quicksilver Messenger Service, Big Brother, and Jaywalkers at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    July 2, 1966
    Great Society, Sopwith Camel and the Charlatans at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    July 3, 1966
    Love, Grateful Dead and Group B at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    July 10, 1966
    United Farm Workers’ benefit at the Fillmore with Quicksilver and the Messenger Service and the San Andreas Fault Finders.

    July 17, 1966
    Allen Ginsberg read poetry and Sopwith Camel performed in concert at the Fillmore, to benefit A.R.T.S. Gary Goodrow of The Committee emceed.

    July 22, 1966
    The Association, Quicksilver Messenger Service, Sopwith Camel, and Grassroots at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    July 26, 1966
    The Temptations’ dance and show at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    August 6, 1966
    Vietnam War peace march up Market Street.

    August 7, 1966
    Third-Annual South-of-Market and North Beach Children’s Adventure Day Camp benefit with Quicksilver Messenger Service, Big Brother and the Holding Company, and The Grateful Dead held at Fillmore Auditorium. Gary Goodrow of The Committee was master of ceremonies.

    August 10, 1966
    Sam the Sham and the Pharaohs at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    August 17, 1966
    Psychedelic fashion show and tarot reading at the Fillmore. The Airplane and Mimi Fariñia entertained.

    August 25, 1966
    Yardbirds performed at the Carousel Ballroom. The Carousel was the former El Patio Ballroom on the second floor of the car dealership on the southwest corner of Market and Van Ness.

    August 26, 1966
    Grace Slick and the Great Society, Country Joe and the Fish, and Sopwith Camel at the Fillmore Auditorium. It is Country Joe and the Fish's first performance at the Fillmore - they filled in for 13th Floor Elevator.

    August 29, 1966
    Beatlemania swept San Francisco as the “Fab Four” performed in concert at Candlestick Park. It was the Beatle’s last public appearance together. Also appearing were The Cyrkle, The Ronettes, and the Remains. Ticket purchases by mail were available from KYA, No. 1 Nob Hill Circle, San Francisco.

    September 5, 1966
    Labor Day opening of Martha and The Vandellas at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    September 6, 1966
    The Blues Project opened at the Matrix.

    September 11, 1966
    Benefit for BOTH/AND jazz club at the Fillmore with “Big Mama” Thornton, The Airplane, Elvin Jones, Jon Hendricks Trio and the Joe Henderson Quartet.

    September 16, 1966
    Grateful Dead at the Avalon Ballroom

    September 23, 1966
    The Jefferson Airplane opened at Winterland.

    September 27, 1966
    The Four Tops, with Johnny Talbot and De Thanks opened at Fillmore Auditorium.

    September 30, 1966
    Three-day Acid Test opened at San Francisco State College Commons. The test was to peak on the evening of Oct. 1. The Grateful Dead performed.

    October 6, 1966
    Love Pagent in the Panhandle of Golden Gate Park. Big Brother, Wildflower, The Dead and the Electric Chamber Orkustra entertained. California Legislature outlaws sale and possession of LSD.

    October 7, 1966
    Jim Kweskin Jug Band, Big Brother, and Electric Train at the Avalon Ballroom.

    October 15, 1966
    Artists’ Liberation Front Free Fair in the Golden Gate Park Panhandle.

    The Jefferson Airplane at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    October 21, 1966
    Grateful Dead, Lightnin’ Hopkins and Loading Zone at the Fillmore, with dancing and strobe light show.

    October 23, 1966
    The Yardbirds, and Country Joe and the Fish at the Fillmore.

    October 27, 1966
    New “alternative” weekly newspaper, “The Guardian,” debuted. Edited and published by Bruce Brugman. Editors at the Chronicle, Examiner and News Call-Bulletin give it little chance for survival.

    October 31, 1966
    Bob McKendrick presented “Dance of Death” costume ball at California Hall. The Dead, and Mimi Fariñia entertained.

    November 6, 1966
    The Jefferson Airplane at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    November 8, 1966
    Movie and TV actor Ronald Reagan defeated incumbent Gov. Edmund G. Brown by almost one million votes.

    November 12, 1966
    Hells Angels’ motorcycle gang dance at Sokol Hall, 739 Page St. Grateful Dead performed.

    November 13, 1966
    The Dead, Quicksilver, and Big Brother and the Holding Company Zenefit at the Avalon Ballroom for the Zen Mountain Center.

    November 19, 1966
    Righteous Brothers, with April Stevens and Nino Tempo, appeared at the USF Gymnasium. Beau Brummels at the Carousel Ballroom. Grateful Dead and James Cotton at the Fillmore.

    November 20, 1966
    Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) fundraiser at the Fillmore with the James Cotton Chicago Blues Band. Stokely Carmichael and his staff were there. Jon Hendricks was master of ceremonies.

    November 29, 1966
    District Attorney John J. Ferdon dropped charges against members of The Diggers, who staged a Halloween puppet show at Haight and Ashbury streets. Released from custody were Emmett Grogen, Peter Berg, Brooks Bucher, Peter Minnault and Robert Morticello.

    December 1, 1966
    Print Mint store in the Haight-Ashbury opened at 1542 Haight St.

    December 17, 1966
    Benefit for Legalization of Marijuana (LEMAR) at California Hall. Country Joe and the Fish entertained.

    December 20, 1966
    Otis Redding Show opened at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    January 5, 1967
    Inaugural message of Ronald Reagan, California’s 33rd governor, delivered during ceremonies in the Rotunda of the State Capitol at midnight. Just before the swearing in, the new governor turned to U.S. Senator George Murphy — a former movie song-and-dance man — and said “Well George, here we are on the late show again.” The new governor placed his hand on Father Serra’s bible as he was sworn in by State Supreme Court Justice Marshall F. McComb.

    January 6, 1967
    Young Rascals, Sopwith Camel, and the Doors at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    January 13, 1967
    The Dead, Junior Wells’ Chicago Blues Band, and the Doors at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    January 14, 1967
    Human Be-In at the Polo Grounds, Golden Gate Park. Speakers included Jerry Rubin, Allen Ginsberg, Lawrence Ferlinghetti and Timothy Leary. Participants were urged to bring food to share, flowers, beads, costumes, feathers, bells, cymbals and flags. The Jefferson Airplane entertained. The Be-In was produced by Michael Bowen.

    Ike and Tina Turner Revue with the Ike-Ettes at California Hall.

    January 17, 1967
    Big Brother and the Holding Company appeared at the Matrix.

    February 3, 1967
    Big Brother and the Holding Company entertained at the Hells Angels’ dance at California Hall.

    Jefferson Airplane and Quicksilver Messenger Service at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    February 10, 1967
    “Tribute to J. Edgar Hoover” at California Hall. Music by the Jook Savages, Blue Cheer and the Mojo Men.

    John H. Myers Blues Project, Jimmy Reed and John Lee Hooker at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    February 12, 1967
    Benefit at the Fillmore for the Council for Civic Unity. Moby Grape, and Sly and the Family Stone performed.

    February 14, 1967
    Jim Morrison and The Doors performed at Whisky A-Go-Go, 568 Sacramento St.

    February 19, 1967
    Port Chicago Vigil Benefit at California Hall.

    March 3, 1967
    First Love Circus at Winterland, music by Moby Grape and lights by the Commune. Jim Morrison and The Doors at the Avalon Ballroom


    March 5, 1967
    Warren Hinckle III, editor of Ramparts Magazine, hosted a “rockdance-environment happening” benefit in honor of the CIA (Citizens for Interplanetary Activity) at California Hall. Participants included the S.F. League for Sexual Freedom, the Diggers and the San Francisco Mime Troupe.

    March 7, 1967
    Jim Morrison and The Doors performed at the Matrix.

    March 21, 1967
    Eric Burdon and the Animals appeared at the Civic Auditorium.

    March 24, 1967
    Political satire as The W.C. Fields Memorial Orphanage presented the Pitschel Players at 120 Julian St. near 15th and Valencia.

    March 31, 1967
    Mime Troupe appeared at Fluxfest at Longshoremen’s Hall.

    April 7, 1967
    Canned Heat opened at the Avalon Ballroom.

    April 11, 1967
    Buffalo Springfield, and the Electric Chamber Orkustra appeared at the Rock Garden, 4742 Mission near Ocean.

    April 12, 1967
    Benefit at the Fillmore Auditorium for arrested members of the San Francisco Mime Troupe. The Airplane, the Dead, and Moby Grape appeared.

    April 14, 1967
    Country Joe and the Fish performed in the Panhandle of Golden Gate Park on the eve of the peace march.

    April 15, 1967
    Vietnam War protest as 100,000 people marched from Second and Market to Kezar Stadium at Golden Gate Park. Vietnam veteran David Duncan gave the keynote speech.


    April 20, 1967
    Howlin’ Wolf opened at the Matrix.

    May 5, 1967 Grateful Dead, and the Paupers at Fillmore Auditorium.

    May 11, 1967
    Vanguard Records party at Fillmore Auditorium for Country Joe and the Fish.

    May 26, 1967 The Charlatans, The Salvation Army Banned, and Blue Cheer at the Avalon Ballroom.

    May 30, 1967
    Benefit for the Haight-Ashbury Legal Organization at Winterland. The Jefferson Airplane performed.

    June 2, 1967
    KFRC Fantasy Fair and Magic Mountain Music Festival at Mt. Tamalpais to benefit the Hunters Point Child Care Center. “Trans-Love Buslines” carried participants from the parking area to the festival.

    June 10, 1967
    Festival in Hunters Point to honor the fighter Muhammad Ali.

    June 16, 1967
    First and last Monterey International Pop Festival. Janis Joplin, The Jefferson Airplane, the Dead, Big Brother and other San Francisco artists performed.

    June 20, 1966
    The Jefferson Airplane appears with the Jimi Hendrix Experience at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    July 14, 1967
    Steve Miller Blues Band and the Sunshine Company concert at California Hall.

    July 17, 1967
    Moore Galley exhibition at 535 Sutter St. of the works by Rock poster artists Wes Wilson, Stanley Mouse, Victor Moscoso, Rick Griffin and Alton Kelley.

    July 21, 1967
    The Youngbloods and Wildflower performed at California Hall.

    Grand opening of the Straight Theatre at Haight and Cole. It was the former Haight Theatre, but was now a hippie-run alternative to the commercially successful Fillmore Auditorium and Avalon Ballroom.

    July 23, 1967
    Beatster Neal Cassady in performance with “Straight Theatre Rap” at the Straight Theatre.

    August 5, 1967
    Flamin’ Groovies opened at the Matrix.

    August 9, 1967
    Peace torch arrived from Hiroshima.

    August 15, 1967
    Count Basie and his Orchestra and Chuck Berry at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    August 27, 1967
    Peace torch began its journey to Washington, D.C. for a demonstration against the Vietnam War.

    September 17, 1967
    Little Richard with an all-soul revue opened at the Straight Theatre.

    September 23, 1967
    The Airplane and Muddy Waters at Winterland, Post and Steiner streets.

    September 25, 1967
    Paul Butterfield Blues Band at the Fillmore.

    September 30, 1967
    13th Floor Elevators; Quicksilver Messenger Service at the Avalon Ballroom, presented by the Family Dog collective.

    October 2, 1967
    San Francisco police raid the Grateful Dead’s Haight-Ashbury house.

    October 6, 1967
    Hippies blocked the intersection of Haight and Ashbury streets to celebrate the “Death of Hip.”

    October 11, 1967
    Benefit for the Haight-Ashbury Medical Clinic at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    October 13, 1967
    Morning Glory and Indian Head Band opened at the Western Front Dance Academy club at Polk and O’Farrell.

    October 19, 1967
    The Jefferson Airplane perform at Loews Warfield Theatre on Market Street.

    October 30, 1967
    Benefit at the Fillmore for KPFA radio station. Pink Floyd and the Sopwith Camel performed.

    November 19, 1967
    Purple Onion Two, a hipper version of the original Club, opened at 435 Broadway.

    December 1, 1967
    Mad River and the Santana Blues Band appeared at the Straight Theatre.

    December 16, 1967
    Second-annual Grope for Peace at the Straight Theatre.

    January 7, 1968
    Stop the Draft Week defense fund concert dance at the Fillmore with Phil Ochs, Loading Zone and The Committee.

    February 1, 1968
    Jimi Hendrix Experience, with John Mayall and the Bluesbreakers, at the Fillmore Auditorium.

    February 14, 1968
    The Airplane opens at the Carousel Ballroom, Van Ness Ave. and Market Street.

    March 3, 1968
    Grateful Dead leaves the Haight with a farewell concert before relocating to Marin County.

    March 8, 1968
    Cream, James Cotton Blues Band, Jeremy Satyrs, and Blood Sweat and Tears at the Fillmore Auditorium. Love, Congress of Wonders, and Sons of Champlin at the Avalon Ballroom.

    March 15, 1968
    Blood, Sweat and Tears opened at the Avalon Ballroom.

    March 22, 1968
    President’s daughter, Lynda Bird Johnson, ordered off cable car for eating ice cream cone.

    March 29, 1968
    Grateful Dead and Chuck Berry opened at the Carousel Ballroom.

    April 5, 1968
    Mayor Alioto issued a proclamation condemning the assassination of the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. Thousands of people gathered at Civic Center in memory of the civil rights leader. City flags lowered to half staff.

    April 12, 1968
    Moby Grape opened at the Carousel Ballroom.

    April 19, 1968
    Santana Blues Band and Frumious Bandersnatch at the Carousel Ballroom.

    April 27, 1968
    Peace march and rally.

    May 3, 1968
    Thelonious Monk and Dr. John the Night Tripper at the Carousel Ballroom.

    May 8, 1968
    Benefit for poster artist Alton Kelley at the Carousel Ballroom.

    May 24, 1968
    Charlie Musselwhite and Dan Hicks and his Hot Licks appeared at the Straight Theatre.

    May 31, 1968
    Works of Robert Edward Duncan exhibited by the San Francisco Museum of Art as part of its celebration of San Francisco underground art 1945-1968.

    June 4, 1968
    San Francisco voters defeated a $5.7 million measure to acquire the Cliff House and Sutro Baths for a park. Ballot counting came to a standstill at City Hall when the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles was broadcast live on television.

    June 7, 1968
    Grateful Dead and The Airplane at the Carousel Ballroom.

    June 19, 1968
    “Soul Scene” benefit dance for the Blackman’s Free Store, held at the Carousel Ballroom.

    June 23, 1968
    Big Brother and the Holding Company at the Carousel Ballroom.

    July 1, 1968
    KSAN Stereo Radio 95 Family Freakout at the Avalon Ballroom. Music by Creedence Clearwater Revival.

    July 14, 1968
    Bill Graham left the Fillmore Auditorium to take over the Carousel Ballroom. Electric Flag and Blue Cheer closed out performances at the Fillmore at Geary and Fillmore streets.

    July 16, 1968
    Big Brother and the Holding Company, and Sly and the Family Stone opened the new Fillmore West, the former Carousel and El Patio ballroom.

    August 5, 1968
    Ornette Coleman in concert at Bill Graham’s new Fillmore West.

    August 9, 1968
    Steppenwolf opened at the Avalon Ballroom.

    August 29, 1968
    Cream and Electric Flag opened at Fillmore West.

    September 25, 1968
    Five-day Radical Theatre Festival at San Francisco State College featured Bread and Puppet Theatre, Teatro Campesino, and the San Francisco Mime Troupe.

    October 12, 1968
    GI’s and Vets marched for peace from Golden Gate Park to Civic Center.

    October 14, 1968
    27 soldiers protesting the Viet Nam War charged with mutiny at the Presidio of San Francisco.

    October 24, 1968
    The Airplane opened at the Fillmore West ballroom.

    November 6, 1968
    First day of San Francisco State College strike.

    November 26, 1968
    Robert R. Smith, President of San Francisco State College, resigned.

    November 26, 1968
    S.I. Hayakawa named acting president, San Francisco State College.

    March 20, 1969
    Janis Joplin and Her Band opened at Winterland.

    March 21, 1969
    San Francisco State College strike ended.

    March 27, 1969
    Bo Diddley opened at Winterland.

    May 7, 1969
    Grateful Dead and the Airplane perform at the Polo Field in Golden Gate Park.

    May 24, 1969
    Haight-Ashbury Festival in the Golden Gate Park Panhandle.

    May 28, 1969
    People’s Park Bail Ball benefit held at Winterland. Creedance Clearwater Revival and the Airplane entertained.

    June 13, 1969
    Jefferson Airplane with Grace Slick at the Family Dog Ballroom at the Great Highway. The show was broadcast by KSAN.

    June 17, 1969
    Woody Herman and His Orchestra at the Fillmore West.

    June 25, 1968
    The Doors, Lonnie Mack, Elvin Bishop Group at the Cow Palace.

    July 19, 1969
    The Who appeared at Fillmore West.

    August 22, 1969
    Three-day Wild West Festival at Kezar Stadium with Janis Joplin, Turk Murphy, Jefferson Airplane, the Dead, Country Joe, Santana, Sly and the Family Stone, and the Youngbloods.

    October 9, 1969
    Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young opened at Fillmore West.

    October 21, 1969
    Beat-era author Jack Keroac dies

    November 13, 1969 Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young, Cold Blood, Joy of Cooking, and Lamb at Winterland.

    November 15, 1969
    Thousands of people participated in a peace march.

    November 20, 1969
    American Indians seized and occupied Alcatraz Island.

    December 6, 1969
    Rolling Stones appeared at the Altamont Speedway near Livermore after they were denied use of Golden Gate Park. One person was murdered during the show. Marked the end of the San Francisco Rock era.

    December 22, 1969
    Radio Free Alcatraz broadcast for first time from Berkeley radio station KPFA.

    December 31, 1969
    Jefferson Airplane New Year's show at Winterland.

    Other Haight-Ashbury Resources

    Linda McCartney’s “Summer of Love” Exhibit at the Museum
    60’s Map of the Haight-Ashbury District
    Robert Altman’s Rock Photo Gallery
    Joel Selvin’s Tour of San Francisco Rock Shrines
    Colin Pringle’s History of the Haight-Ashbury
    Bibliography of the Haight-Ashbury Era
    Bibliography of the Grateful Dead
    History of the Sopwith Camel
    Early History of Cold Blood
    Early History of Elvin Bishop Band
    Jerry Garcia’s Haight Street Shrines
    Haight Street Memorial for Timothy Leary





    U.C. Berkeley Library Web

    Free Speech Movement  

    From the California Monthly, February 1965 

    Chronology of Events
    Three Months of Crisis

    The following chronology traces events of the "free speech" controversy at Berkeley from Sept. 10, 1964, through Jan. 4, 1965. Full texts of all important documents, reports, statements and resolutions are included. Where full texts were too long for inclusion, they appear in the Appendix, beginning on page 76. Also included in the Appendix are relevant portions of the State Constitution, Education Code, "University Policies Relating to Students and Student Organizations," and "The Position of the FSM on Speech and Political Activity." 

    September 10

    A letter authored by "a former student" and distributed with the Slate Supplement Report called for an "open, fierce and thoroughgoing rebellion" on the Berkeley campus. Although the letter did not relate specifically to the "free speech issue," it sounded the rallying cry for subsequent events: 

    "The University does not deserve a response of loyalty and allegiance from you. There is only one proper response to Berkeley from undergraduates: that you ORGANIZE AND SPLIT THIS CAMPUS WIDE OPEN!... 

    "Go to the top. Make your demands to the Regents. If they refuse to give you an audience: start a program of agitation, petitioning, rallies, etc., in which the final resort will be CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE. In the long run, there is the possibility that you will find it necessary to perform civil disobedience at a couple of major University public ceremonies..." 

    September 15

    The Ad Hoc Committee to End Discrimination—led by former Berkeley student and SLATE founder Michael Myerson and by Tracy Sims, leader of the Palace Hotel demonstrations— 
    announced plans to picket the Oakland Tribune for the third Friday in a row, and held a noon rally at the Bancroft and Telegraph entrance to the Berkeley campus. 

    September 16

    1. Presidents or chairmen and advisers of all student organizations received a letter from Dean of Students Katherine A. Towle, dated Sept. 14, announcing that, effective Sept. 21, tables would no longer be permitted in the 26-foot strip of University property at the Bancroft and Telegraph entrance, and that advocative literature and activities on off-campus political issues also would be prohibited: 

    "Provisions of the policy of The Regents concerning `Use of University Facilities' will be strictly enforced in all areas designated as property of The Regents... including the 26-foot strip of brick walkway at the campus entrance on Bancroft Way and Telegraph Avenue..." 

    (Small copper plaques, imprinted: "Property of The Regents, University of California. Permission to enter or pass over is revocable at any time," outline University campuses' boundaries. A series of these plaques is located parallel to Bancroft Way, about 26 feet outside the large concrete posts at the Bancroft-Telegraph entrance to the campus. The new policy did not apply to an approximately eight-foot-wide strip of City of Berkeley sidewalk located between the plaques and the Bancroft Way curb.) 

    "Specifically," Dean Towle's letter said, "Section III of the (Regents') policy... prohibits the use of University facilities `for the purpose of soliciting party membership or supporting or opposing particular candidates or propositions in local, state or national elections,' except that Chief Campus Officers `shall establish rules under which candidates for public office (or their designated representatives) may be afforded like opportunity to speak upon the campuses at meetings where the audience is limited to the campus community.' Similarly, Chief Campus Officers `shall establish rules under which persons supporting or opposing propositions in state or local elections may be afforded like opportunity to speak upon the campuses at meetings where the audience is limited to the campus community.' 

    "Section III also prohibits the use of University facilities `for the purpose of religious worship, exercise or conversion.' Section IV of the policy states further that University facilities `may not be used for the purpose of raising money to aid projects not directly connected with some authorized activity of the University...' 

    "Now that the so-called `speaker ban' is gone," Dean Towle's letter continued, "and the open forum is a reality, student organizations have ample opportunity to present to campus audiences on a `special event' basis an unlimited number of speakers on a variety of subjects, provided the few basic rules concerning notification and sponsorship are observed... The `Hyde Park' area in the Student Union Plaza is also available for impromptu, unscheduled speeches by students and staff. 

    "It should be noted also that this area on Bancroft Way... has now been added to the list of designated areas for the distribution of handbills, circulars or pamphlets by University students and staff in accordance with Berkeley campus policy. Posters, easels and card tables will not be permitted in this area because of interference with the flow of (pedestrian) traffic. University facilities may not, of course, be used to support or advocate off-campus political or social action. 

    "We ask for the cooperation of every student and student organization in observing the full implementation of these policies. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to come to the Office of the Dean of Students, 201 Sproul Hall." 

    Explaining the new ruling, Dean Towle said, "The growing use and misuse of the area has made it imperative that the University enforce throughout the campus the policy long ago set down by The Regents." Only leniency on the part of the administration slowed enforcement of these rules in the past, she said, but more strict enforcement had been under discussion for some time, she added. 

    Berkeley Chancellor Edward W. Strong, in a report to the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate dated October 26, said: 

    "The situation was brought to a head by the multiplied activity incidental to the primary election, the Republican convention, and the forthcoming fall elections. Representatives of the Chancellor's Office, the Dean of Students Office, the Campus Police, the Public Affairs Office, and the ASUC had the problem on the agenda of meetings on July 22, July 29, and September 4. They agreed that the situation would worsen during the political campaign, and steps should be taken at the beginning of the semester to assure use of the area in accordance with University rules..." 

    2. Arthur Goldberg, former chairman of Slate, announced lawyers representing Slate and other interested groups would meet tomorrow (Sept. 17) to decide posible legal action. Goldberg called the new policy "another in a long series of acts to curtail either right or left wing political action on campus... 

    "As the students become more and more aware of America's social problems, and come to take an active 
    part in their solution, the University moves proportionally the other way to prevent all exposure of political action being taken. 

    "The most important thing is to make this campus a market place for ideas. But, the University is trying to prevent the exposure of any new creative political solutions to the problems that every American realizes are facing this society in the mid-Sixties." 

    September 17

    Representatives of 18 student organizations met with Dean Towle to point out what they considered to be the unfairness and purposelessness of the new enforcement policy. The student groups asked for: 

    1) Advocacy of any political viewpoint or action or to be able to distribute literature to that effect in the Bancroft-Telegraph area. 

    2) Permission to distribute literature from tables, from which they can attract, by means of posters, interested people. They said they do not want to force literature on pedestrians, but rather hand out literature to those who approach them. 

    Student spokesmen offered to conduct a traffic flow survey, and to police for violations of University rules regarding placement of posters on University property. Most of the groups also indicated they would be willing to forego collection of money in the area. 

    Dean Towle answered that Regents' policy is clearly set down for all on-campus areas, including Bancroft-Telegraph, and that the University administration is under obligation to enforce that policy. 

    Dean Towle also charged, during the meeting, that, although the University had repeatedly asked for cooperation from groups using the Bancroft-Telegraph area, it received little in the matter of poster and table placement. "Some of the students have been both impudent and impertinent," she added. 

    Dean Towle implied it might be possible for the University to substitute the Hyde Park area in the Student Union Plaza for the Bancroft-Telegraph area. This offer was rejected. The students agreed to submit a list of written suggestions to the Dean of Students for the possible use of the Bancroft-Telegraph area and the Hyde Park area, although Dean Towle said further use of the Bancroft-Telegraph area was "almost out of the question." 

    The students insisted on their right, and "duty to society" to remain at their south entrance posts. 

    September 18

    The 18 student organizations affected by the Bancroft-Telegraph controversy petitioned the Dean of Students for the use of the Bancroft-Telegraph area, under the following conditions: 

    "1. Tables for student organizations at Bancroft and Telegraph will be manned at all times. 

    "2. The organizations shall provide their own tables and chairs; no University property shall be borrowed. 

    "3. There shall be no more than one table in front of each pillar and one at each side of the entrance way. No tables shall be placed in front of the entrance posts. 

    "4. No posters shall be attached to posts or pillars. Posters shall be attached to tables only. 

    "5. We (students) shall make every effort to see that provisions 1-4 are carried out and shall publish such rules and distribute them to the various student organizations. 

    "6. The tables at Bancroft and Telegraph may be used to distribute literature advocating action on current issues with the understanding that the student organizations do not represent the University of California--thus these organizations will not use the name of the University and will dissociate themselves from the University as an institution. 

    "7. Donations may be accepted at the tables." 

    September 20

    At an evening meeting, most of the groups affected by the new University policy agreed to picket, conduct vigils, rallies and touch off civil disobedience, if the University stands firm on the Bancroft-Telegraph politics ban after a meeting with Dean Towle, scheduled for 10:30 a.m. the next morning. 

    September 21

    1. Dean Towle met with representatives of student groups affected by the new University rules for the Bancroft-Telegraph area. She accepted most of the proposals submitted by the students on Sept. 18: she would allow groups to set up a regulated number of tables with posters attached in the area, and she would allow distribution of informative--as opposed to advocative--literature from them. Dean Towle also announced the establishment "on an experimental basis" of a second "Hyde Park" free-speech area at the entrance to Sproul Hall: 

    "Individuals are free to speak at will in these areas," she said, "provided they are registered students or staff of the University of California and observe the policies pertaining to use of University facilities. Since the University reserves such areas of the campus for student and staff use, those who speak should be prepared to identify themselves as students or staff of the University. It is suggested that speakers use as their podium the raised part of the wall on either side of the main stairway or the lower steps flanking the main stairway. Because of possible disturbance to persons working in Sproul Hall offices, voice amplifiers will not be permitted. There must be no interference with traffic or the conduct of University business." 

    Dean Towle refused permission to advocate specific action and to recruit individuals for specific causes. Also prohibited was solicitation of funds and donations "to aid projects not directly connected with some authorized activity of the University... 

    "It is not permissible, in materials distributed on University property, to urge a specific vote, call for direct social or political action, or to seek to recruit individuals for such action," Dean Towle said. 

    The students refused to accept Dean Towle's concessions. Picketing, demonstrations and vigils would be conducted, they said, until satisfaction was obtained from the University: 

    Jackie Goldberg, spokesman for the protesting groups, insisted "the University has not gone far enough in allowing us to promote the kind of society we're interested in. 

    "We're allowed to say why we think something is good or bad, but we're not allowed to distribute information as to what to do about it. Inaction is the rule, rather than the exception, in our society and on this campus. And, education is and should be more than academics. 

    "We don't want to be armchair intellectuals. For a hundred years, people have talked and talked and done nothing. We want to help the students decide where they fit into the political spectrum and what they can do about their beliefs. We want to help build a better society." 

    Dean Towle replied: "We have tried to be as fair as possible --but University policy is clearly stated in this area." The non-advocative 
    restriction is not directed specifically at students, Dean Towle explained. Even non-students invited to speak on campus are informed that on-campus advocacy of direct political or social action is prohibited. 

    Dr. Saxton Pope, special assistant to Vice Chancellor Alex Sherriffs, who was present at the meeting, said the University was trying to discourage "advocacy of action without thought." 

    2. Approximately 75 students held an all-night vigil on Sproul Hall steps. 

    September 22

    The ASUC Senate (by a vote of 11-5) requested the Regents "to allow free political and social action to be effected by students at the Bancroft entrance to the University of California, up to the posts accepted as the traditional entrance." The Senate motion also requested the privilege of soliciting funds for off-campus activity. These privileges were also requested for eight other campus locations where only non-advocative literature is now permitted. The ASUC Senate also began circulation of a petition to gather student grass-roots support, and discussed the possibility of the ASUC purchasing the disputed land and establishing it as a free speech area. The Senate also proposed establishment of a board of control to prevent congestion in the area and to protect students from "overt confrontation" by leaflet distributors. Commenting on the Senate's motion, Men's Residence Hall Representative Mike Adams said, "Advocacy of action makes our society a viable one, and is central to the entire educational process." Alumni Representative Wayne Hooper urged the Senate not to "use the petition as a crutch. Don't wait for the students to pat you on the backside before you take a stand of your own." 

    September 23

    Chancellor Strong issued the following statement: 

    "I call attention to the following facts concerning student use of University-owned property at the Telegraph-Bancroft entry to the campus. The Open Forum policy of the University is being fully maintained. Any student or staff member is free to address a campus audience in the `Hyde Park' areas in the heart of the campus. Printed materials on issues and candidates can be distributed by bona fide student groups in nine places on campus, including the Telegraph-Bancroft location. A full spectrum of political and social views can be heard on campus, and candidates themselves can be invited to speak on campus. 

    "The University, rightly, as an educational institution, maintains an open forum for the free discussion of ideas and issues. Its facilities are not to be used for the mounting of social and political action directed at the surrounding community. The University has held firmly to the principles set forth by President Kerr in his Charter Day Address on the Davis Campus May 5, 1964: 

    " `The activities of students acting as private citizens off-campus on non-University matters are outside the sphere of the University... Just as the University cannot and should not follow the student into his family life or his church life or his activities as a citizen off the campus, so also the students, individually or collectively, should not and cannot take the name of the University with them as they move into religious or political or other non-University facilities in connection with such affairs... The University will not allow students or others connected with it to use it to further their non-University political or social or religious causes, nor will it allow those outside the University to use it for non-University purposes'." 

    September 25

    University President Clark Kerr condemned the student demonstrations, and disagreed with the protestors that you must have action in order to learn: 

    "The Dean of Students has met many requests of the students. The line the University draws will be an acceptable one... 

    "I don't think you have to have action to have intellectual opportunity. Their actions--collecting money and picketing--aren't high intellectual activity... These actions are not necessary for the intellectual development of the students. If that were so, why teach history? We can't live in ancient Greece... 

    "The University is an educational institution that has been given to the Regents as a trust to administer for educational reasons, and not to be used for direct political action. It wouldn't be proper. It is not right to use the University as a basis from which people organize and undertake direct action in the surrounding community." 

    September 27

    Spokesmen for the combined liberal and conservative student political groups announced plans to picket tomorrow's (Sept. 28) University Meeting: the groups would simultaneously set up tables at Sather Gate and hold a rally in front of Wheeler Hall, without giving the required prior notice to the University administration. While the University Meeting is in progress the students would march to the University Meeting. Politically conservative protestors would participate only in the march, since the other activities violated University regulations. 

    September 28

    Chancellor Edward W. Strong announced a substantial concession--that campaign literature advocating "yes" and "no" votes on propositions and candidates, campaign buttons and bumper strips could now be distributed at Bancroft-Telegraph and at eight other campus locations--as pickets formed in front of Wheeler Hall and marched to the University Meeting. Chancellor Strong's liberalization of regulations--a result, he said, of a "reinterpretation of Regents' policy"--was a direct contradiction to Dean Towle's statements earlier in the dispute. Dean Towle had stated Regents' policy prohibited distribution of literature advocating either a "yes" or a "no" vote. 

    Arthur Goldberg, one of the protest leaders, said: "And you're asking me if picketing is effective?" 

    Another protest spokesman said: 

    "The Bancroft-Telegraph issue has alerted us to the free speech issue all over campus. We won't stop now until we've made the entire campus a bastion of free speech." 

    Commenting on the student pickets disruption of the University Meeting, ASUC President Charles Powell said: 

    "Placards like `Sproul Hall Will Fall' and constant heckling and disruption among an audience... are... unnecessary at this stage of the issue, and a reflection of student sentiment of which I can no longer be proud." 

    September 29

    1. Several tables were set up on campus at both Bancroft-Telegraph and in front of Sather Gate. Only one or two of the tables had the required permits from the University. (According to the Dean of Students Office, permits were issued only to "qualified organizations" that promised not to solicit money or members, or initiate or advocate any off-campus activity 
    other than voting.) Most of the organizations represented by tables would not make this promise and, in fact, were conducting such activities. 

    Dean of Men Arleigh Williams and University police officers informed each of the tables that some of the activities being conducted were illegal; a few times they asked for identification from students manning the tables. Dean Williams said: "Every effort will be made to remove those tables." But, he did not indicate if such an effort would involve action on the part of University police. 

    Arthur Goldberg, a protest leader, was asked to make an appointment with Dean Williams. 

    2. Representatives of protest groups met at 10:30 p.m. to plan future action. 

    September 30

    1. At noon, University Friends of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and Campus Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) set up tables at Sather Gate. Neither had permits from the Dean of Students Office. According to Mario Savio, SNCC spokesman, the student groups were denied permits because it was suspected that they would attempt to collect funds for off-campus political or social action. According to Brian Turner, who set up the SNCC table, funds were being collected, in direct violation of University regulations. 

    University administration representatives approached each table, and took the names of those manning the tables. Five students--Mark Bravo, Brian Turner, Donald Hatch, Elizabeth Gardiner Stapleton, and David Goins--were requested to appear before Dean of Men Arleigh Williams at 3:00 p.m. for disciplinary action. That action triggered what was to become the first of the Sproul Hall sit-ins. 

    2. At 3:00 p.m.--under the direction of Mario Savio, Arthur Goldberg and Sandor Fuchs--more than 500 students and protestors appeared outside Dean Williams' office. Savio, Goldberg and others stood on a narrow balcony outside the second floor lobby of Sproul Hall, shouting to passing students and those gathered on Sproul Hall steps, urging them to join the growing mass seated and standing outside the Dean of Students Office. 

    Savio, the apparent spokesman for the protestors, presented a petition signed by more than 500 students: 

    "We the undersigned have jointly manned tables at Sather Gate, realizing that we were in violation of University edicts to the contrary. We realize we may be subject to expulsion." 

    Savio then issued two demands: 

    1) That everyone in the group who signed be treated exactly the same as the students who were summoned into Dean Williams' office, and 

    2) That all charges should be dropped until the University clarifies its policy, and it is clear whether or not there has been any violation. 

    Savio stated the group was absolutely firm on the first point, but might give a little on the second. 

    Dean Williams answered Savio's demands: 

    "I can not make any guarantee to concede to any request. We are dealing only with observed violations, not unobserved violations. And, we will continue to do this." 

    Dean Williams thereupon cancelled a scheduled 4:00 p.m. meeting with the leaders of all the groups protesting the University's policy. 

    At 4:00 p.m., Dean Williams asked the original five students, plus the three demonstration leaders, to enter his office to discuss disciplinary action. None of the eight people summoned entered the Dean's office. 

    Savio then announced that, since it appeared none of their demands had been met, that they would remain in Sproul Hall throughout the night: 

    "We want equal action," Savio declared. "And, that's no action, because they can't take action against all these people who are here. They're scared. We're staying." 

    Money was collected—Slate announced a sizeable contribution—for food. By 5:00 p.m., women students were preparing sandwiches in a second floor alcove. 

    3. At about midnight Chancellor Edward W. Strong issued the following statement: 

    "Students and student organizations today enjoy the fullest privileges in the history of the University, including discussing and advocacy on a broad spectrum of political and social issues. Some students demand on-campus solicitation of funds and planning and recruitment of off-campus social and political action. The University cannot allow its facilities to be so used without endangering its future as an independent educational institution. The issue now has been carried far beyond the bounds of discussion by a small minority of students. These students should recognize the fullness of the privileges extended to them by the University, and ask themselves whether they wish to take further actions damaging to the University. 

    "The University cannot and will not allow students to engage in deliberate violation of law and order on campus. The Slate Supplement Report this fall urged `open, fierce and thoroughgoing rebellion on the campus... in which the final resort will be Civil Disobedience.' Individual students must ask themselves whether they wish to be a part of such action. 

    "When violations occur, the University must then take disciplinary steps. Such action is being taken. Eight students were informed individually by a representative of the Office of the Dean of Students that they were in violation of University regulations and were asked to desist. Each of the eight students refused to do so. I regret that these eight students by their willful misconduct in deliberately violating rules of the University have made it necessary for me to suspend them indefinitely from the University. I stand ready as always to meet with the officers of any student organization to discuss the policies of the University." 

    4. "I really don't know what to say," Mario Savio told the group of students sitting-in in Sproul Hall, when he heard Chancellor Strong's statement. "If you won't take this as the official statement of the group, I think they're (the administration) all a bunch of bastards." 

    Savio, one of the eight students suspended, acted as spokesman for the protestors. He said the issue will be met with continued protest. The three points of future protest action will be: 

    1) A fight for the dropping of disciplinary action against the suspended students; 

    2) A continuation of the fight for the demands on the free speech areas, including a proposed meeting with Chancellor Strong, and 

    3) The stipulation that no disciplinary action be taken against any students participating in further demonstrations. 

    Savio went on to say that the problem was that parts of Clark Kerr's Multiversity Machine, the students, "had broken down and were gumming up the works." So, naturally, 
    the University had decided to expel the parts which weren't running smoothly. His analogy was cheered by the demonstrators. 

    As the evening progressed, the demonstrators continued their sit-in, lie-in, and representatives of the various political organizations supporting the "Free Speech Movement" (FSM)—the name born that evening—met to plan future moves. 

    October 1

    1. The first Sproul Hall sit-in broke up at approximately 2:40 a.m., when demonstrators voted to leave the premises. Before leaving, they announced a rally to be held at noon on Sproul Hall steps. 

    2. Several mimeographed fliers appeared on campus, calling for student and faculty support for the suspended students and announcing a "Free Speech Rally" at noon on Sproul Hall steps. 

    3. At approximately 10:00 a.m. two tables were set up outside Sather Gate, and one at the foot of Sproul Hall steps. 

    4. At approximately 11:45 a.m. Deans George S. Murphy and Peter Van Houten, with University Police Lieutenant Merrill F. Chandler approached and spoke to a man who was soliciting funds at the Campus CORE table at the foot of Sproul Hall steps. The man, later identified as Jack Weinberg, a former student, refused to identify himself or to leave the table. Lieutenant Chandler arrested the man for trespassing. Weinberg went limp. Instead of carrying Weinberg into police headquarters in Sproul Hall, University police moved a police car into the area where students were gathering for the noon rally, intending to remove Weinberg by auto. 

    The crowd chanted "Release him! Release him!" About 100 students promptly lay down in front of the police car, another 80 or so sat behind it. Mario Savio removed his shoes and climbed on top of it, urging the gathering crowd to join in. 

    By noon, about 300 demonstrators surrounded the immobile police car; by 12:30 p.m., several thousand students were crowded around the car--which became the focal point and rostrum for the next 32 hours of student demonstrations. 

    Weinberg remained inside the captured police car throughout the two-day demonstration. He was fed sandwiches and milk through an open window. 

    Savio demanded Weinberg's release and the lifting of University prohibitions against soliciting funds and memberships on campus: 

    "We were going to hold a rally. We didn't know how to get the people. But, we've got them now, thanks to the University... 

    "Strong must say no to the suspensions. He must agree to meet with the political organizations. And, there must be no disciplinary action against anyone before the meeting! 

    "And, I'm publicly serving notice that we're going to continue direct action until they (the Administration) accede. I suggest that we go into that building (Sproul Hall) and sit on the desks and chairs and make it impossible for them to continue their work." 

    Charles Powell, ASUC President, took Savio's place atop the stranded car: 

    "I can see now that your cause is just," Powell said. He asked that, instead of a mob scene in Sproul Hall, only he and Savio enter the building to meet with Dean Williams. 

    The crowd demanded that Savio and Powell negotiate Weinberg's release, and termination of the eight student suspensions, and suspension of Administration action against any protestors until the matter had been arbitrated. 

    Dean Arleigh Williams told Savio and Powell that the matter was out of his jurisdiction. He referred them to Chancellor Strong, with whom they discussed the problem. 

    Chancellor Strong refused Savio's demands. He said the University would not give in to pressure, the suspensions would stand, and that a meeting was possible only if the demonstrations ceased. 

    Savio and Powell returned from their meeting with Chancellor Strong at about 1:45 p.m. 

    Powell offered to have the ASUC Senate attempt to deal with the entire situation concerning the University's edict. The crowd refused Powell's offer, and he left. 

    At approximately 2:30 p.m., Savio suggested the demonstrators force their way into Sproul Hall, in order to hinder operations of the Administration there: 

    "I recommend that 500 of you stay here around this auto and others join me in taking our request back to the deans." 

    Savio then led about 150 students into Sproul Hall, where they sat outside the Dean of Students Office. 

    About 4:00 p.m., the demonstrators inside now numbered about 400, voted to pack solidly in front of the door to the Deans' office, and not allow anyone out. Deans Peter Van 
    Houten and Arleigh Williams were trapped within the office by this maneuver. 

    The situation remained static until about 5:30 p.m. when Savio, again atop the automobile, announced "a committee of independent faculty members" would try to make contact with high administration officials. If contact was made, the group decided, the students in Sproul Hall would be notified and would leave the building. The students also voted to have the faculty committee notify them as soon as contact was made with the Administration. Within a short time, contact was made with Vice Chancellor Alex Sheriffs, but a breakdown in communications prevented the students being notified. 

    At 6:15 p.m., 45 minutes before the scheduled closing, campus and Berkeley police officers began closing the front doors of Sproul Hall. Angered, about 100 of the approximately 2000 students outside Sproul Hall charged the doors, packing them to prevent their closing. Two police officers were pulled to the floor; one lost his hat and shoes (which were returned to him as he escaped into the building) and was bitten on the leg. About 20 police officers took up stations at the foot of the main stairway leading from the Sproul Hall lobby to the second floor, where the Deans' offices are. The students took up positions on the lobby floor. 

    After a long discussion, the demonstrators outside decided to form a united front, and ordered those inside the building to come outside to join them on the mall. All but five of those inside Sproul Hall at the time obeyed the summons. The remaining five were left unmolested. The demonstrations then continued around the police car on the mall between Sproul Hall and the Student Union. 

    5. Demonstration leaders met in a closed meeting at 10:00 p.m. They decided: 

    1) The demonstrators would attempt to remain on the steps and in the mall through Family Day on Saturday, Oct. 3. 

    2) Tables would be set up at Sather Gate, separate from the Sproul Hall demonstrations, in the hope that more people would be suspended. 

    3) A rally would be held at noon tomorrow (Oct. 2), centering around the car carrying Weinberg. 

    4) After the rally, groups of demonstrators again would move into the second floor of Sproul Hall and block off the Dean of Students Office. 

    6. At 11:15 p.m. small groups of anti-demonstration demonstrators began converging on the mall from all directions, swelling the crowd to about 2,500. At this point, the demonstration degenerated into a shouting, singing, swearing and egg throwing contest. The demonstrators sang "We Shall Overcome!" The anti-demonstration forces shouted "Mickey Mouse!" 

    7. California Governor Edmund G. Brown issued the following statement: 

    "I support fully the stand of U.C. President Clark Kerr and Berkeley Chancellor Edward W. Strong. 

    "This is not a matter of freedom of speech on the campuses. I and President Kerr and The Regents have long fought to maintain freedom of speech and an Open Forum policy on all the campuses of the University. 

    "This is purely and simply an attempt on the part of the students to use the campuses of the University unlawfully by soliciting funds and recruiting students for off-campus activities. 

    "This will not be tolerated. We must have—and will continue to have—law and order on our campuses." 

    8. Berkeley Chancellor Edward W. Strong issued the following statement: 

    "Because two facts respecting University policies on students and student organizations are still being misunderstood or misrepresented by some persons, I want again to emphasize these two facts: 

    "1. The University's policy prohibiting planning and recruiting on campus for off-campus political and social action, and prohibiting also the solicitation or receipt of funds for such purposes is now and has always been the unchanged policy of the University. 

    "2. The University has not restricted or curtailed freedom of speech of students on campus by any change of its own Open Forum policy. 

    "No instance of a newly imposed restriction or curtailment of freedom of speech on campus can be truthfully alleged for the simple reason that none exists. 

    "Freedom of speech by students on campus is not the issue. The issue is one presented by deliberate violations of University rules and regulations by some students in an attempt to bring about a change of the University policy prohibiting use of University facilities by political, social and action groups." 

    9. Charles Powell, ASUC president, issued the following statement: 

    "The facts are these: 

    "The prohibition on the solicitation of funds and membership on campus for partisan issues is not a ruling of the Chancellor or of President Clark Kerr. 

    "It is, in fact, a State law. 

    "Therefore, the only rational and proper action at this point is to seek changes in the law. Those opportunities are not here on the campus--but in the houses of the State Legislature. 

    "In a conference with President Kerr, I have been told that mob violence and mass demonstrations directed at the Administration will, in no way, do anything to alleviate the problem. 

    "In fact, we are indeed losing support among the Regents for concessions which have already been made. 

    "I am certain, and President Kerr has confirmed this fear, that if demonstrations such as today's continue, we will lose the Open Forum policy. 

    "This is a tradition for which all students and President Kerr have fought long and hard, and one which we need not lose. 

    "I appeal to my fellow students. 

    "I ask that you not oppose the Administration—the Administration can do nothing to meet the demands being made. 

    "But this I do ask, write your State legislators, then give your full-hearted support to the ASUC Senate which will ask the property at Bancroft and Telegraph be deeded to the City of Berkeley for municipal administration. 

    "Above all, I ask you to discontinue demonstrations which are endangering lives, property, and the Open Forum policy which the entire University community enjoys." 

    10. Mona Hutchins, vice president of the University Society of Individualists, a conservative group, issued the following statement: 

    "The conservative campus groups fully agree with the purpose of the sit-ins in Sproul Hall. Individual members of our organizations have expressed their sympathy by joining in the picketing on the steps of the Hall, and will continue to do so. [picture] 

    "However, our belief in lawful redress of grievances prevents us from joining the sit-ins. But, let no one mistake our intent. The United Front still stands." 

    October 2

    1. The Daily Californian, the campus student newspaper, printed the following editorial, bordered in black and signed by the Senior Editorial Board: 

    "Last night the students became a near mob, with a police car for their symbol. 

    "The demonstrators surrounded a police car in front of Sproul Hall as a banner for their disobedience against University authority. It became a symbol of their power. And yet when an opposition force appeared late last night from the fraternities and residence halls, the demonstrators appealed to the police to maintain `law and order.' 

    "No one can rationally justify the simultaneous defiance of authority on one hand, the expectation of protection on the other. 

    "We feel that, under these circumstances, the demonstrations have dissolved into a morass of distorted goals, inconsistent means, and blindness to their fallibility. 

    "The demonstrators say that the campus administration is no longer open for discussion. How can the demonstrators themselves be open for rational discussion when the basic issues of solicitation of funds, recruitment of members and `mounting social and political action' have been wholly overshadowed by defiance? 

    "The antagonists of late last night exhibited something just as dangerous. They overflowed with an explosive sing-song belligerence. They went to Sproul Hall with anger and without reason--and almost touched off a riot. 

    "The entire Open Forum policy has been threatened by the action of both of these student groups. The concept of the Open Forum will continue to be in jeopardy at the hands of persons completely outside the University if the same irrational and rash challenges to the Administration's final decision continue. 

    "The Administration has drawn the line at what it believes is the last concession on the University level. We completely believe they are telling the truth. 

    "Those who espouse over-simplified concepts of the issues and solutions, will tell you otherwise. 

    "The University has drawn the last line it can. 

    "We therefore suggest that the emotional commitment of the past two weeks needs a drastic reappraisal. We urge the students to think by themselves—not by the group." 

    2. At 1:30 a.m., as conflicts between demonstrators and anti-demonstration demonstrators threatened to erupt into a full-blown riot, Father James Fisher of Newman Hall mounted the police car. The crowd fell silent as he pleaded for peace—and got it. 

    Demonstrations around the stranded police car, still containing Jack Weinberg, continued throughout the day. Sproul Hall was locked, except for one police-guarded door at the South end through which those with legitimate business inside could pass. A pup tent was pitched on one of the lawns. The entire mall area was littered with sleeping bags, blankets, books, and the debris of the all-night vigil. 

    Speakers continued to harangue the crowd from the top of the sagging police car, gathering momentum as noon approached. At noon, lunch-time onlookers enlarged the crowd to close to 4,000 persons. 

    3. At 10:30 a.m., after President Kerr and Chancellor Strong agreed that the situation had to be brought under control, a high-level meeting of administrators, deans and representatives of at least four law enforcement agencies was held to formulate plans for handling the demonstrations. At 11:55 a.m., representatives of the Governor's Office and the President's Office joined the session. (It was agreed that Chancellor Strong would read a statement at 6:00 p.m., declaring the assembled group an unlawful assemblage and asking the crowd to disperse. To enforce Chancellor Strong's declaration, plans also were drawn up for a mass movement of police officers onto the campus for the purpose of arresting those demonstrators who refused to comply with Chancellor Strong's request to disperse.) 

    4. At about 4:15 p.m., demonstration spokesmen asked to meet with President Kerr, President Kerr and Chancellor Strong agreed to meet with the protest leaders at 5:00 p.m. 

    5. At 4:45 p.m. police officers from Oakland, Alameda County, Berkeley and the California Highway Patrol began marching onto the campus, taking up positions at the north and south ends of Sproul Hall and on Barrows Lane, behind the Administration building. Some 500 officers, including over 100 motorcycle police, were on hand by 5:30 p.m., some armed with long riot sticks. 

    As the police arrived, onlookers and protest sympathizers 
    swelled the crowd between Sproul Hall and the Student Union to more than 7,000. Spectators lined the Student Union balcony and the roof of the Dining Commons. 

    As the possibility of police action agaist the demonstrators increased, protestors were instructed on "how to be arrested" (remove sharp objects from pockets, remove valuable rings and watches, loosen clothing, pack closely together, do not link arms, go limp) and were counseled on their legal rights (give only your name and address, ask to see your lawyer, do not make any statements). All persons with small children, those under 18 years of age, non-citizens, and those on parole or probation were advised to leave. 

    And, as six campus police officers penetrated the periphery of the crowd—in an effort to reinforce the stranded police car—the demonstrators packed themselves solidly around the car. 

    6. At about 5:30 p.m., the demonstrators were informed that the meeting between protest leaders and University officials was in progress at University House, and that President Kerr had promised no police action until after that meeting. Participating in the negotiations were President Kerr, Chancellor Strong, members of an informal faculty group, student leaders, representatives of the Inter-Faith Council, and nine demonstration spokesmen. A six-point agreement was reached and was signed by President Kerr and the demonstration spokesmen. The meeting was disbanded at 7:15 p.m. 

    7. At approximately 7:20 p.m., the crowd was informed that an agreement had been reached, and that the protest spokesmen were en route from University House to present it to the demonstrators. 

    8. At 7:30 p.m., with President Kerr and Chancellor Strong watching from the steps of Sproul Hall (the crowd was unaware of their presence), Mario Savio mounted the flattened roof of the police car to read the agreement: 

    "1. The student demonstrators shall desist from all forms of their illegal protest against University regulations. 

    "2. A committee representing students (including leaders of the demonstration), faculty, and administration will immediately be set up to conduct discussions and hearing into all aspects of political behavior on campus and its control, and to make recommendations to the administration. 

    "3. The arrested man will be booked, released on his own recognizance, and the University (complainant) will not press charges. 

    "4. The duration of the suspension of the suspended students will be submitted within one week to the Student Conduct Committee of the Academic Senate. 

    "5. Activity may be continued by student organizations in accordance with existing University regulations. 

    "6. The President of the University has already declared his willingness to support deeding certain University property at the end of Telegraph Avenue to the City of Berkeley or to the ASUC." 

    (The agreement was signed by Clark Kerr, Jo Freeman, Paul C. Cahill, Sandor Fuchs, Robert Wolfson, David Jessup, Jackie Goldberg, Eric Levine, Mario Savio and Thomas Miller.) 

    At 7:40 p.m., Mario Savio said: 

    "Let us agree by acclamation to accept this document. I ask you to rise quietly and with dignity, and go home." 

    9. At 7:50 p.m., President Clark Kerr held a news conference in Sproul Hall. Chancellor Strong was present, but did not take part. Outside the window, the students were dispersing. The police officers had been dismissed. President Kerr said: "Law and order have been restored without the use of force." University rules remain unchanged, he said. The arrested non-student trespasser (Jack Weinberg) has been booked by police. Although the University agreed not to press charges, President Kerr said he could not speak for the district attorney. The eight suspended students remain suspended. Their cases will be reviewed, under the regular procedures, by a faculty committee. The faculty committee's suggestions may, or may not, be accepted by Chancellor Strong. Final disposition is still in the hands of the Administration, President Kerr stressed. 

    Chancellor Strong, the President continued, will issue appointments to the special ad hoc committee to be established under point two of the agreement. Four students, four faculty members and four Administration representatives will be named to the committee. Two of the students will be named from among those who negotiated the agreement with President Kerr. 

    October 3

    Edward W. Carter, chairman of the University Board of Regents, issued the following statement: 

    "Law and order have been re-established on the Berkeley campus of the University of California. That this was accomplished without violence is a tribute to President Clark Kerr and his administrative staff. All applicable University rules remain unchanged; the non-student arrested has been booked by the police; the eight suspended students are still on suspension, and the regular procedures for review of student conduct and grievances are functioning. 

    "A faculty committee will review individual cases in an orderly manner, and in due course will make recommendations for their disposition by the properly constituted administrative authorities. 

    "It is regrettable that a relatively small number of students, together with certain off-campus agitators should have precipitated so unfortunate an incident." 

    October 4

    1. California Governor Edmund G. Brown pledged to maintain law and order on University campuses and asked President Kerr to prepare, "as soon as possible," a full and complete report on the student demonstration: 

    "I would like a detailed account of its causes, what actions were taken and why, what issues were involved, and what recommendations you have for preventing similar situations in the future." 

    2. President Clark Kerr, answering Governor Brown's request, said the Administration "has already begun an investigation and analysis" of the demonstrations. Kerr's statement said, in part: 

    "Law and order were restored to the Berkeley campus without the use of force--a result the Governor desired as much as I. 

    "...All applicable University rules remain unchanged; the non-student arrested as a trespasser has been booked by the police. The eight suspended students are still under suspension and the regular procedures for review of student conduct and grievances are functioning." 

    President Kerr described the situation as "highly complicated... 

    "Students with left-wing and right-wing political orientation 
    are more active than ever before. Off-campus elements excite this orientation. As a consequence, the historical position of the University against being made a base for political direct action is placed under unusual attack. 

    "At the same time, the world and national situations have most unfortunately placed more emphasis in the minds of a few students on direct action, even outside the limits of the law, than on compliance with law and order and democratic process. 

    "Nevertheless, the University is fully responsible for the maintenance of law and order and the guarantee that it remain an educational institution." 

    3. Various reactions were inspired by the student protest demonstrations: 

    1) Ernest-Besig, executive director of the Northern California chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), disputed the University's interpretation of the State Constitutional clause relating to political and sectarian activity on the campus (Article IX, Section 9, see Appendix). His statement was issued October 1: 

    "The ACLU does not share the opinion of the University Administration that the constitutional ban on political and sectarian activity is aimed at students." 

    Bessig said the ACLU Board of Directors would consider intervening on behalf of the eight suspended students. 

    2) The Executive Committee of the Association of California State College Professors expressed support for the student protestors: 

    "Participation in social action, whether it is political or non-political ought not only to be permitted, but actively encouraged, so long as it does not interfere with the regular instructional program..." 

    3) The Inter-Faith Staff Workers and Student Leaders, a local religious group, supported the aims of the protestors: 

    "We affirm the right of members of the campus community to solicit funds, distribute literature and recruit members for involvement in common action." 

    4) Cal Students for Goldwater supported the Regent's right to regulate as they deem necessary and complained of the non-enforcement of rules applying to campus political activities, according to Morris E. Hurley, vice president. 

    4. Chancellor Strong's office issued a statement outlining plans to implement the agreement reached between protestors and President Kerr last Friday night: 

    1) Tomorrow (Oct. 5), Chancellor Strong will send the names of the eight suspended students to the Faculty Committee on Student Conduct. 

    2) Tomorrow (Oct. 5), Chancellor Strong will send out letters of appointment to members of the student-faculty-administration committee which will discuss the dispute. 

    3) The University has not pressed charges against Jack Weinberg (for trespassing), but re-emphasized the administration had no authority to speak for the district attorney's office. 

    October 5

    1. Protestors held a noon rally on Sproul Hall steps, claimed victory and voiced their approval of Friday evening's agreement. Art Goldberg said: 

    "We ask only the right to say what we feel when we feel like it. We'll continue to fight for this freedom, and we won't quit until we've won." 

    Approximately 1000 students gathered in the mall between Sproul Hall and the Student Union to listen to the protest speakers. 

    Mario Savio, one of the demonstration leaders who negotiated the agreement with President Kerr and who urged the students to accept the agreement, stated that "although the whole war is far from over, we have won the biggest battle." That battle, he explained, was to gain "jurisdictional recognition" from President Kerr of a faculty-student-administration committee to negotiate the "free speech" issue. 

    To answer what he considered President Kerr's implication of a Communist tinge to the anti-ban movement, Savio decried the "great bogeyman raised... whenever a group is working for social change. No one wants to admit that large numbers of people are sick and fed up with the way things are." 

    A number of speakers addressed the assembled students, including several of the eight suspended students, Professor John Leggett of sociology, Professor Charles Sellers of history, and Warren Coats of the Young Republicans. Statements of support were read, including a document signed by 43 political science and economics teaching assistants, commending demonstrators' goals. 

    The rally was technically illegal under University regulations regarding non-student speakers. It was permitted, however, under a "special waiver" signed by Dean of Students Katherine A. Towle. Dean Towle explained: 

    "We are honoring the spirit of the President's agreement and therefore have granted a special waiver for this meeting today, so that leaders of the demonstration may discuss the written agreement of last Friday." 

    (University regulations require non-student speakers to wait 72 hours after officially requesting permission from the Dean's office to speak on campus. Most of the leaders of the current demonstrations are either suspended or non-students. No one requested permission for them to speak at this rally.) 

    (The Daily Californian speculated, on Oct. 6, that both sides had maneuvered behind the scenes to persuade the other to back down on the rally issue. The Administration wanted the students to postpone the rally—or, hold it on city property--apparently to avoid embarrassment over allowing anti-ban students to again break University regulations. The student protestors wanted to hold it on Sproul steps, in order to honor their Friday night announcement of the rally's location and time. Apparently, the students won.) 

    2. In an effort to atone for damage to the police car during the Thursday and Friday demonstrations, the students began a collection of funds to help pay the $334.30 in damages to the police car. 

    3. Chancellor Edward W. Strong turned the cases of the suspended students over to the Faculty Committee on Student Conduct, in accord with the agreement between the demonstrators and President Kerr to submit the suspensions to adjudication within one week. Unfortunately, as the Chancellor found out--and everyone soon knew--there was no "Student Conduct Committee of the Academic Senate," as specified in the agreement. The Faculty Committee on Student Conduct is a duly constituted committee, and, even if it had been asked to do so, the Academic Senate would have been unable to set 
    up an ad hoc committee to hear these cases before October 13, well beyond the one-week deadline stipulated in the agreement. 

    4. Chancellor Strong also announced appointments to the faculty-student-administration Study Committee on Campus Political Activity. They were: 

    Faculty: Robley Williams, professor of virology; Theodore Vermeulen, professor of chemical engineering; Joseph Garbarino, professor of business administration; and Henry Rosovsky, professor of economics. 

    Students: ASUC President Charles Powell and Marsha Bratten, both winners of the 1964 Robert Gordon and Ida W. Sproul Awards. Two additional student members will represent the demonstrators. 

    Administration: Katherine A. Towle, dean of students; Milton Chernin, dean of the School of Social Welfare; William Fretter, dean of the College of Letters and Sciences; and Alan Searcy, recently appointed vice chancellor for academic affairs. 

    October 6

    1. The FSM Steering Committee met with Vice Chancellor Alan Searcy to protest Chancellor Strong's "unilateral" appointment of the Committee on Campus Political Activity without consulting the demonstrators and to express dissatisfaction with the way student-administration negotiations were proceeding. Arthur Goldberg said the Chancellor's action was "almost a breech of good faith by the administration... 

    "It is dangerous to start out so arbitrarily. The University has put us in an impossible position before we start." 

    President Kerr had agreed to accept recommendations from the demonstrators, and failed to do so, according to protest leaders. The protestors also claimed Chancellor Strong's action put them in a position of inequality, since, they claimed, ten of the Chancellor's appointments were opposed to the students' position. 

    The protestors argued that a special committee of the Academic Senate should choose the faculty members; the students would choose the student members. 

    2. The ASUC Senate passed a resolution asking President Charles Powell to meet with President Kerr "to determine whether the Administration has violated the spirit of Friday's agreement..." The Powell-Kerr meeting would center on two points: 

    1) The manner of the Administration's appointment of faculty members to the faculty - student - administration committee agreed to on Friday, and 

    2) The Administration's referral of the cases of the suspended students to the Faculty Committee on Student Conduct. 

    The Senate also decided that, if the students approve, it would negotiate with the Regents for detachment of the controversial Bancroft-Telegraph area from the University and its establishment as a "free area for political and social action." 

    The ASUC Senate's first move would be a poll to determine whether "the students wish it to attempt to secure control of the Bancroft-Telegraph area... and if they would assent to the use of ASUC funds for the purchase of the land." The Senate would consider itself bound by the poll's results. 

    If the students approved, two possible alternatives would be considered: 

    1) The ASUC would purchase the land and donate it to the City of Berkeley, or to a trust of the Senate's choosing, or 

    2) The land will be donated or sold outright to the City of Berkeley. 

    During the ASUC Senate meeting, Commuter-Independent Representative Ed Wilson charged that the Administration had failed to live up to the spirit of Friday's agreement. Specifically: 

    1) The Administration tried to force the anti-ban students to postpone Monday's rally for seventy-two hours (in conformance with the University's rules regarding non-student speakers). 

    2) The Administration should let the Academic Senate choose the faculty members of the negotiating committee, rather than select them itself, which the Administration already had done. 

    3) The district attorney was pressing charges against Jack Weinberg, even though the Administration had agreed not to. (President Kerr, in announcing the agreement, carefully pointed out that the University's decision not to press charges against Weinberg did not prohibit the district attorney's doing so.) 

    4) The Academic Senate Committee on Student Conduct does not exist. According to Friday's agreement, the cases of the suspended students were to be referred to this group. Instead, Wilson charged, the cases have been referred to the Faculty Committee on Student Conduct, which is appointed by the Administration. 

    3. The Advocate Young Republicans, a group of Boalt Hall School of Law students, issued a statement "disagreeing with, and expressing condemnation of lawless behavior." The group also announced that it disagreed with the rules set up by the University with regard to the restriction on political conduct of students on campus. 

    October 7

    The Committee on Campus Political Activity held its first meeting. Ten FSM spokesmen appeared, presented a statement condemning the Committee as illegally constituted and asked it to disband, then left. The statement read, in part: 

    "As the duly elected representatives of the Free Speech Movement (FSM), we cannot in good conscience recognize the legitimacy of the present meeting. 

    "This present meeting is a result of unilateral action by the Administration, and as such we cannot participate... 

    "... We were not even officially notified of this meeting. 

    "... We respectfully request this body consider itself illegally constituted and disband." 

    The Study Committee's purpose, announced as the meeting convened, was to recommend action to the Administration on the problem of political action on campus. 

    Following a three-hour session, minus FSM representatives, the Study Committee issued two statements: 

    1) The Committee will conduct discussions, hold hearings, and finally draft recommendations to the Administration as to proper University policy. 

    2) The Committee will hold its first public hearing at 7:30 p.m., Tuesday (Oct. 13) in a room to be announced. 

    October 8

    1. An FSM spokesman claimed the demonstrators were surprised to discover the purpose of the Committee was study--not negotiation. (The first announcement of the Committee's name and purpose was made in statements issued last night.) 

    Jack Weinberg said: 

    "The Administration feels they have the sole right to 
    say what this committee is supposed to do." 

    Weinberg, the former student whose arrest touched off the October 1 and 2 "police car" demonstrations, is a member of the FSM Steering Committee. He claimed FSM representatives had attempted to meet with Administration officials for two days, but had been unable to do so. 

    2. Two conservative groups took issue with the political ideas of the two students who may ultimately represent the demonstrators on the study committee. In a joint statement, the University Young Republicans and the Cal Students for Gold-water charged: 

    "These two are, in fact, being chosen by a sub-caucus called the `Steering Committee,' a group which believes in unlawful solutions to legitimate problems, and which represents solely left-to-center political groups." 

    FSM's press relations group answered the above charges: 

    1) FSM's Steering Committee had attempted to reach the conservative groups, but had been unable to do so. 

    2) The Steering Committee had been democratically elected from members of the Executive Committee (which is composed of representatives of all student groups involved in the demonstrations). 

    3) FSM intended to add four independent students to its Steering Committee at a 7:00 p.m. meeting tonight. 

    3. ASUC President Charles Powell was unable to meet with President Kerr, as requested in the ASUC Senate resolution, because President Kerr was in Southern California. 

    4. President Clark Kerr, during a speech before the San Diego Chamber of Commerce, said: 

    "The situation (at Berkeley) is new in that students are more activist than before and that diverse groups... are attacking the historic policies of the University. Students are encouraged, as never before, by elements external to the University." 

    Kerr also described the incident as "one episode--a single campus, a small minority of students, a short period of time." 

    5. President Clark Kerr answered student charges of "bad faith" on the part of the Administration in a statement released tonight: 

    "A question has been raised about the appointment of the joint advisory committee. The minutes of the meeting show the following: 

    " `Kerr: This committee would have to be appointed by the administration.' 

    "It was noted that it was the only agency with authorization to appoint faculty, students and administrators. 

    "A question has also been raised about the `Student Conduct Committee of the Academic Senate.' This is a misnomer. It was used in a draft prepared by an informal group of faculty members. I did not catch the misstatement at the time; nor did anyone else. The only such committee that exists is the `Faculty Committee on Student Conduct' which is composed of faculty members. The minutes show the following: 

    " `Kerr: We need to understand that the Committee does not make final determinations. You would have to be aware that you would be dependent also on whatever confidence you have in the decency and fairness of the Administration and respect for it.' 

    "The campus administration went ahead promptly to show its good faith in appointing the joint committee and submitting the suspension cases to the Faculty Committee on Student Conduct. The campus administration reserved two of four student places for representatives of the demonstrators as they clearly represent only a minority of students." 

    6. Following President Kerr's statement, the faculty advisory group which proposed most of the six-point agreement of October 2, issued the following statement: 

    "We who have sought to mediate some of the issues growing out of the recent demonstration, deeply regret that the present steering committee of the demonstrators took during the negotiations a rigid and unreasonable position on the question of student representatives, jeopardizing the successful organization of the student-faculty-administration committee. 

    "We continue to believe firmly in the importance of maximum freedom for peaceful student political action, and in company with all individuals whose primary interest lies in this end, we shall bend every effort to realize that objective." 

    7. Richard W. Jennings, chairman of the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate, said the Senate will consider directing the Committee on Academic Freedom and the Committee on Educational Policy to inquire into the recent University rulings on student political activity, the students' protest of the rulings, and the problem of the students' rights to the expression of political opinion on campus. 

    8. Dean of Men Arleigh Williams sent letters to the eight suspended students, informing them that in accordance with the agreement, their cases had been referred to the Faculty Committee on Student Conduct. The letters also asked the students to appear in the Dean of Students Office to set times for hearings. (Two students appeared, but none submitted himself to the Committee.) 

    9. The Northern California branch of the American Civil Liberties Union announced it has agreed "to intervene on behalf of the students recently suspended by the University... 

    "The ACLU's position is that the regulations which the students were alleged to have broken violate their political rights as guaranteed by the first amendment... the ACLU will challenge the suspensions as a violation of due process of law." 

    10. Dean of Men Arleigh Williams received a petition signed by about 650 members of 37 fraternities and sororities, asserting that FSM was "composed of responsible students" and declaring support of its goals. 

    11. A petition was circulated among student leaders by Sharon Mock, ASUC second vice president. The petition expressed a belief... 

    "... that rational democratic procedures should be used to voice opinion and to revise laws, since we as Americans have benefitted by this process for years. 

    "We condemn the methods... used by a minority of students and non-students which are disrupting the educational process through the deliberate violation of present University and State regulations. We also wish to preserve the Open Forum Policy which now exists on our campus as a result of orderly democratic procedure." 

    (The petition was signed by the presidents of Inter-Fraternity Council, Winged Helmet, Deutsch, Davidson, Griffiths and Cheney Halls, Treble Clef, the Commuter-Independent Association, Golden Guard, and the Spirit and Honor Society. It also was signed by the entire Panhellenic Council, most of the Board and Cabinet of the Associated Women Students, and by 29 Oski Dolls.) 

    October 12

    1. The FSM Steering Committee met with Chancellor Strong and called for suspension of activities of the Study Committee until representatives of the Administration and the FSM could reach agreement on "the interpretation and implementation of the Pact of October Second" and either immediate reinstatement of the suspended students, or submission of their cases to an ad hoc committee of the Academic Senate, with the provision that the Administration would abide by their decision. 

    The FSM representatives stated that they could not recognize the legality of the Study Committee without jeopardizing their leadership and control of the situation. They also maintained that, not only the students, but also the faculty members selected to serve on the Committee should be appointed by negotiations between the FSM and the Chancellor on selections acceptable to the FSM. 

    Chancellor Strong answered that, since the Study Committee had been appointed and was meeting, he would ask it for advice on the propriety of suspending its activities. He also said that, since interpretation of the intent of the Agreement was best referred to the signers, they might discuss that point with the President. Chancellor Strong also explained that he had referred the cases of the suspended students to the only existing appropriate committee that could have been meant by the October 2 Agreement. 

    2. A petition, signed by 88 members of the faculty, was presented to the Chancellor, urging reinstatement of the suspended students. 

    October 13

    1. The Academic Senate passed two motions: 

    1) The first noted "with pleasure the general improvement in recent years in the atmosphere of free inquiry and free exchange of opinion within the University." This motion also declared in favor of "maximum freedom of student political activity," and directed the Committee on Academic Freedom to inquire into recent events and report to the Senate as quickly as possible. 

    2) The second motion recognized "the welfare of the University can only be maintained if the peace and order of an intellectual community are also maintained," and called upon all parties "to resolve the dispute in peaceful and orderly fashion" and "make full use of the joint faculty-student-administration committee for that purpose." 

    2. FSM leaders contacted Earl Bolton, University vice president-administration, and subsequently sent telegrams to Governor Edmund G. Brown and Edward W. Carter, chairman of the Board of Regents, requesting that they be allowed an hour to present their case to the Regents. The FSM leaders promised "mass demonstrations" if they were not given "some clear indication... that the administration is not playing." 

    3. The Study Committee on Campus Political Activity held its first public meeting at 7:30 p.m. in Harmon Gymnasium. Approximately 300 students attended. The Committee heard testimony from fifty students, all but one of whom, as instructed by an insert in the FSM Newsletter, stated that the Committee was illegally constituted and should disband. 

    October 14

    Professor Arthur Ross, chairman of the Committee on University Welfare, met with the FSM Steering Committee and agreed to discuss with the administration proposed modifications of the interpretation of the Agreement of October 2. 

    October 15

    1. Agreements were reached with the FSM, the Administration, the Regents and the Study Committee, and were announced to a meeting of the Academic Senate by a communication from President Kerr and Chancellor Strong, both of whom were attending the Board of Regents meeting at Davis. The points of the new agreement were: 

    1) The Study Committee was expanded from 12 to 18 members. The new members will include two faculty members named by the Committee on Committees of the Academic Senate; two administration members to be named by the President to represent the University-wide administration; and two additional student members plus the two members initially assigned them to be named by the FSM Steering Committee. The Study Committee would hold two or three public hearings a week and finish such hearings within three weeks. No more than five silent observers and two silent attorneys were to attend all meetings, and all findings and recommendations were to be by consensus. 

    2) The Academic Senate was asked to appoint an ad hoc committee to hear the cases of the eight students suspended two weeks ago. The ad hoc committee was to be advisory to the administration. 

    2. The Academic Senate, meeting in Berkeley, unanimously granted the administration request to establish an ad hoc committee. The Committee on Committees appointed Ira M. Heyman, professor of law, as chairman. Other committee members were Robert A. Gordon, professor of economics; Mason Haire, professor of psychology and research psychologist in the Institute of Industrial Relations; Richard E. Powell, professor of chemistry and chairman of the department of chemistry; and Lloyd Ulman, professor of economics and industrial relations and director of the Institute of Industrial Relations. 

    The Academic Senate, during the same meeting, also passed a motion introduced by Frank C. Newman, dean of Boalt Hall School of Law: 

    "Whereas, the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate recently has gone on record as favoring maximum freedom for student political activity and the use of peaceful and orderly procedures in settling disputes; 

    "And, whereas, the attitude of the Division has been widely misunderstood as condoning lawlessness, now, therefore, this body reaffirms its convictions that force and violence have no place on this campus." 

    3. Edward W. Carter, chairman of the Board of Regents, sent a telegram to Mario Savio following the Regents meeting at Davis: 

    "The Regents have concluded that in view of the study being conducted by the appropriate committee, no useful purpose would be served by considering whether your group should be heard by the Regents at this time." 

    4. President Clark Kerr, during a news conference following the Regents meeting, reiterated his belief that some of the demonstrators "had Communist sympathies." 

    5. The FSM Executive Committee met briefly this evening and accepted the changes in the Study Committee and in the appointment of the ad hoc Academic Senate committee. Following this meeting, Art Goldberg said: 

    "For the first time in the history of the University, an 
    administration treated its students as representative members of the University community. This is a major event in the life of the University and for all the students on campus." 

    October 16

    1. The FSM Steering Committee issued a statement at 12:30 a.m.: 

    "The FSM has every hope that the negotiations which we are entering into with the administration can be productive. 

    "However, we hope that President Kerr's attack upon us is not an indication of an unhealthy attitude with which the administration is entering these negotiations. 

    "It is regrettable that the President has resorted to such attacks and that the Board of Regents has permitted President Kerr's attack." 

    2. The Board of Regents, meeting for the second day at Davis, commended President Clark Kerr for his handling of the "regrettable" demonstrations at Berkeley. 

    The Regents also "reaffirmed the University's traditional policy of encouraging maximum freedom with responsibility and disapproving resort to force or violence." 

    October 18

    The FSM Executive Committee nominated its representatives to the Committee on Campus Political Activity: Mario Savio, Bettina Aptheker, Sydney Stapleton, and Suzanne Goldberg. 

    October 20

    1. Chancellor Edward W. Strong appointed the four FSM candidates to the Study Committee. Upon nomination of the Committee on Committees of the Academic Senate, he also appointed Earl F. Cheit, professor of business administration, and Sanford H. Kadish, professor of law. 

    2. Particle Berkeley, an on-campus group devoted to encouraging student scientific research, was warned by the Dean of Students Office that it faced the possibility of losing on-campus status, if it joined the Free Speech Movement. 

    Jack Weinberg, as FSM spokesman, said: 

    "We hope this is not an indication of future punishment to be given on-campus groups involved in the FSM. 

    " `On- and off-campus' means `what we like and what we don't like' to the Administration. 

    "This is a bad omen, especially at the start of negotiations on the free speech issue." 

    (Particle Berkeley has no official connections with Particle Magazine, a student scientific journal, published by an off-campus corporation. Two members of the group represent Particle Berkeley on the FSM Executive Committee.) 

    3. Chancellor Edward W. Strong issued a statement warning of possible further demonstrations led by "hard core demonstrators": 

    "The hard core demonstrators still are going to try to open the campus," he said. Chancellor Strong identified "hard core demonstrators" as activists who had spent the summer in Mississippi as civil rights workers. Strong went on to say: "The University will not be used as a bastion for the planning and implementation of political and social action." He said the activists returned to Berkeley thinking the University should become more directly involved in social justice, and that some of those involved were "professional demonstrators, but I won't smear all the other good kids by calling it Communist-led." As far as freedom of speech was concerned, Strong said "the University has truly an Open Forum policy, but we have to draw a line between the freedom and the planning and implementing of political action." 

    4. Arthur Goldberg, speaking for FSM, answered Chancellor Strong's statement: 

    "If `hard core demonstrations' means that we are still going to fight for our principles and the Free Speech Movement, then Chancellor Strong is right." Goldberg said it was possible that some of the demonstrators had been in Mississippi during the summer. 

    There are two types of "political action," Goldberg explained. "It's sort of like the double standard--we (FSM) are the girls, with lock-out, and the administration is the boys, with no limitations. When they want to talk about their Democrat and Republican politics, it's `University policy.' 

    "But, if we say anything about social action, or something that might make people think, it becomes `too political.' If the University has a true Open Forum, why can't we advocate social action? It seems we have a closed Open Forum." 

    5. Commuter-Independent Representative Edward Wilson introduced a motion in the ASUC Senate which called for a test case in the courts to settle the problem of administration responsibility on the free speech issue. Wilson withdrew his motion in anticipation of a similar case to be initated by the Amercan Civil Liberties Union. 

    6. The expanded Committee on Campus Political Action agreed that all decisions would be by consensus of students, faculty and administration, each voting as a bloc with one vote. 

    October 25

    The Ad Hoc Academic Senate Committee on Student Suspensions (known as the Heyman Committee) requested that the eight suspended students be reinstated during the course of the Committee's hearings. 

    October 26

    1. Chancellor Edward W. Strong refused the Heyman Committee's request for reinstatement of the eight suspended students. 

    2. The FSM Steering Committee issued a policy statement, charging "the Regents have had legislation drafted which would make certain forms of otherwise legal demonstrations on campus misdemeanors." The Steering Committee also accused President Kerr of changing the regulations governing political activity on campus (presumably, subsequent to the changes made at the beginning of the semester). The Steering Committee also stated: 

    "If the administration refuses to acknowledge the right to advocate off-campus political and social action, we shall have to consider action as well as talk." 

    The three-page FSM statement indicated a general dissatisfaction with the course of negotiations to date: 

    "We may soon have to admit that the administration does not mean to deal fairly with us." 

    Specifically, the FSM statement charged: 

    1) Instead of stating he supported the work of the Committee 
    on Campus Political Activity. President Kerr attacked the FSM as "non-students and Communists." 

    2) Chancellor Strong has refused to reinstate, for the duration of their hearings, the eight students suspended for their part in the free speech demonstrations. Thus, "apparently the students are guilty until proven innocent." 

    3) The Committee on Campus Political Activity will not allow the FSM counsel to question witnesses on points of law. 

    The FSM statement further "demands that the administration acknowledge these on-campus rights:" 

    1) Freedom to advocate off-campus political and social action. 

    2) Freedom to recruit for off-campus political organizations. 

    3) Freedom to solicit funds for off-campus political causes. 

    4) Freedom from harassment of `72-hour rules' and the mandatory presence at meetings of tenured faculty moderators and police. 

    3. Ernest Besig, director of the Northern California chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union, threatened to take the University to court. If the Heyman Committee fails to resolve the question of student political rights, "we will undertake legal action," Bessig said. Any court action would challenge the constitutionality of the disputed administration regulations and the procedure by which the eight students were suspended, Bessig explained. 

    Peter Franck, head of the Berkeley ACLU chapter, proposed two alternative methods of testing the constitutionality of the University regulations: 

    1) Challenge directly the suspensions of the eight students, or 

    2) Have someone else violate the regulations. 

    Franck indicated the second proposal would probably be utilized, if court action became necessary. Franck, who also is an attorney advising FSM members, also claimed the University Counsel's office asked the Regents for permission "to draft legislation which would put teeth into the present anti-political activity rules." The Counsel's office would only make such a request at President Kerr's urging, Franck contended. 

    4. Thomas Cunningham, University general counsel, had "no comment" on the FSM-Franck charges that his office was drafting restrictive legislation. Other University sources denied knowledge of either alleged action. 

    October 27

    1. Chancellor Edward W. Strong announced the appointment of two University-wide administration representatives to the Committee on Campus Political Action, bringing the Committee to full complement. The administration representatives were Robert B. Brode, academic assistant to the President and professor of physics, and Frank L. Kidner, University dean of educational relations and professor of economics. 

    2. Two University faculty members attacked the University regulations governing student off-campus political activity during an open forum meeting of the Graduate Coordinating Council. 

    Seymour M. Lipset, professor of sociology and director of the Institute of International Studies, described the rules as "irrelevant and destructive to the purposes of the University. Social action is relevant" to both graduate and undergraduate education. He said that while the University has liberalized a great deal in the last six years, it still has not gone far enough. He said he felt President Kerr has been responsible for "very significant changes" in the liberalization of the University. 

    John R. Searle, associate professor of philosophy, claimed that, while the avowed function of the regulations is to keep the campus politically neutral, the actual result is an "increase in the alienation, hostility and contempt" of the students toward the Administration. 

    October 28

    1. The Committee on Campus Political Activity considered a recommendation that the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution be the only policy regarding political expression on campus. The recommendation was introduced by FSM representative Sid Stapleton. Although the Committee did not adopt Stapleton's motion, Mario Salvio, another FSM representative, expressed pleasure with the proceedings. However, Savio said, if the Committee did not adopt the First Amendment as the only policy regarding speech on campus, "we will have to consider more direct action." 

    The Committee also heard an explanation, by Dean of Students Katherine A. Towle, of University policy regarding on-campus and off-campus groups, and activities permitted these groups. It was permissible, she said, for a speaker to recommend certain actions be taken, but it was not permissible for a speaker to advocate such actions be committed: 

    "A speaker may say, for instance, that there is going to be a picket line at such-and-such a place, and it is a worthy cause and he hopes people will go. But, he cannot say, `I'll meet you there and we'll picket'." 

    2. The Heyman Committee, appointed by the Academic Senate to recommend action on the eight suspended students, met today for six hours and heard the cases of three suspended students: Donald Hatch, Mark Bravo and Brian Turner. All three were charged with operating a table on campus without a permit, and raising money for unauthorized purposes. 

    November 2

    1. The FSM Newsletter strongly criticized Chancellor Strong and President Kerr, made several references to possible "direct action," and said: 

    "We repeat: when the morass of mediation becomes too thick to see through, action must let in the light." 

    ASUC President Charles Powell deplored the tone of ultimatum which permeated the Newsletter

    "The leaders of FSM must realize that if they wish the recommendations of the committee to be seriously considered by Chancellor Strong, the recommendations will necessarily need strong support of the entire committee, and threatening the committee with subtle hints that future demonstrations will ensue is definitely not the wise course to take." 

    2. Chancellor Edward W. Strong, addressing the Town and Gown Club, said: 

    "Finally, there is the problem of keeping the University true to its role and purpose in society. We cannot permit the University to be used or exploited for purposes not in accord with its charter as an educational institution in a democratic society. The University is a public trust. It was founded to enlighten the minds of its students and to prepare them for useful careers as educated men and women. Freedom of thought and inquiry is essential for the sifting of ideas, the advancement of knowledge, and the discovery of truth. No less essential, as the accompaniment 
    of intellectual freedom, is exercise of that freedom with responsibility. No civilized society can endure if obligations are not honored in living under law. The most disturbing aspect of the recent student demonstrations was the philosophy expressed--the ends justify the means. The employment of illegal means to secure ends desired in the name of freedom would, if tolerated, be destructive of freedom. Individuals enjoy freedom in so far as the guarantees are built into the laws that protect individual rights. When these laws are flouted, protection is weakened and a society is on the road to anarchy. Living as we do under a system of representative government, the right way to effect changes in the laws is by consent and majority vote. 

    "The functioning of any society requires that authority be vested in some individuals, be they judges, legislators, or executives. Arbitrary exercise of authority is always to be challenged, but defamation of authority duly exercised undermines respect for high offices and demoralizes a society. 

    "The University is a champion of intellectual freedom; it must no less be a champion of orderly and responsible conduct. It cannot and will not tolerate deliberate violations of its rules and regulations. If it did, it would be in the position of aiding and abetting disrespect for law and order. As the twig is bent, so the tree grows. Among the lessons to be learned, even if it be by a hard way, is the lesson of responsibility. The University remains steadfast in teaching this lesson." 

    3. The ASUC Senate passed the following resolution: 

    "WHEREAS: Specific infractions of University rules and regulations occurred during the demonstrations of September 30, and of October 1 and 2 which were: 

    1) Disruption of University business in Sproul Hall and of ASUC business in the Student Union. 

    2) Deliberate prevention of University police action by detaining a police car and an arrested man for 32 hours. 

    "AND WHEREAS: There have been on various occasions verbal threats on the part of leaders of the Free Speech Movement to resort to open demonstrations again in order to force individuals, the Administration, or the Hearing Committee on Campus Political Activity to be sympathetic to their demands, 

    "BE IT RESOLVED: That the ASUC Senate condemn mass demonstration which violates University regulations on this campus of the University of California as a means of forcing compliance on the part of those in positions of authority to student demands. Willful and blatant violation of law and order in a democracy cannot be tolerated by an ordered society, nor should it be used by those who seek changes of rules and regulations governing this campus, even when those same rules may not be agreed upon by all. 

    "BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED: That the ASUC Senate does recognize that there may be inconsistencies in the University laws regulating campus political activity and urges all who are concerned about the existing regulations in one way or another, to support the efforts of the Hearing Committee on Campus Political Activity and to communicate their concerns to the individuals on that committee. 

    "BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED: That subsequent to the report of the Hearing Committee the ASUC Senate calls upon all students to express their sentiments through the processes of the ASUC Senate, their constituted student government. 

    "BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED: That the ASUC Senate encourages all other on-campus and off-campus organizations to go on record as supporting the stand of the Senate in an effort to prevent future unlawful demonstrations." 

    November 3

    The Heyman Committee completed hearings on the eight student suspensions. 

    November 4

    1. Two letters, one bearing the typewritten name of Clark Kerr and the other the typewritten name of Thomas Cunningham, University general counsel, were introduced by FSM as "documentary proof" that the Administration "had been drafting legislation without waiting for the report of the Committee on Campus Political Activity." Both letters were photostatic copies; neither had been signed. The letters dealt with University rules and were dated October 13, 1964. 

    President Kerr said the letter bearing his name had been prepared by a staff member; he disagreed with it and never signd it. "I made no proposals for any changes in the rules at the October (Regents') meeting, neither those in the letter nor any others," Kerr said. The Kerr letter included an addition to University Regulations on the Use of University Facilities: 

    "University facilities may not be used for the purpose of recruiting participants for unlawful off-campus action." 

    The second letter, bearing the name of Thomas Cunningham, was presented to the Regents. Cunningham said he had been authorized to study the situation and to prepare proposed legislation for the State Legislature, if he deemed it necessary: 

    "They (the Regents) told me to go ahead and study the problem and report back to them. I am. There has been absolutely no legislation prepared at all, and I am still studying the problem. My letter has nothing to do with University rules." 

    Regarding the first letter, with Kerr's name, Cunningham said: 

    "I prepared it. The president discussed it with the chief campus officers, and decided he would not recommend it. He said the students were studying it at that time." 

    2. Between 50 - 60 picketers took part in a demonstration on Sproul Hall steps. The picket line was established "to bring to light the misunderstanding" and "to focus attention on the Free Speech Movement," according to Skip Richheimer, a graduate student in history. 

    The pickets' specific purpose, Richheimer said, was to call attention to the afternoon meeting of the Ad Hoc Academic Senate committee (Heyman Committee). FSM intends to ask the committee if the students should be able to enjoy their constitutional rights as citizens in certain geographical areas of the campus. The answer to this question, Richheimer said, will determine whether the administration intends to be sincere in its negotiations. If FSM concludes the administration is not sincere, and that nothing can be gained from the committee, the FSM "will have to resort to other measures," Richheimer said. 

    November 5

    The Committee on Campus Political Activity continued to debate a faculty proposal introduced by Earl Cheit, professor of business administration, during yesterday's (Wednesday, 
    Nov. 4) meeting. The debate centered around phrases which the Administration claims are necessary to protect the University, but which the students contend would give the University the right of "prior restraint." 

    The first part of Professor Cheit's proposal read: 

    "That in the Hyde Park areas, the University modify its present regulations by dropping the distinction between `advocating' and `mounting' political and social action. Although we could find no case in which this distinction has been in issue, the position of the students and the recent resolutions of the Academic Senate and the Regents all support a University policy which (subject only to restrictions necessary for normal conduct of University functions and business) permits free expression within the limits of the law. Subject only to these same restrictions, off-campus speakers invited by recognized student groups to speak in the Hyde Park area should be permitted to do so upon completing a simple registration procedure which records the inviting organization, the speaker's name, and the topic of the talk." 

    An amendment to this paragraph, passed Nov. 4, added the phrase: "and his willingness to answer questions." 

    An amendment proposed by Sanford Kadish, professor of law, would have rephrased Professor Cheit's original sentences dealing with action "within the limits of the law." It would have inserted two new sentences after the first: 

    "The advocacy of ideas and acts which is constitutionally protected off the campus should be protected on the campus. By the same token, of course, speech which is in violation of law and constitutionally unprotected should receive no greater protection on the campus than off the campus." 

    The students and faculty representatives seemed agreed on this amendment, but Administration representatives felt the emphasis on prohibiting unlawful action was not strong enough. 

    The committee adjourned for an hour while Kadish, Kidner and Attorney Malcolm Burnstein attempted to find suitable phraseology acceptable to all three factions. They returned with this amendment: 

    "If, as a direct result of the advocacy on the campus, acts occur in violation of U.S. or California laws, the University should be entitled to take appropriate disciplinary action against the speakers and their sponsoring organizations, to the extent that the person or organization can fairly be found to be responsible for the unlawful acts." 

    Mario Savio, speaking for the student representatives, claimed the compromise amendment would, in effect, give the University the right of prior restraint, as it leaves interpretation of unlawful acts up to the University. The students were not in favor of the amendment. 

    The meeting adjourned. 

    November 7

    The Committee on Campus Political Activity reached an impasse over the first resolution proposed by the faculty for recommendation to Chancellor Strong. The question again was over whether the University should be able to take action against students involved in illegal acts off campus when the acts were advocated or organized on campus (even though, at the time the acts were advocated or organized, they were legal). 

    Frank Kidner, University dean of educational relations and an Administration representative, offered an amendment to the faculty motion which read: 

    "If acts unlawful under California or Federal law directly result from advocacy, organization or planning on the campus, the students and organizations involved may be subject to such disciplinary action as is appropriate and conditioned upon as fair hearing as to the appropriateness of the action taken." 

    According to the Daily Californian, a heated discussion between Dean Kidner and Mario Savio followed, during which Dean Kidner expressed the view that an act would not have to be proclaimed unlawful for the Administration to take action. 

    Sid Stapleton, student committee member and a member of the Young Socialist Alliance, said he felt the University would be unable to conduct a fair hearing because of political pressures. Vice Chancellor Alan Searcy responded, "the Administration is made of men of good will." 

    Dean Kidner's amendment failed. The Administration representatives voted affirmatively, the faculty abstained, and the students voted negatively. 

    The student representatives then offered this amendment: 

    "In the area of first amendment rights and civil liberties, the University may impose no disciplinary action against members of the University community and organizations. In this area, members of the University community and organizations are subject only to the civil authorities." 

    Sanford Kadish, professor of law, offered a substitute amendment which, he said, defined the notion of collective responsibility and incorporated into general law the problem of the responsibility of one person or a number of people. 

    Professor Kadish's substitute amendment failed by one vote. The student amendment was defeated, with the Administration and faculty voting negatively. 

    When it was obvious the committee could not reach agreement, Professor Cheit proposed the committee report agreement on points two through seven of the faculty recommendations, and that the students and the faculty prepare a statement of the nature of their differences and present it to Chancellor Strong and the University community. 

    Mario Savio agreed to make the disagreement public, but he indicated he did not agree that point one was the only point of disagreement. 

    It was agreed that no action would be taken until everyone agreed. 

    The meeting adjourned. 

    November 8

    The Free Speech Movement issued the following statement: 

    "Ever since Oct. 2 the organizations composing the Free Speech Movement have voluntarily refrained from exercising their constitutional liberties on the Berkeley campus of the University of California. The FSM imposed this moratorium in the hope that agreement with the administration regarding any regulations could soon be reached. Although we continue to be a party to the Campus Committee on Political Activity, we feel that we must lift our self-imposed moratorium on political activity because the committee is already deadlocked over the issue of political advocacy and appears headed for a long series of radical disagreements... We must exercise our rights so that the University is not permitted to deny us those rights for any long period and so that our political organizations can function to their maximum capacity. Many students and organizations have been hampered in their efforts in the past election and in civil rights activity because of the moratorium. 

    "Saturday the CCPA became deadlocked over the issue of the student's right to advocate off-campus political activity. 

    ... (the proposed) amendment is directly aimed at student participation in the civil rights movement and is totally unacceptable to the students. The administration would give themselves the right (1) to decide on the legality and the `appropriateness' of the students' off-campus political activity, (2) to decide the legality of the students' on-campus advocacy of off-campus action, and (3) to discipline the students in the area of their civil liberties. 

    "... The Free Speech Movement proposed (an) amendment which is the position of the American Association of University Professors and the American Civil Liberties Union. 

    "... the administration vetoed our position and insisted on the ability of the University to discipline students in the area of their civil liberties. The FSM believes that the University is not a competent body to decide questions concerning civil liberties, especially since it is subject to strong political pressure. Because students' rights have great political impact as well as legal significance, the courts should be the only body to decide upon them. 

    "The AAUP has declared that `students should enjoy the same freedom of religion, speech, press and assembly, and the right to petition the authorities that citizens generally possess.' The Free Speech Movement intends to exercise those freedoms on Monday (Nov. 9)." 

    November 9

    1. The following statement by Chancellor Edward W. Strong appeared in the Daily Californian

    "If the FSM returns to direct action tactics, this will constitute a clear breach of the agreement of October 2. Students and organizations participating will be held responsible for their actions." 

    2. The following statement by the faculty representatives of the Committee on Campus Political Activity appeared in the Daily Californian

    "In view of the continuing newspaper reports that the FSM has threatened demonstrations in violation of the agreement under which the committee was constituted, the faculty representatives wish to reiterate their statement made at the Saturday morning meeting. 

    "It is our belief that substantial progress has been made and will continue to be made so long as no action is taken which jeopardizes the continuation of the good work of the committee. 

    "Once again, therefore, we call upon FSM to abide by the terms of its agreement." 

    3. Because of the lack of agreement and action by the Committee on Campus Political Activity, the FSM Steering Committee declared it was lifting "its self-imposed moratorium on political activity" and held a rally on Sproul Hall steps at noon, the first such activity since the October 2 agreement. 

    According to Mario Savio, the Committee on Campus Political Activity meetings have not shown promise of reaching a solution. Savio said the FSM could not accept the Administration's demand that the University have jurisdiction over the legality and "appropriateness" of off-campus political activity. 

    Another member of the FSM Steering Committee said: 

    "The University has changed its position considerably throughout the period of negotiation. Originally there was no suggestion that the Administration wanted to have jurisdiction over the legality of off-campus activities." 

    During the demonstration, FSM and eight other off-campus organizations set up card tables along the steps of Sproul Hall. There were donation cups and sign-up sheets on each table, in violation of University regulations. About 75 persons involved had their names taken, according to FSM spokesmen. Each table also offered a petition which stated: "We were at the tables and support those who were manning them." 

    Speakers addressed the rally from the top of an old dresser. The crowd sat, squatted and stood around the dresser, as it had around the stranded police car early last month. Approximately 200 students participated in the rally, while an additional 400 watched from the fringes. 

    4. The Graduate Co-ordinating Committee announced members of its group would set up tables tomorrow afternoon with FSM and other protesting groups. The graduates would sit under signs identifying their departments for at least an hour. They said they would man their tables until they were suspended, arrested, or their demands were met. Approximately 75 or 100 graduate students at the meeting said they would man tables. The motion to man the tables was passed with only one dissent. 

    Steve Weissman, Graduate Co-ordinating Committee representative to FSM, said that if the police attempt to arrest the students, the graduates will refuse all cooperation. He added that such an action might be cause for a strike by the teaching assistants and the faculty. 

    5. The following statement was issued jointly by President Clark Kerr and Chancellor Edward W. Strong this evening: 

    "FSM has abrogated the agreement of October 2, and by reason of this abrogation, the Committee on Campus Political Activity is dissolved... 

    "We shall now seek advice on rules governing political action on campus from students through the ASUC and from the faculty through the Academic Senate. 

    "The Academic Senate and the ASUC Senate have called for the use of peaceful and orderly procedures in settling disputes. We welcome proposals from all interested groups." 

    Regarding political activities, the statement said: 

    "... students participating in violation of rules will be subject to penalties through established procedures." 

    And, the Kerr-Strong statement concluded: 

    "The University is devoted to rational discussion, to law and order, and to freedom for students and faculty matched with responsibility in the use of this freedom." 

    6. An FSM statement called the dissolution of the Committee on Campus Political Activity the "destruction of one more line of communication between the students and the Administration... it makes the possibility of ultimate settlement even more remote." 

    Mario Savio added his own comments to the official FSM statement: 

    "By its continuing acts of political oppression, the University Administration has abrogated the Pact... Accordingly, the students have lifted the self-imposed moratorium on the exercise of the constitutionally-guaranteed political rights... No institution, except the courts, has any competence to decide what constitutes the abuse of political freedom. 

    "The students shall not cease in the responsible exercise of their rights." 

    November 10

    1. Graduate student protestors continued defiance of University regulations on the steps of Sproul Hall. The University took no official notice of their actions. Tables soliciting money--in one case, for a haircut for a professor--were manned by 
    196 teaching assistants and graduate students who worked in large groups. The large number of workers was intended to prevent administration action against a few participants, according to FSM. Demonstrators and spectators heard a speech by Mario Savio, then members of the Graduate Co-ordinating Committee of the FSM set up tables to distribute literature and to collect funds. Savio said: "The administration is on the horns of a real dilemma. They must either take all of us or none of us." 

    The Dean's office took no official notice of the violations, nor was any effort made to obtain names of those manning tables. The demonstrators obligingly sent a list of their names to the Dean's office, however. 

    2. Participants in Monday's (Nov. 9) demonstration were mailed notices to appear at the Dean's Office for disciplinary action. Students whose names were taken in Monday's demonstration held a late-afternoon conference at Westminster House, where Malcolm Burnstein, an Oakland attorney, counseled them on their legal rights. Burnstein told them: 

    "The regulations attempt to deprive you of a kind of speech, not a place to do it in. It is the opinion of all of us who have read the regulations that the University cannot legally do this." 

    3. Ira Heyman, professor of law and chairman of the Ad Hoc Academic Senate Committee studying the case of the eight suspended students announced the committee's decisions and recommendations will be issued Thursday, Nov. 12. 

    4. Faculty representatives of the Committee on Campus Political Activity met at noon to report on the status of the committee's deliberations at the time the committee was dissolved. The Faculty Representatives' report said negotiations deadlocked on "the question of the authority of the University to discipline for on-campus conduct that results in off-campus law violation." Earl F. Cheit, professor of business administration, said: "We were very concerned lest the committee go out of existence when we were so close to an agreement." Faculty representatives expressed a general disappointment over the dissolution of the committee. 

    5. Art Goldberg, one of the student protest leaders from the beginning, announced he was no longer a member of the FSM Steering Committee. "No comment," he said. (He was later reinstated.) 

    6. ASUC President Charles Powell announced formation of a five-man ASUC Senate committee to make recommendations regarding student political activity. Powell said he was acting because of the dissolution of the Committee on Campus Political Activity. Powell noted that the ASUC Senate was the first body to formally endorse the free speech rights of students on campus, but that the efforts of the Senate and of the class officers had been undermined and destroyed by the militant demonstrations of the FSM. "Up until now, the Administration has chosen or been forced to negotiate around the Senate. Now, the issue is back where it started, where it should be, and where real decisions are going to be made," Powell said. Powell also said: 

    "Members of the ASUC Senate placed their faith in the ability of the committee to solve the problem. Now that the committee is defunct, the Senate must take decisive independent action to reach a solution. 

    "The whole idea is that it's time the Senate took charge of this question of political activity on campus which was so confused and distorted by demonstrations, and we intend to take charge with conviction and responsibility." 

    According to Senior Representative Dan Griset, "The new committee will be the true voice of the students. It will be the only student group to offer official recommendations to the Chancellor." 

    Mario Savio and Dean Frank Kidner addressed the ASUC Senate in the evening. Savio demanded equal rights for students, both on and off the campus. He said: "If the FSM must resort to mass demonstrations, they will not be halted unless we receive substantial concessions from the administration." Kidner listened to Savio's remarks "with some interest and some sympathy," then reported, "the administration will continue to consider revisions in its policy." 

    November 12

    President Kerr released the report of the faculty members of the disbanded Committee on Campus Political Activity. (Full text, see Appendix) The report recommended substantial liberalization of University rules regarding on-campus political activities. In essence, the six faculty members recommended on-campus mounting of legal off-campus political and social action be permitted. Recognized student organizations, they said, should be allowed to accept donations and sign up members in designated areas on campus. However, the report said: 

    "The on-campus advocacy, organization or planning of political or social action... may be subject to discipline where this conduct directly results in judicially-found violations of California or Federal criminal law; and the group or individual can fairly be held responsible for such violations under prevailing legal principles of accountability." 

    The faculty group also recommended: 

    1) Room should be made available for meetings of off-campus groups in the student office building, scheduled for completion next semester. 

    2) The experimental use of Sproul Hall steps and the adjacent area as a Hyde Park area should be discontinued. 

    November 13

    1. The Academic Senate Ad Hoc Committee on Suspensions recommended six of the eight suspended students be reinstated as of the date of their suspensions. The committee also recommented six-week suspensions for Art Goldberg and Mario Savio, the suspensions to begin Sept. 30 and end November 16: 

    "We recommend that Messrs. (Mark) Bravo, (David) Goines, (Sandor) Fuchs, (Brian) Turner, and Mrs. (Elizabeth) Stapleton be reinstated as of the date of their suspensions. The penalty of indefinite suspension should be expunged from the record of each student... 

    "Instead, the penalty for each of these six students should be recorded as that of `censure' for a period of no more than six weeks. 

    The committee recommended heavier punishment for Goldberg and Savio because of their alleged roles in organizing and leading demonstrations. Goldberg was charged with leading a picket which interfered with a University meeting on Sept. 28, and Savio was charged with leading the Sproul Hall sit-in of Sept. 30. 

    The committee's findings, in the form of a 14-page report, (Full text, see Appendix) were formally submitted to the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate. Copies were sent to the administration and to the students involved. The next regularly scheduled meeting of the Academic Senate is Dec. 8. An emergency meeting was scheduled for Nov. 24. 

    Regarding the Heyman Committee report, Chancellor Edward W. Strong issued the following statement at 5:15 p.m. today: 

    "I have received a copy of the report of an ad hoc advisory committee which was established by the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate to review the duration of suspension of eight students indefinitely suspended last September for violation of University rules. This advisory committee has been under the chairmanship of Professor Ira M. Heyman, a member of the faculty of the school of law, Berkeley. 

    "Although Regents, the President and I had understood that the committee was to be advisory to me, Professor Heyman has addressed the report to the Academic Senate and his committee concludes `that it should render its report to the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate, with copies of the report to go to the University administration and students involved.' President Kerr and I completely disagree with this procedure. Out of respect for and courtesy to the Academic Senate, however, we shall await the reaction of the Berkeley Division to the report before commenting on its recommendations. 

    "As the report stresses, the committee, with the assent of the parties, `has been concerned only with events occurring through September 30, 1964, and has not been asked to, nor has, considered any events after that date.' Much has happened since September 30. Some of the students mentioned in the report have since engaged in seriout misconduct since that date and with regard to those actions, regular disciplinary procedures will prevail, including the immediate filing of charges by appropriate officials and hearings before the faculty committee on student conduct. In a conversation with Professor Heyman on November 9, he agreed recent violations of rules should be referred to the faculty committee on student conduct. 

    "President Kerr has today sent a copy of the Heyman Committee report, together with this statement, to each of the Regents for their information in accordance with the request of the Regents made at their October meeting." 

    Meanwhile, a University spokesman said, the University will continue to enforce its regulations. Those people who have been called before the deans for manning tables have been given a warning, if they have not previously violated University rules, the spokesman said. 

    Members of the Free Speech Movement were generally pleased with the Heyman Committee findings. 

    Mario Savio said: 

    "It is gratifying that the initial contentions of the students that the rules governing political activity were obscure and their reinforcement was arbitrary have been upheld by the faculty findings." 

    Art Goldberg, however, was unhappy with Chancellor Strong's refusal to act on the committee's findings before hearing from the Academic Senate: 

    "The committee's recommendations that six of the students should never have been suspended in the first place constitutes a clear moral imperative for the administration to reinstate them immediately." 

    2. The recently formed ASUC Senate committee on the free speech controversy considered a compromise proposal to resolve the conflict. According to Mike Adams, a committee member, the committee re-evaluated proposals made last Thursday, and made a number of substantial improvements on them. Adams did not reveal what the "improvements" involved. 

    3. The FSM issued a clarification of a statement made Wednesday (Nov. 11): 

    "We request that an action be taken against all participating grops or students equally. It must be understood that membership in the FSM is contingent upon an organization's endorsement of the principle of full political freedom, and not necessarily upon an endorsement of the tactics of the FSM." 

    November 16

    1. Tables again appeared on the steps of Sproul Hall for solicitation of funds and recruitment of members. FSM spokesmen said the tables would remain on the steps all week. 

    2. The Free Speech Movement began circulation of a petition in support of its stand on advocacy of illegal off-campus acts, in preparation for the Board of Regents meeting in Berkeley on Friday (Nov. 20). The petition, which will be presented to the Board of Regents, disagrees with point three of the recommendations of the faculty members of the former Committee on Campus Political Activity. 

    "We the undersigned resolve that: 

    "Only courts of law should have the power to judge whether the content of speech on campus is an abuse of constitutional rights of free speech. Only courts of law should have the power to impose punishment if these rights are abused. 

    "Therefore, we ask the administration to recognize that it not usurp these powers." 

    (Point three of the faculty report, which is advisory to President Kerr, recommends students be disciplined by the University for advocating off-campus action only if such advocacy: 

    "1) Directly results in judicially-found violations of California or Federal criminal law, and 

    "2) The group or individual can fairly be held responsible for such violations under prevailing legal principles of accountability.") 

    3. Letters were sent to approximately 70 students who violated University regulations last week by manning tables. according to Arleigh Williams, dean of men. The students were asked to report to the Dean of Students' office for interviews. Teaching assistants who sent their names to the administration and claimed they had violated regulations also were sent letters, Williams said. "All the interviews will be completed before we decide what action will be taken concerning those students," Williams explained. (Interviewed students were advised by legal counsel not to answer any vital questions, according to an FSM spokesman.) 

    4. FSM announced a vigil aimed at Friday's Regents meeting. Details were not announced. 

    5. ASUC President Charles Powell addressed the following letter to the Berkeley student body. It appeared in today's Daily Californian

    "Tonight at an emergency meeting of the ASUC Senate, recommendations will be submitted by the Senate subcommittee on campus political activity for final approval. They will then be submitted to Chancellor Strong and President Kerr for consideration before the Chief Campus Officers meeting and the Regents meeting later this week. The Senate sub-committee will suggest modifications of the Faculty Report as well as proposing a new solution which would allow and center all student political expression in the Student Center area. 

    "Until such time as the Regents have considered our recommendations, as well as those of other individuals and groups, the ASUC Senate stands firmly on the positions it has taken during the entire crisis--that is: 

    "1. The ASUC Senate supports the ideals and freedoms 
    sought by the FSM (Senate motion of Sept. 22 authorizing a petition supporting privileges of advocacy and of solicitation of funds and membership--a petition which has 3500 signatures) and; 

    "2. The ASUC Senate will not endorse a student movement such as the FSM which encourages willful violation of University regulations while those regulations are being re-evaluated (Senate Law and Order motion of Nov. 2). 

    "Pending the Regents' action this week the ASUC Senate may find it necessary to strengthen its position which is, in essence, in substantial accordance with the objectives of the FSM but disagrees as to the means. Until the Regents have had time to consider all the proposals to be presented and to make some decisions, I am extremely serious in my request that all students not associated with the FSM stay away from any demonstrations. Large on-looking crowds only make for greater distortions of facts by news media and for greater traffic problems. 

    "And to the FSM I would say that I think you have made your points clear; you've had enough to command the attention of the campus community for the first seven weeks of classes. I would suggest that it is time for us all to relax somewhat and allow the Regents a chance to consider all proposals made." 

    6. The ASUC Senate held a special meeting tonight, and considered three possible proposals regarding student political activity. The proposals, if approved, would be forwarded to the administration: 

    1) A five-member committee, formed last week by ASUC President Powell, produced a majority report favoring considerable modification and liberalization of existing regulations governing on-campus political activity. 

    2) Representatives-at-Large Dan Griset and Frank Rossi submitted a minority report favoring adherence to existing University regulations. 

    3) Representative-at-Large Art Shartsis submitted an independent report rephrasing, but supporting, the Administration's current regulatory powers. 

    The ASUC Senate voted to separate control of the Bancroft-Telegraph area from the other University political activity areas. This will allow groups not permitted on campus to have an adjacent activity area. 

    The Senate also approved a suggestion that a committee be appointed to advise the Chancellor on the administration of student political action. 

    A debate arose between Senate members over the University's right to discipline studnets participating in illegal political activity. The Senate committee's majority report recommended that students arrested for political activity be placed on temporary probation until the legality of their actions can be determined in a civil court. 

    November 17

    1. Tables again appeared on Sproul Hall steps. No attempt was made to remove them. 

    The FSM Newsletter stated "the illegitimate tables will remain until they have become legal, through repeal of the restrictive rulings." 

    The Newsletter also denounced the University faculty: 

    "They allow their colleagues to be victimized one at a time. They are loath to use their power to fight for their own freedoms or anyone else's... They may think like men; but they act like rabbits." 

    2. A meeting of the Boalt Hall Student Association overwhelmingly (402-170) approved a statement condemning the the administration's political action rulings. The statement said, in part: 

    "... a free society can tolerate no less than an unrestricted opportunity for the exchange of views on the political and social questions of the day... we believe that the University's restrictions raise serious constitutional questions. 

    "We believe that the spirit and perhaps the letter of our Constitution command that these restrictions be withdrawn. Where the choice is between expediency and freedom of speech, a nation of free men can have no choice." 

    3. The ASUC Senate tonight approved a proposal for a solution of the free speech issue. ASUC President Charles Powell and First Vice President Jerry Goldstein will personally deliver the report to President Clark Kerr tomorrow. 

    The ASUC Senate's proposal recommends: 

    "The University shall maintain that 1) all legal activity is allowed on campus, and 2) illegal activity off the campus is, as always, the private business of the student as a private citizen." 

    Also suggested was a method of operation, should the Chancellor "suspect that a student... used University facilities to incite, plan or organize illegal off-campus action or used criminal speech on campus." Under the ASUC proposal, the Chancellor could convene the Faculty Committee on Student Conduct which would give the student a fair hearing. Presumption of innocence, with burden of proof to be the same as in criminal courts, would be used in the hearing. The committee's report would be advisory to the Chancellor. The Senate recommendation also included the suggestion that the Faculty Committee, a standing committee now appointed by the Chancellor, should be appointed by the Academic Senate, beginning next semester. 

    The ASUC Senate also adopted an alternative proposal, introduced by Faculty Representative Lyman Porter. Porter's proposal recommends the University set off the entire student center area, including the contested Bancroft-Telegraph strip, as a region for complete freedom. Under Porter's plan, the free speech area would be completely under the control of the students. The ASUC would set up a board to administer the practical organization of the area. 

    November 18

    1. The Free Speech Movement announced plans for a mass vigil during Friday's Regents meeting in Berkeley. The FSM Steering Committee also issued an open letter to the Regents, requesting permission for FSM leaders to appear before the Board. The letter requests permission for a five-member delegation to appear before the Board and "formally present the platform of the FSM, which consists of a carefully formulated body of proposed regulations to govern student political activity on campus." 

    Mike Rossman, an FSM Steering Committee member, said, "Many proposals are being taken to the Regents, but the FSM desires to plead its own case." 

    President Kerr indicated the Regents would rather not have anyone speak, but would review written proposals. 

    2. The report issued yesterday by the ASUC Senate Study Committee on Campus Political Activities also brought comment from FSM leaders. 

    Mario Savio admonished the ASUC committee for "failing to endorse a principle stand of the Free Speech Movement, namely, that only the courts may judge when speech is an abuse of constitutionally guaranteed political rights." 

    Mike Rossman said: 

    "The ASUC Senate has acted too hastily. The members of the Senate have too little knowledge of legal language necessary to guarantee that any liberalizations will be implemented. The language of the Senate proposal and of the Faculty report which they have amended is too obscure and open to interpretation... This proposal does not provide for many of the major needs of the students, which have been expressed by the FSM." 

    3. Sanford Elberg, dean of the graduate division, called a meeting of all University teaching assistants. According to Elberg, the meeting was "to clear up the various aspects of the free speech issue." Faculty members of the defunct study committee and FSM representatives addressed the meeting, but it was "not intended to be a debate," Elberg said. About 450 students attended the meeting in Pauley Ballroom. 

    Earl F. Cheit, professor of business administration, and Henry Rosovsky, professor of economics, explained the controversial faculty position in regard to student discipline. According to Cheit, the proposals drastically limit the power of the University to discipline students. Under the proposals, students cannot be punished until they have received "a fair hearing" from a faculty committee. 

    Many attending the meeting were critical of Chiet's statement. Students questioned the ability of the University to grant students "a fair hearing." "The only institution which guarantees citizens a fair hearing is a civil court of law," one of the students said. 

    4. An unidentified man telephoned Oakland police, threatening to shoot Mario Savio. Berkeley and University police were informed. 

    5. The Ad Hoc Committee on Student Conduct (the Heyman Committee), issued a statement in which the committee said their report on the cases of the eight suspended students should not have been addressed to the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate. The report was properly field with the Senate, the statement said, but it should have been addressed to the Chancellor. 

    "By filing the report with the Division, the committee did not intend that the Division review the findings of fact and recommendations since the members did not sit at the hearings and receive the evidence and arguments which are the only relevant basis for the findings and recommendations." 

    November 19

    The State Board of Directors of the California Democratic Council asked the University administration and Regents to protect "the constitutional liberty" of the students: 

    "... advocacy of ideas and acts which are constitutionally protected off campus should be protected on campus..." 

    November 20

    1. A mass student rally on Sproul Hall steps, encouraged by folk singer Joan Baez, preceded a "peaceful mass pilgrimage-demonstration" by more than 3,000 persons. Following a noon rally on Sproul Hall steps, the majority of the gathering quietly marched across campus, led by a banner declaring "Free Speech," to sit on the lawn across Oxford Street from University Hall while the Regents met this afternoon. 

    2. A delegation of five FSM representatives requested a hearing before the Regents. Although the FSM delegation was admitted to the Regents' meeting room, they were not allowed to speak. 

    Michael Rossman, a member of the FSM Steering Committee, explained why FSM believes it should be "the legitimate spokesman for the students": 

    "Although others have proposed solutions to the problem facing the students (some of them well-meant and sympathetic), the Free Speech Movement is the legitimate spokesman for the students since it is most intimately acquainted with the needs of the students. It is only within the ranks of the Free Speech Movement that nearly all of the political, religious, and social action groups on the campus are represented." 

    3. As demonstrating students gathered across the street, the Regents considered the following recommendations submitted by President Kerr and Chancellor Strong: 

    "1) That the sole and total penalty for the six students be suspension from September 30 to date. 

    "2) That the other two students be suspended for the period from September 30, 1964, to date and that they be placed on probation for the current semester for their actions up to and including September 30, 1964. 

    "3) That adjustments in academic programs be permitted for the eight students on approval by the appropriate Academic Dean. 

    "4) New disciplinary proceedings before the Faculty Committee on Student conduct will be instituted immediately against certain students and organizations for violations subsequent to September 30, 1964. 

    "5) That rules and regulations be made more clear and specific and thus, incidentally and regrettably, more detailed and legalistic; and that explicit penalties, where possible, be set forth for specific violations. 

    "6) That the Berkeley campus be given sufficient staff in the Dean of Students Office and the Police Department so that as nearly as possible all students involved in violations be identified with the fullest possible proof since the incompleteness of identification of participants and collection of full proof have been held against the University; also that the General Counsel's office be given sufficent staff so it may participate, as necessary, in the legal aspects of student discipline cases, particularly since a more legalistic approach is being taken toward student discipline. 

    "7) That the right and ability of the University to require students and others on campus to identify themselves be assured by whatever steps are necessary." 

    The Regents approved these suggestions. Six of the suspended students received suspensions from Sept. 20 to date. Arthur Goldberg and Mario Savio, demonstration leaders, were placed on probation for the rest of the semester, in addition to the suspensions. 

    The Board of Regents also revised University policy on political action. The Regents' resolution, introduced by President Kerr, read: 

    "1) The Regents restate the long-standing University policy as set forth in Regulation 25 on student conduct and discipline that `all students and student organizations... obey the laws of the State and community...' 

    "2) The Regents adopt the policy effective immediately that certain campus facilities, carefully selected and properly regulated, may be used by students and staff for planning, implementing or raising funds or recruiting participants for lawful off-campus action, not for unlawful off-campus action." 

    (No specific procedure on discipline for advocacy of "unlawful off-campus action" was passed. Approval for the 
    first section was unanimous; the second section received a few "nays.") 

    4. FSM leaders immediately denounced both the Regents and President Kerr for having "ignored" the Heyman Committee recommendations and FSM's own recommendations in presenting the matter for Regents' consideration. 

    5. During a new conference following the Regents' meeting. President Kerr expressed the belief that the new regulations were more liberal than the previous University regulations. Asked who whould decide the illegality of advocated action. President Kerr said: 

    "In the usual case, you'd wait for the courts to decide. It would then go to the Faculty Committee on Student Conduct." 

    Specific regulations were not set down, President Kerr said. because "the question of writing rules and regulations is pretty complicated. The Regents prefer to make general policy statements." 

    The President also indicated the University's General Counsel, Thomas Cunningham, would "probably make up the specific regulations, and the Board will take a look at them." 

    President Kerr also expressed doubt that the FSM would accept the Regents' action. 

    November 23

    1. The Free Speech Movement responded to the Regents' "free speech issue" ruling with a mass rally at noon, followed by a three-hour sit-in in Sproul Hall. 

    The tone of the rally was sad but resolute. The demonstrators sang anti-administration songs (set to the tunes of Christmas Carols and well-known folk songs); denounced President Kerr and Chancellor Strong for "ignoring" the Heyman Committee's recommendations; and verbally advocated actions which, according to some interpretations, were against University regulations. 

    During the rally, Vice Chancellor Alan Searcy delivered a statement by Chancellor Edward W. Strong from a small, improvised rostrum on the first landing of Sproul Hall steps: 

    "This statement is directed to the action of The Regents in their meeting of November 20... 

    "The new policy provides opportunities for direct political action requested by 18 off-campus student organizations on September 18, and by the ASUC Senate on September 22. 

    "Prior to adopting this policy, the Regents received and reviewed materials submitted by individuals and groups including a motion of the ASUC Senate, and the recommendations of the faculty group of the Committee on Campus Political Activity. 

    "Activities of students in disobedience of the laws of the State and community are punishable in their courts. The University maintains jurisdiction over violations of its rules including those which prohibit use of University facilities for planning and recruiting for actions found to be unlawful by the courts. There will be no prior determination of double jeopardy in matters of political and social activities organized on the campus by students and staff. The demand of the FSM that the University permit the mounting of unlawful action on the campus without penalty by the University cannot and will not be granted. 

    "Most of the items in the report of the faculty group of the Committee on Campus Political Activity are subject to action by the Chancellor. I will take appropriate action upon consultation with the Student Affairs Committee and through that Committee with the ASUC Senate. These items include such matters as specific rules and regulations concerning collection of funds, issuance of permits for use of tables, and so-called `Hyde Park' areas. These rules and regulations will receive immediate attention. Pending this action the new policy will be in effect at Bancroft and Telegraph beginning today. Permits for tables may be obtained from the Office of the Dean of Students." 

    Vice Chancellor Searcy asked protestors to wait 24 hours, until the administration had worked out the specific application of the new Regents' policy on this campus. 

    At the completion of his statement, Vice Chancellor Searcy turned to leave. Mario Savio grabbed the microphone of FSM's powerful dual-speaker public address system, demanding Searcy engage in debate with him. "Hey! Get back here!" Savio demanded. The Vice Chancellor returned to his microphone, but refused to debate with Savio. 

    The Chancellor's statement was met with charges of "another stall" by FSM orators, who claimed the Administration, armed with the power to act against students whose on-campus advocacy caused off-campus illegal action, would be able to crush off-campus social movements at moments they would be most needed. 

    Following Searcy's statements, much of the remaining time was taken up with debate over whether or not to sit-in. After about an hour of debate, at 2:00 p.m., several dozen protestors arose and walked into Sproul Hall. About 300 others gradually followed them, as the debate continued. 

    Once inside, the demonstrators lined the second floor hall outside the deans' offices. Most of their time was spent debating their next move. 

    Mario Savio explained the disagreement: Either the protestors could stay in the building and face possible arrest for trespassing, or they could leave at 5:00 p.m. when the Sproul Hall offices closed. The reason for debate, Savio said, was that the FSM Steering Committee was split on whether a trespassing charge could be used as a test case for the free speech cause. 

    The Steering Committee finally voted, 6-5, to recommend students leave the building at 5:00 p.m. The decision was met with dissent from many demonstrators. There was more debate and, at one point, Bettina Aptheker, a member of the Steering Committee, told the crowd: 

    "Damn it, if we're going to win, then we've got to abide by the decision of the Steering Committee, no matter how badly split it was." 

    At 5:00 p.m., the demonstrators left Sproul Hall. 

    2. The FSM Executive Committee met at 9:30 p.m. to plan further protest action. 

    November 24

    1. Chancellor Edward W. Strong announced the following new rules for political activity on the Berkeley campus: 

    "Authorized student organizations will be permitted in designated areas (these designated areas to include the Bancroft-Telegraph area, North entrance, and area in the Student Center to be delineated by the ASUC Senate), to accept donations and membership signups, and to distribute political and social action material from tables provided by the organizations. On an experimental basis, the administration of this activity is delegated by the Dean of Students to the ASUC President. 

    "The following conditions shall apply: 

    "A. Permits for tables must be obtained from the ASUC. 

    "B. Tables for the student organizations shall be 
    manned at all times. 

    "C. The organizations shall provide their own tables and chairs. 

    "D. At Bancroft and Telegraph there shall be no more than one table in front of each pillar and four at the east side, and three at the west side of the entrance way. No tables shall be placed in front of the entrance posts. No posters shall be attached to posts or pillars or set up on easels. 

    "E. In using the tables for purposes of political action, organizations must not use the name of the University and must dissociate themselves from the University as an institution by means of a printed disclaimer. 

    "F. Donations may be solicited at the tables. 

    "Participation in the activities described above shall be limited to members of the University--students, staff, and faculty." 

    2. The Academic Senate defeated, by the narrow margin of 274-261, a motion to limit University regulation of speech, political and social activity only to the extent "necessary to prevent undue interference with other University affairs." The Academic Senate also defeated a motion to establish an Academic Senate committee to deal with questions of student political conduct. 

    November 28

    Letters from Chancellor Edward W. Strong, initiating new disciplinary action, arrived at the residences of Mario Savio and Arthur Goldberg today. Both Savio and Goldberg were in Southern California, attempting to rally support for the Free Speech Movement on other college campuses. 

    The letters charged the two FSM leaders with entrapping a University police car and an arrested person: 

    "On October 1 and 2, 1964, you led and encouraged numerous demonstrators in keeping a University police car and an arrested person therein entrapped on the Berkeley campus for a period of approximately 32 hours, which arrested person the police were then endeavoring to transport to police headquarters for processing." 

    Savio's letter additionally charged him with organizing and leading demonstrators in "packing in" the hallway outside the Dean of Students Office in Sproul Hall, "thereby blocking access to and from said office, disrupting the functions of that office and forcing personnel of that office to leave through a window and across a roof." It also charged Savio: 

    "... led and encouraged demonstrators forcefully and violently to resist the efforts of the University police and the Berkeley city police in their attempts pursuant to orders, to close the main doors of Sproul Hall on the Berkeley campus," and, "On October 1, 1964, you bit Berkeley city police officer Phillip E. Mower on the left thigh, breaking the skin and causing bruises, while resisting Officer Mower's attempts to close the main doors of Sproul Hall." 

    Goldberg's letter also accused him of having: 

    "... threatened Sgt. Robert Ludden of the University police by stating to him, in substance, that if police reinforcements attempted to remove the prisoner from your control and that of the demonstrators, he, Sgt. Ludden, and other police officers stationed at the entrapped police car, would be violently attacked by you and other demonstrators." 

    The letters required Savio and Goldberg to attend a hearing by the Faculty Committee on Student Conduct, and added: 

    "You may be represented by counsel at the hearing. The recommendations of the Faculty Committee on Student Conduct will be advisory to me." 

    November 29

    1. The FSM Steering Committee held an emergency meeting at 4:00 p.m. At 8:30 p.m., the Steering Committee issued the following statement: 

    "The Administration sees the free speech protest as a simple problem of disobedience and refuses to recognize the legitimacy of the students' needs... By again arbitrarily singling out students for punishment, the Administration avoids facing the real issues. 

    "Its action violates the spirit of the Heyman Committee report and can only be seen as an attempt to provoke another October 2. We demand that these new charges be dropped." 

    A University spokesman admitted he knew the letters had been written, but said the Administration normally makes no comment on cases dealing with the Faculty Committee on Student Conduct. 

    Chancellor Strong would not confirm the letters: 

    "Out of concern for the students, no matter what the occasion, the Chancellor's office makes no announcement of students being called up for disciplinary action." 

    November 30

    1. Chancellor Edward W. Strong rejected FSM demands that the new charges against Mario Savio and Arthur Goldberg be dropped: 

    "The Heyman Committee limited itself to charges of misconduct up to and including September 30, and declined to consider charges of violations after that date... 

    "These further charges have been referred to the faculty Committee on Student Conduct for hearing... 

    "... In threatening to engage in direct action if the charges are not dropped, those who make such threats demand a decision based not on facts but on intimidation. The charges, properly, will be subjected to the test of evidence." 

    FSM spokesmen refused comment on Chancellor Strong's statement. However, an FSM Executive Committee meeting was held this evening to decide on future action. 

    2. The Graduate Co-ordinating Council announced a meeting "to plan for a T.A. strike" to be held tomorrow (December 1). 

    3. "Free Speech" enthusiasts held a rally on the UCLA campus. An FSM spokesman claimed "strong FSM movements" now exist and are planning action on Univeristy campuses at Santa Barbara, UCLA, Davis, and on other Southern California college campuses. The spokesman predicted "some statewide action will be taken this week." 

    4. Administration spokesmen refused comment on an FSM charge that new disciplinary action had been taken against eight organizations affiliated with FSM. 

    5. University President Clark Kerr addressed the following letter to the Daily Californian. The letter appeared, with the appended Daily Cal reply, in the paper's December 1 issue: 

    "Relying on the Daily Californian as a medium of information is like relying on smoke signals. You can gain an impression that something is being said, but you can never be quite sure what. My current concern is the continued unwillingness of the Editors to quote what I actually said in an item which has been discussed within the University Community from time to time, with the Daily Californian being the chief carrier of misquotations. 

    "Now I realize that misquotations may be more interesting than quotations and the Daily Californian succeeds in 
    being interesting. With the hope that it might also be accurate, I am turning to the Icebox as a last resort, hoping it may be open also to the cause of accuracy as it is to so many other and sometimes quite contrary causes. 

    "Herewith are two actual quotations that are a lot less interesting than the misquotations: 

    "1. At a press conference held in conjunction with a speech before Town Hall in Los Angeles on Oct. 6 and in response to a reporter's question, I said: 

    " `Experienced on-the-spot observers estimated that the hard core group of demonstrators--those who continued as part of the demonstrations through the night of Oct. 1--contained at times as much as 40 per cent off-campus elements. And, within that off-campus group, there were persons identified as being sympathetic with the Communist Party and Communist causes.' 

    "2. On October 2 at a press conference in San Francisco following a meeting of the American Council on Education, I said: 

    " `I am sorry to say that some elements active in the demonstrations have been impressed with the tactics of Fidel Castro and Mao Tse-Tung. There are very few of these, but there are some'." 

    The Daily Californian answered President Kerr's letter with the following statement: 

    "Early in the Bancroft-Telegraph `free speech' dispute President Kerr was quoted by a metropolitan newspaper as saying that 49 per cent of the student demonstrators were Mao-Marxists. 

    "The Daily Californian never ran that so-called quotation at any time because we understood it was not accurate. 

    "We believe that we acted for the `cause of accuracy'." 

    December 1

    1. The FSM issued an ultimatum, and the Graduate Co-ordinating Council announced that teaching assistants would strike on Friday (Dec. 4), or sooner, "if conditions warrant." 

    The FSM demanded the University fulfill three major requests: 

    1) Disciplinary action initiated against FSM leaders Mario Savio, Arthur Goldberg, Jackie Goldberg and Brian Turner, resulting from the demonstrations of Oct. 1 and Oct. 2, be dropped. 

    2) Present rules on political speech be revised so that only the courts regulate the content of political speech. All regulations which "unnecessarily restrict" political activity be repealed. 

    3) The Administration refrain from further disciplining of students or organizations for political activity. 

    If the Administration did not meet their demands within 24 hours, FSM said, "direct action will follow." 

    2. The ASUC Senate passed the following "Demonstration Resolution" during an evening meeting: 

    "WHEREAS all of the original requests and demands of the ASUC Senate, faculty and FSM seeking the rights of free speech have substantially been met or are in the process of negotiation on this campus, and 

    "WHEREAS the decisions concerning the administration of the means of free speech have been put in the hands of the students, specifically the ASUC Senate, and 

    "WHEREAS, in specific, the FSM has advocated a sit-in at the Chancellor's office on December 2 and a portion of the teaching assistants at this Univeristy are planning to strike, 


    "1) That in view of continuing progress toward full on-campus political rights the ASUC Senate draws the inevitable conclusion that the FSM no longer has the extension of on-campus political rights as its goal, and that its present plans for civil disobedience are directed solely towards meaningless harassment of the University. 

    "2) That the ASUC Senate encourages all responsible students to avoid the scheduled sit-in December 2nd so as not to indicate that more students support this type of irresponsible action than is actually the case. 

    "3) That the ASUC Senate emphasizes the right of a student to an education and therefore encourages department chairmen at the University of California to make preparations to accommodate students in the event that any teaching assistants neglect their classes. 

    "4) That the ASUC Senate encourages all students to continue to attend their classes and, in that manner, to cooperate in continuing as normal an academic schedule as possible. 

    "5) That the ASUC Senate shall fully investigate the manner in which the administration has pursued prosecution of students involved in demonstrations throughout this semester. 

    December 2

    1. Approximately 1,000 persons--students, some faculty members and non-University persons--packed four floors of Sproul Hall following a huge rally in the plaza between Sproul Hall and the Student Union. 

    Leading the mass sit-in Mario Savio said: [picture] 

    "There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; you can't even tacitly take part, and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. And you've got to indicate to the people who run it, to the people who own it, that unless you're free, the machines will be prevented from working at all." 

    Folk singer Joan Baez told the demonstrators: 

    "When you go in, go with love in your hearts." 

    Then, as Joan Baez sang "We Shall Overcome," the demonstrators filed through the right-hand main entrance to Sproul Hall, up the main stairway and--as the first and second floors filled--on up the inside stairways to the third and fourth floors. 

    Protestors sat one and two deep along all hallways, leaving an aisle for traffic down the center. Plans were laid for at least an all-night siege, and possibly as long as two or three days. 

    As the sit-in developed, the University closed all offices in the building, except Public Information and the Business and Finance departments. Employees were sent home. 

    Protest leader Mario Savio demanded admittance to the Dean of Students Office. Dean Peter Van Houten and two University police officers refused his request. 

    Most of the demonstrators contented themselves with singing folk songs, playing cards or studying. Folk singer Joan Baez, seated in a second floor hall, slept part of the afternoon. 

    As evening arrived and the 7:00 p.m. closing time for Sproul Hall approached, food was brought into the building and distributed to the demonstrators. 

    At 6:45 p.m., University Police Lieutenant Merrill Chandler informed the students the building would be closed. He ordered those inside to leave. At 7:00 p.m., police locked the doors, allowing anyone who wished to do so to leave, but no one could enter. Ropes dangled from the second floor balcony, used to lift some food and several demonstrators into the building. 

    Sit-in leaders urged juveniles, non-citizens, women with young children and individuals on probation or parole to leave, because of possible legal problems concerning their arrest. 

    As the evening wore on, and possibility of arrest or other administration action appeared to lessen, protestors watched movies ("Laurel and Hardy," "Operation Abolition"), attended "Freedom School" classes in stairwells and open areas, sang, attended Hanukkah services, danced, played cards, studied, talked ("This may be a lark now, but we may regret it."), or slept. 

    Joan Baez left at approximately 11:00 p.m. 

    Hallway lights were turned off and by 1:00 a.m., most of the demonstrators had settled down for the long night ahead. 

    2. ASUC President Charles Powell denounced the sit-in. He attacked "the FSM's insatiable hunger for full capitulation..." The sit-in, Powell maintained, can only result in a "showdown" from which neither the University nor the students would "escape unscathed." Powell further called the demonstrations "needless" on the grounds that the Regents already had granted the FSM the privileges it had requested. 

    3. University Young Republicans formally withdrew from the FSM tonight. UYR President Warren Coats stated: 

    "What the FSM is asking, in effect, is that the Administration cease to be an administration." [picture] 

    December 3

    1. Beginning at 3:05 a.m., Chancellor Edward W. Strong, assisted by a portable "bull horn," delivered a terse message to students assembled on each of Sproul Hall's four floors: 

    "May I have your attention? I am Dr. Edward Strong, Chancellor of the Berkeley campus. I have an announcement. 

    "This assemblage has developed to such a point that the purpose and work of the University have been materially impaired. It is clear that there have been acts of disobedience and illegality which cannot be tolerated in a responsible educational center and would not be tolerated anywhere in our society. 

    "The University has shown great restraint and patience in exercising its legitimate authority in order to allow every opportunity for expressing differing points of view. The University always stands ready to engage in the established and accepted procedures for resolving differences of opinion. 

    "I request that each of you cease your participation in this unlawful assembly. 

    "I urge you, both individually and collectively, to leave this area. I request that you immediately disperse. Failure to disperse will result in disciplinary action by the University. 

    "Please go." 

    Outside the building, approximately 635 uniformed police officers had been assembling for nearly an hour. They came from the Alameda County Sheriffs Department, Oakland Police Department, Berkeley Police Department, University Police Department and California Highway Patrol. 

    At 3:45 a.m., California Governor Edmund G. Brown issued the following statement: 

    "I have tonight called upon law enforcement officials in Alameda County to arrest and take into custody all students and others who may be in violation of the law at Sproul Hall. I have directed the California Highway Patrol to lend all necessary assistance. These orders are to be carried out peacefully and quietly as a demonstration that the rule of law must be honored in California." 

    Simultaneously, in compliance with Governor Brown's orders, police officers entered the fourth floor of Sproul Hall, and the arrests began. It took 12 hours to clear the building. After clearing the fourth floor, police moved down to the third. After clearing a portion of the third floor, the police shifted their attention to the second floor, where demonstrators from the first and third floors had joined those on the second for a massive jam-in. Police spent most of the day clearing the second floor. 

    Any demonstrator was free to leave the building at any time, before his arrest. Only those who insisted on remaining in the building were arrested. 

    Each arrested demonstrator was given the choice of walking or being dragged. Some walked; most "went limp" and were dragged. Men were fingerprinted and searched, then taken down inside stairways to the basement. Women were taken to the Dean of Students Office, searched, then taken down an elevator to the basement. From the basement, demonstrators were loaded into buses and "paddy wagons" for the trip to one of three detention locations: Santa Rita Rehabilitation Center, Oakland City Jail, or Berkeley City Jail. 

    Arrests were formally made by the Berkeley Police Department on one or more counts: failure to disperse, refusal to 
    leave a government building after being ordered to do so, and resisting arrest. (Civil rights attorney Robert Truhaft, the first person arrested, commented that this was the first time sit-in demonstrators have been charged with resisting arrest for going limp while being arrested.) 

    Bail for arrested demonstrators was originally set at $75 per offense, with $100 for resisting arrest (going limp and having to be dragged). Individual bails, depending upon specific charges, ranged from $166 to $276. At 9:10 p.m., Berkeley Municipal Judge Rupert Crittenden reduced the bails, lowering the range to between $56 and $110. (Bail totals include "penalty assessment" of approximately ten per cent.) 

    A group of University faculty members raised contributions (from students, T.A.'s and faculty members) of approximately $8,500 for bail bond fees for the arrested students. All demonstrators, except one being held for narcotics possession, were released by December 4. Transportation back to Berkeley also was arranged. 

    Charges of "police brutality," "sadism," and "torture" began even before the first arrested students were on their way to jail. FSM spokesmen, including leader Steve Weissman--who "escaped" out of a window--claimed the demonstrators were being clubbed, kicked, had their arms twisted, hair pulled, etc. 

    Arthur Goldberg later charged: 

    "The police laughed with pleasure while they inflicted pain on the students." 

    According to Dr. James Terry, Santa Rita medical officer, the police were to be commended for their "skill in doing what they had to do without hurting the students." 

    2. At 1:00 p.m., a general faculty meeting was held in Wheeler Auditorium. Nathan Glazer, professor of sociology, presided. More than 800 professors and instructors attended (T.A.'s attended, but did not vote). During the two-hour meeting, the group passed two resolutions: 

    1. A resolution introduced by Henry F. May, chairman of the department of history, addressed to the President, the Chancellor, and the Daily Californian

    "In view of the desperate situation now confronting the University, every effort must be made to restore the unity of our campus community, and to end the series of provocation and reprisal which has resulted in disaster. With this purpose, the undersigned faculty members urge that the following actions be taken immediately: 

    "1) That the new and liberalized rules for campus political action be declared in effect and enforced, pending their improvement, 

    "2) That all pending campus action against students for acts occurring before the present date be dropped, 

    "3) That a committee selected by and responsible to the Academic Senate be established, to which students may appeal decisions of the Administration regarding penalties for violations relating to offenses arising from political action, and that decisions of this committee are final." 

    Herbert McClosky, professor of political science, offered two additions, both of which were overwhelmingly accepted: 

    1) Retraction of the Regents' decision that the University could prosecute students for advocating illegal off-campus action, and 

    2) A demand that no student be prosecuted by the University for participating in any off-campus activity. 

    2. A telegram to Governor Edmund G. Brown, 
    signed by 361 faculty members: 

    "The undersigned members of the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley strongly condemn the presence of the State Highway Patrol on the Berkeley campus. We also protest the exclusion of faculty members, including at least one member of our Committee on Academic Freedom, from Sproul Hall, at a time when the police were admitting newsmen and photographers. Punitive action taken against hundreds of students cannot help to solve our current problems, and will aggravate the already serious situation. Only prompt release of the arrested students offers any prospect of restoring the unity of campus life and of a return to normal academic functions." 

    The faculty assembly also heard a statement, read by John H. Reynolds, professor of physics and chairman of the Berkeley chapter of the American Association of University Professors. The statement was met with cheers, but was not introduced or passed as a motion: 

    "The Executive Committee of the Berkeley Chapter of the AAUP unanimously believes that the present crisis cannot be properly resolved without: 

    "1) Complete amnesty for past offenses in the course of the Free Speech controversy, 

    "2) A new chief campus officer for Berkeley who will have the confidence of the University community." 

    3. As arrests continued in Sproul Hall, pickets attempted to block campus entrances, encouraging faculty members, teaching assistants, and students to stay away from classes in protest over the demonstrators' arrests. 

    4. Governor Brown's office in Sacramento was picketed by a group from the Davis campus. Brown conferred with the pickets in the afternoon. His decision to order the arrests was based on a "consensus of opinion," he said. The Governor also said: 

    "I assume full responsibility for this in every shape, form and manner. I felt it was the right thing to do. The overriding matter became one between the people of the State of California versus the demonstrators." 

    5. Later in the afternoon, President Clark Kerr issued a statement condemning the demonstration and the FSM (Full text, see Appendix). Kerr's statement said, in part: 

    "The FSM and its leaders from the start declared the police would have to haul them out. They are now finding that, in their effort, to escape the gentle discipline of the University, they have thrown themselves into the arms of the less understanding discipline of the community at large... 

    "When patience and tolerance and reasonableness and decency have been tried, yet democratic processes continue to be forsaken by the FSM in favor of anarchy, then the process of law enforcement takes over." 

    6. The Graduate Co-ordinating Council met late this afternoon to discuss plans to implement the strike. Significant support for the movement was evident: the Daily Californian reported 50 per cent or more of the T.A.'s in anthropology, English, French, geography, German, history, Italian, molecular biology, philosophy, physics, political science, Slavic languages, social science, sociology and subject A would refuse to cross picket lines. 

    7. Chancellor Edward W. Strong issued a statement this evening. The statement began with the statement Chancellor Strong read to the students occupying the corridors of Sproul Hall, then continued: 

    "Only those persons were placed under arrest who refused in subsequent hours to leave the building voluntarily. When Sproul Hall was closed at 7:00 p.m. Wednesday, warning was given at that time that further occupancy of the building by demonstrators was illegal. 

    "The deliberate refusal of individuals to obey the law, after being warned of consequences of disobedience, made it necessary to proceed with their arrests. Concerned for the welfare of its students, the University hoped that the warning given would be heeded. When it was not, no further recourses remained except enforcement of the law. 

    "The University, as a public trust, cannot default on its responsibility of maintaining law and order on its campuses. There must be no interference with nor disruption of the orderly conduct of University business. 

    "In his statement, President Clark Kerr places the most recent defiance of legitimate authority by the FSM in the context and perspective in which it should be viewed by all members of the campus community. I join with him in his appeal to reason in the conduct of University affairs, and in the firm expectation that reasonableness will prevail." 

    December 4

    1. Demonstration leaders and others arrested yesterday and released on bail appeared on campus wearing large white "V's" on black backgrounds and attended a huge noon rally on Sproul Hall steps. More than 5,000 persons jammed the plaza and many lined the balconies and Dining Commons roof to hear protest leaders and faculty members condemn Governor Brown, The Regents, President Kerr, Chancellor Strong and the police. 

    2. The student strike continued through the day, with picket lines at campus entrances and construction sites. Labor unions, asked to support the FSM pickets, generally condemned the use of police and the "denial of free speech" on the campus, but would not officially endorse or recognize the student strike. "This is not a dispute between labor and management," a local Teamster official said, although several individual delivery truck drivers were reported to have refused to cross the students' picket lines. 

    3. FSM set up a committee of 125-150 people to call University students during the week end. Attempts were made to reach every Berkeley student. "I'm calling to ask for your support of the walkout," callers were supposed to say; however, many students reported receiving telephone calls from someone who said: 

    "I'm your T.A. in__________________________. It wouldn't be advisable for you to attend classes during the strike." 

    4. Henry F. May, chairman of the department of history, announced formation of a Council of Department Chairman (Full text, see Appendix)

    5. ASUC President Charles Powell issued the following statement during a news conference this afternoon: 

    "Because of the fact that the issues have become muddled and because the FSM has refused to use the right channels and have the patience to use the right channels, the majority of this campus community doesn't support the actions of this body of individuals. The campus community would support proper channels--the only two remaining channels which are available--but sit-ins, strikes, and arbitrating bodies are not going to bridge the gap which divides this campus. 

    "Education and the normal processes of learning are of utmost importance here, and the FSM regards itself as being able to decide for everyone else on this campus that their demands are more important than the basic purpose of this University. I maintain that such disregard of others' rights to an education on this campus if it continues will have serious consequences. 

    "Our world-renowned faculty members will leave, large numbers of students will change campuses having done poorly in courses here for lack of the proper atmosphere, and legislative influence from Sacramento is threatening more and more the autonomy of the University of California. Destroying the political autonomy of the University would be a disastrous consequence, and along with the other reasons which I have stated, make the FSM continual demonstrations and tactics completely invalid and unwanted." 

    December 5

    1. The FSM Executive Committee and Steering Committee began a week-end-long series of meetings to plan details of their strike and future action. The strike is to continue until noon, December 8. The strike would end shortly before the Academic Senate is scheduled to meet to consider its Committee on Academic Freedom's recommendations to end the current dispute. 

    2. The 37-member California Alumni Council, governing body for the 50,000-member California Alumni Association, met today and issued the following statement: 

    "WHEREAS recent events have seriously endangered, in the eyes of the people of the State of California, the fine reputation of the University established over nearly 100 years of creative growth; and 

    "WHEREAS the overwhelming law-abiding majority of students, faculty and alumni have privately deplored the threatened state of anarchy sought to be imposed on a great University by relatively few agitators and malcontents and their misguided sympathizers; and 

    "WHEREAS all too seldom in the past week have the voices of this majority of thinking citizens been raised to speak in defense of law and order; and 

    "WHEREAS the time has come for this Council to speak out on this challenge to duly constituted authority, and to speak also of civil responsibilities as well as civil rights; 

    "NOW THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED by the Alumni Council of the University of California as follows: 

    "We are appalled and do condemn the tragic conduct of a group which has announced its intention to engage in unlawful conduct characterized by itself as `civil disobedience.' 

    "We commend Governor Brown, President Kerr, Chancellor Strong and District Attorney Coakley for their forthright and vigorous action. 

    "We adopt and concur in President Kerr's recent statement that the means adopted by these dissidents have now `become an instrument of anarchy and personal aggrandizement.' 

    "We do recommend and fully support firm disciplinary action including expulsion or dismissal where warranted. 

    "We urge the great majority of students, faculty and citizens of California who have an ingrained respect for law and order to speak up in its defense and support the administration's maintenance of traditional democratic principles and processes." 

    3. Charles Powell, ASUC president, called a news conference to issue a statement which read, in part: 

    "The FSM, a minority group, is imposing needless suffering on the majority of the students on the campus by illegally demonstrating for an aspect of political activity which is now not allowed and can only be changed... through legal means." 

    4. The College Federation of Young Republicans said: 

    "We condemn the leadership and lawless tactics of the Free Speech Movement which can in no way claim to represent the great majority of students at the University of California..." 

    5. The Berkeley chapter of the American Federation of Teachers directed a resolution to President Kerr, which declared in part: 

    "We would like to inform you that any punitive action taken against teaching assistants or officers of instruction would be intolerable to our group and create a situation in which class instruction could not continue... 

    6. The ASUC Senate, holding an emergency meeting tonight, passed the following resolution: 

    "1) We urge all members of the faculty and all teaching assistants to immediately resume classroom instruction. We further urge all students to resume attending their classes for the pursuit of knowledge and higher education. 

    "2) The new and liberalized regulations regarding political and social activity on the campus, must be immediately implemented and enforced. Any inconsistencies should thereafter be corrected by the proper authorities of the stable, established bodies for orderly change. In 
    essence the regulations are essentially these: 

    "1. Advocacy of off-campus action falling within legal speech areas is allowed. 

    "2. Solicitation of funds is allowed. 

    "3. Solicitation of membership is allowed. 

    "Means for implementing these ideas including speakers and tables, are `subject only to restrictions necessary for normal conduct of University functions and business.' 

    "All students should remain within the new regulations while the student committee interprets, establishes, and defines these regulations. 

    "3) We recognize the arrests of the students, and realize that legitimate due process of law was and will be enacted against them, regardless of the difficulties involved in the administration of due process in such a situation. 

    "Before the students are tried, we wish that the following points, which have great bearing on the overall picture, be given the court's deepest consideration: 

    "1. The students involved were cognizant of their actions, however, reasons for their conduct were obscured by cloudy issues. 

    "2. Prior to the arrests, there was a breakdown in communication between all groups involved and an inconsistency in actions best exemplified by changing stands on all sides. 

    "3. The events have been an intermixing of emotionalism and rational conviction, the value of which, none save the courts, may hope to presume. 

    "Realizing that there were such extenuating circumstances involved in this issue, we hope the court will give this case a most liberal consideration and grant sufficient leniency so as not to interfere with the education of these students. 

    "4) The ASUC Senate will press for the initiation of legal proceedings to resolve the complex issues by immediately beginning procedures to bring a test case to the courts on the issue of jurisdiction over charges regarding illegal advocacy of off-campus political and social action. 

    "5) The ASUC Senate urges that charges against the four students be dropped." 

    Commuter-Independent Representative Joel Hacker, a member of Slate, was the only senator in opposition to the proposal. 

    In reaction to the ASUC Senate recommendations, Arthur Goldberg, former Slate chairman and one of the FSM leaders, said: 

    "How can I go to class and learn of our country's democratic processes when I'm not allowed to practice them on campus?" 

    December 6

    1. President Clark Kerr announced he had cancelled a planned trip to Chicago, and that he would address a special University meeting at 11:00 a.m. tomorrow (Dec. 7) in the Greek Theatre. All classes between 9:00 a.m. and noon were cancelled. President Kerr announced the meeting would serve to introduce a proposal "to inaugurate a new era of freedom under law" which had been unanimously approved by 73 department chairmen yesterday. 

    Kerr's announcement came after he had spent four hours in discussions with Governor Brown, members of the Board of Regents and faculty members. President Kerr previously had announced he would speak to the students on his return from Chicago, Tuesday or Wednesday. 

    2. The following statement was released by the Council of Department Chairmen: 

    "On December 3, in the midst of the great crisis at the University, a meeting of all Department Chairmen of the Berkeley campus was convened. It carried on earnest deliberations for several hours and established a Working Committee to explore approaches to all problems concerned with the crisis. 

    "A second meeting was convened on December 4, and almost unanimous agreement was achieved on a proposal forwarded by the Working Committee. 

    "This proposal in its essential elements was finally approved unanimously by the Chairmen on December 6 and has the concurrence of the President. All chairmen have been advised by the Council of Department Chairmen to hold departmental meetings at 9:00 a.m. on Monday morning, December 7. The agreement will be publicly announced at 11:00 a.m. in an extraordinary convocation in the Greek Theatre called by the Department Chairmen at which Professor Robert A. Scalapino and President Clark Kerr will speak. Department Chairmen have recommended that classes be dismissed from 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 a.m. Department representatives will speak with students about the agreement throughout the afternoon. 

    "All parties to this agreement are extremely optimistic that it will unite the great body of the University, strengthen faculty-student relations, and inaugurate a new era of freedom under law." 

    3. A new organization, University Students for Law and Order, and the ASUC announced joint sponsorship of a noon rally to be held in the lower Student Union plaza tomorrow (Dec. 7). 

    USLO Chairman Robert Dussault took the opportunity to issue the following statement: 

    "There is no need, nor is there any excuse, for civil disobedience on our campus. Those students involved in the demonstrations demand protection of their rights while, at the same time, they are violating our rights. We urge all students support the legally-constituted administration on all issues until such a time as the civil judicial system dictates otherwise." 

    The USLO-ASUC announcement of the noon rally brought the following statement from Brian Turner, an FSM spokesman: 

    "FSM has never precipitated any violence. Our presence in Sproul Hall Plaza at noon is well known. Any students who attempt to bring together opposing emotion-packed student elements must bear the responsibility for any reaction between the groups." 

    4. It was announced that Chancellor Edward W. Strong was admitted to the University Medical Center in San Francisco last night with abdominal pains, tentatively diagnosed as gall bladder trouble. Hospital spokesmen estimated Strong would be in the hospital for a week. 

    5. The Academic Senate announced its meeting Tuesday (Dec. 8) will be held in Wheeler Auditorium. 

    6. Eight hundred arrested demonstrators met with some of their attorneys at 7:00 p.m at Garfield Junior High School in north Berkeley. The students, scheduled for arraignment at 9:00 a.m tomorrow (Dec. 7), were advised on their legal position and on court procedures. 

    Nearly 40 lawyers were involved in defending the arrested demonstrators. They held a meeting Saturday (Dec. 5) and chose a coordinating committee to spearhead their efforts. The coordinating committee was composed of attorneys Norman 
    Leonard, John Dunn, Malcolm Burnstein, Howard Jewell, Milton Nathan, Stanley Gold, and Spencer Strellis. The lawyers stressed they are not working for FSM, but are merely representing various students. 

    (Figures on the total number of sit-in demonstrators arrested on Thursday depended upon whose figures one preferred to use. The police figure was 761, a decrease from the original police total of 801, due to discovery of fictitious names, duplications and mis-numbering. The University announced, however, following a check of its records, that 814 arrests were made with the following breakdown: Students, 590 or 72.5 per cent; Non-Students, 135 or 16.6 per cent; Teaching and Research Assistants, University Employees and Unidentified Persons, 89 or 10.9 per cent.) 

    The district attorney's office announced demonstrators' cases will be assigned to various deputies within the department for investigation, with no distinction between students and non-students. 

    December 7

    1. Seven hundred and sixty-eight demonstrators arrested in Sproul Hall on December 3 appeared for arraignment before Municipal Judge Rupert Crittenden in the Berkeley Community Theater at 9:00 a.m. On motion of counsel, Judge Crittenden postponed arraignment to December 14, in order to allow legal counsel an opportunity to prepare their clients' cases. 

    2. The following statement, signed by nine full professors of political science, appeared in the Daily Californian. The statement was signed by Professors Charles Aiken, Eric Bellquist, Thomas C. Blaisdell Jr., Joseph P. Harris, George Lenczowski, Albert Lepawsky, Frederick C. Mosher, Julian Towster, and Dwight Waldo: 

    "We commend the preponderant number of University students who have at this time conscientiously and with good humor continued to attend their classes and pursue their studies. 

    "We condemn the illegal occupation of University facilities by striking students and we deplore the partial disruption of University activities which such conduct has caused. 

    "We advise any students who still remain on strike to return to their classes and resume their studies forth-with. 

    "We especially urge them to do this immediately instead of waiting for some deadline designated by others, so that they may demonstrate they are mature men and women capable of making up their own minds. 

    "Particularly in our capacity as teachers of government, do we call students' attention to the absolute necessity for pursuing orderly and legal processes in attempting, in good conscience, to correct any grievances they may have. 

    "Especially in a University in a democratic society, students must recognize that the derogation of due process and the disruption of normal administration in the name of Freedom of Speech is demagoguery, not democracy. 

    "And finally, as teachers of American government, comparative political science, and international politics and administration, along with the entire University system of the State of California which has sprung from it, has now become a national and international model for higher education, scientific research and intellectual services of vast array, with crucial contractual relationships to other institutions and governments and with prime educational responsibilities on its own burgeoning campuses abroad. 

    "To hamper the work of such a world-renowned and world-committed institution and to engage in behavior which subjects it to obliquy, is not solely an injury to a single University campus, but a threat to the attainment of the larger ideals of freedom, science, and service which, we are convinced, continue to motivate the minds of University students here and all over the world." 

    3. At 11:00 a.m., approximately 16,000 students, faculty members and staff gathered in the Greek Theatre for the unusual convocation ceremonies. University President Clark Kerr was introduced by Professor Robert A. Scalapino, chairman of the political science department and of the Council of Department Chairmen, who announced "our maximum effort to attain peace and decency." 

    President Kerr, flanked by all the Berkeley campus department heads on the Greek Theatre stage, publicly accepted the proposal presented to him by the Council of Department Chairmen and announced the terms: 

    "1. The University Community shall be governed by orderly and lawful procedures in the settlement of issues; and the full and free pursuit of educational activities on this campus shall be maintained. 

    "2. The University Community shall abide by the new and liberalized political action rules and await the report of the Senate Committee on Academic Freedom. 

    "3. The Departmental Chairmen believe that the acts of civil disobedience on December 2 and 3 were unwarranted and that they obstruct rational and fair consideration of the grievances brought forward by the students. 

    "4. The cases of all students arrested in connection with the sit-in in Sproul Hall on December 2 and 3 are now before the Courts. The University will accept the Court's judgment in these cases as the full discipline for those offenses. 

    "In the light of the cases now and prospectively before the courts, the University will not prosecute charges against any students for actions prior to December 2 and 3; but the University will invoke disciplinary actions for any violations henceforth. 

    "5. All classes shall be conducted as scheduled." 

    Professor Scalapino provided background on the Council of Departmental Chairmen's proposals. Scalapino praised President Kerr for the "courage and vision" in accepting it. Scalapino also said: 

    "No one would claim that we are presenting here a panacea--a perfect and final answer. We are offering the possibility of an orderly and fair atmosphere in which to reassess our problems, a possibility that demands for its success the good will and the good faith of all the members of this community." 

    President Kerr accepted the Council's proposals, and told the meeting that the proposals would go into effect immediately: 

    "As President of the University, I welcome it (the proposal) and endorse it and shall present it to the Regents of the University at their next meeting. In the interim, until the Regents meet next week, this proposal is in full force and effect." 

    4. Prior to the Greek Theatre meeting, Mario Savio, FSM leader, conducted a heated argument backstage with Professor Scalapino. Both Assistant Professor of Sociology John Leggett and Savio charged the department chairmen had "usurped" the Academic Senate's authority by presenting their proposal in advance of the Academic Senate meeting scheduled for tomorrow afternoon (Dec. 8). Savio demanded an opportunity to address the Greek Theatre meeting. Scalapino, who served as meeting chairman, told Savio that the meeting was "structured" and, as such, was not an "open forum." He 
    refused Savio's request to speak. 

    During the meeting, Savio sat approximately 15 feet from the edge of the stage. As President Kerr spoke, he shook his head and muttered "Hypocrite!" A reporter asked Savio if he was going to speak. Savio nodded and said, "I'm going to speak." 

    As President Kerr neared the end of his remarks, Savio rose and walked to the far left (south) end of the Greek Theatre stage, mounted the stage, and stood there for two or three minutes while President Kerr completed his remarks. At the conclusion of the President's address, Chairman Scalapino moved to the rostrum and announced the meeting's adjournment. 

    Simultaneously, Savio moved rapidly across the front of the stage to the rostrum, clutching a scroll of paper in his hand. As he reached the rostrum, two University police officers grabbed him and pulled him away from the rostrum. Savio was dragged through the center rear stage entrance and into a small room at the south end of the backstage area used by performers. 

    Several of Savio's supporters attempted to assist Savio; they were pushed aside or knocked down and held in place. No arrests were made. 

    Scores of people--faculty and staff, newsmen, students and police--gathered in front of the building where Savio was being held. At first, no one was allowed to enter. Alex Hoffman, an attorney defending some of the arrested students, shouted through the door: "Demand to see your lawyer, Mario." 

    Attorney Hoffman and several departmental chairmen eventually were admitted to the room where Savio was being held. 

    As Savio was being held at the south end of the Greek Theatre, Arthur Goldberg pleaded with President Kerr to release him at the north end. Kerr agreed, and, it was announced Savio was not under arrest, that he would be allowed to speak. 

    Surrounded by well-wishers, Savio told the crowd he merely wanted to announce an FSM rally at noon in front of Sproul Hall (President Kerr had personally given permission for this rally, so that the protestors could discuss the terms of the new agreement). Then Savio said: 

    "Please leave here. Clear this disastrous scene, and get down to discussing the issues." 

    Following the meeting, President Kerr indicated he was quite upset over the incident: 

    "There had been some indications of threats to disrupt the meeting... The police were prepared. Apparently, they weren't aware the meeting was over... 

    "Whether we have a new start seems somewhat doubtful... We wanted to walk one additional mile. There are those who think we've walked too many miles already." 

    5. Nearly 10,000 persons jammed the plaza between Sproul Hall and the Student Union at noon. They rejected, by acclamation, the proposals announced by President Kerr less than an hour earlier. 

    Jack Weinberg, a non-student member of the FSM Steering Committee, told the crowd: 

    "I really expected that we were going to get something today. But, we didn't. We are the ones who must save this University, but we're not going to save the University by capitulating." 

    Steve Weissman, also a Steering Committee member, denounced President Kerr as a "liar": 

    "Kerr stated, `We agree on ends and are divided on means.' This is a lie--a bold-face lie. The sit-in did not obstruct, but rather caused, the first rational discussion of the problem on this campus." 

    Martin Roysher, still another Steering Committee member, read a telegram of support from British Philosopher Bertrand Russell: 

    "You have my full and earnest support. Warm greetings." 

    Roysher also announced that Russell had sent the following telegram to Governor Edmund G. Brown: 

    "Urgently appeal to you to halt University and police oppression of students at Berkeley Campus. Appalling restrictions upon their civil liberty. All who value individual liberty are supporting their cause." 

    FSM leaders also announced that James Farmer, national director of CORE, would appear at an FSM rally next Tuesday (Dec. 15). 

    6. In anticipation of the Academic Senate meeting at 3:00 p.m. tomorrow, the FSM announced its strike would end at midnight tonight. Students were urged to attend classes tomorrow as a demonstration that the students have faith in the Academic Senate. 

    Jack Weinberg said: 

    "Clark Kerr demanded that the strike end. We can't do that. But, at midnight tonight we will temporarily end our strike and we will wait and see if they (the Academic Senate) can merge as an independent force." 

    Steve Weissman added: 

    "Let's give them tomorrow one day of real peace and quiet." 

    7. In response to the FSM request for suspension of strike activities, the Graduate Co-ordinating Council voted to suspend the strike of teaching assistants, readers and research assistants. The Council refused, however, to delete a warning that the strike might be resumed, if the Academic Senate fails to take initiative action in supporting the free speech activities. A Council member said: 

    "There has been plenty of pressure from the Administration, so we might as well exert a little pressure ourselves." 

    The GCC also turned down motions to hold a rally and vigil tomorrow. 

    Steve Weissman, a Council member as well as a member of the FSM Steering Committee, said: 

    "Frankly, many of the strike and protest signs have alienated some members of the faculty." 

    8. An emergency meeting of the ASUC Senate was cancelled tonight, because a majority of the Senate failed to attend. 

    9. Elections for seven representative positions on the ASUC Senate were being held today and tomorrow. "If you support FSM's goals, vote for the Slate candidates," Arthur Goldberg told the noon rally. 

    December 8

    1. The Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate met in Wheeler Auditorium at 3:10 p.m. and, after nearly three hours of debate--half of the time on an amendment introduced by Lewis Feuer, professor of philosophy--passed (824-115) unchanged "a resolution unanimously approved at a meeting of approximately 200 faculty members on December 7": 

    "In order to end the present crisis, to establish the confidence and trust essential to the restoration of normal University life, and to create a campus environment that encourages students to exercise free and responsible citizenship in the University and in the community at large, the Committee on Academic Freedom of the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate moves the following propositions: 

    "1. That there shall be no University disciplinary measures against members or organizations of the University community for activities prior to December 8 connected with the current controversy over political speech and activity. 

    "2. That the time, place, and manner of conducting political activity on the campus shall be subject to reasonable regulations to prevent interference with the normal functions of the University; that the regulations now in effect for this purpose shall remain in effect provisionally pending a future report of the Committee on Academic Freedom concerning the minimal regulations necessary. 

    "3. That the content of speech or advocacy should not be restricted by the University. Off-campus political activities shall not be subject to University regulation. On-campus advocacy or organization of such activities shall be subject only to such limitations as may be imposed under Section 2. 

    "4. That future disciplinary measures in the area of political activity shall be determined by a committee appointed by and responsible to the Academic Senate. 

    "5. That the Division pledge unremitting effort to secure the adoption of the foregoing policies and call on all members of the University community to join with the faculty in its efforts to restore the University to its normal functions." 

    Professor Feuer's amendment, which was defeated, 737-284, would have amended Section 3 to read: "... the content of speech or advocacy on this campus provided that it is directed to no immediate act of forced or violence..." 

    The University Board of Regents considered the Academic Senate's resolution at its next meeting, December 17 and 18, in Los Angeles. 

    Nearly 3,000 observers gathered outside Wheeler Hall listened to the proceedings over loudspeakers. They cheered as the vote defeating Feuer's amendment was announced; they wildly cheered the announcement of the main motion's final passage. 

    Joseph Tussman, professor of philosophy and chairman of the philosophy department, summarized the Senate's resolution: 

    "Anything that is illegal in the community at large is still illegal on the campus. The question is: Should the University impose more restrictions on its students in the area of political activity than exists in the community-at-large? The Senate said: No." 

    For Mario Savio, who returned from an attempt to see Governor Brown in Sacramento just in time for the Senate's decision, the Senate action was a perfect birthday present. Savio turned 22 today. He said: 

    "Our tactics caused the present success... The Senate action was a direct attack on the doctrine of en loco parentis... 

    "The FSM will now be a defense committee for 800 patriots." 

    In a statement, issued soon after the Senate had adjourned and entitled "Happiness is an Academic Senate Meeting," FSM said: 

    "With deep gratitude the Free Speech Movement greets the action of the faculty. The passing of the proposals of the Academic Freedom Committee is an unprecedented victory for both students and faculty. For months the FSM has fought to bring the issues to public discussion and to rouse the faculty to take action. Our efforts have finally succeeded, and our protest has been vindicated. 

    "Now that the University community is again united, we hope that it will work together for speedy implementation of its proposals. The faculty must see that the Regents adopt its recommendations. For our own part, the FSM will be completely at the service of the Committee on Academic Freedom in its coming efforts to formulate proper regulations. 

    "We regret having been forced to undertake controversial actions to begin a dialogue. The actions have weighed more heavily upon us than upon any others in the academic community. We hope that the dialogue which has at last begun will continue and increase, and that the success of this dialogue will mean that such actions will never again be necessary. 

    "We urge the faculty and the Academic Senate to do everything in their power to see that the court charges against the 800 are dropped. These students risked arrest to protest unfair regulations and arbitrary disciplinary actions. They made a responsible protest, and should not be punished for having fought in the only ways available for just goals which are now largely achieved. We ask that the faculty honor their dedication by taking appropriate action." 

    University President Clark Kerr also commented on the Academic Senate resolution: 

    "The action of the Academic Senate at Berkeley involves such basic changes in the policies affecting all campuses of the University, including changes in the Standing Orders of the Regents, that no comment will be possible until the Regents have next met." 

    2. In related action, the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate also passed the following resolution: 

    "Whereas, the present grave crisis in the life of the University demands that the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate offer leadership to the campus community; 

    "And whereas, the existing organization of the Division is not well adapted to the exercise of such leadership under the emergency circumstances now prevailing; 

    "Therefore, be it resolved: 

    "1. That an Emergency Executive Committee, consisting of six elected members and the Chairman of the Division ex officio, be constituted to represent the Division in dealing with problems arising out of the present crisis during the remainder of the present academic year, reporting its actions regularly to the Division, and convening the Division when necessary. 

    "2. That the election of the six elective members shall be conducted by the Secretary of the Academic Senate and the Committee on Elections; that nominations be filed at the office of the Secretary, 220 California Hall, by 8 p.m., Wednesday, December 9; that each nomination be accompanied by the signatures of five sponsors and a signed statement that the nominee will serve if elected; that voting take place by written secret ballot in the office of the Secretary of the Academic Senate between 9 a.m. and 8 p.m., Thursday, December 10; that each voter vote for not more than six candidates; that the six candidates with the highest votes be elected; and that the committee be convened immediately after the results are determined to choose its chairman. 

    "3. That the Emergency Executive Committee be authorized to call on any of the Standing Committees or to appoint ad hoc committees to assist it; and that committees thus called on for assistance report to the Division through the Emergency Executive Committee." 

    3. Slate candidates swept to victories in all seven ASUC Senate positions for which elections were held Monday and 
    Tuesday, Sandor Fuchs, Slate chairman and FSM member, said: 

    "The victory for Slate is a victory for the Free Speech Movement, and an independent ASUC. It comes at a time of the greatest victory for the student movement, just hours after the Academic Senate voted for full free speech on campus." 

    Slate officials also promised: 

    "... to immediately implement its (Slate's) program upon taking office, including full freedom of speech on campus, a co-op ASUC store, low cost student apartments, and the readmission of graduate students." 

    4. The ASUC Senate, meeting only hours after the announcement of the Academic Senate action, unanimously passed the following resolution: 

    "The ASUC Senate urges all professors, instructors and teaching assistants to be most tolerant of and lenient toward students missing classes, examinations, and papers during this semester, and especially within the last week." 

    Commenting on the ASUC Senate resolution, Vice President Jerry Goldstein said: 

    "A great deal of intolerance towards these students has been shown... This resolution may do something to help the students out." 

    Faculty Representative Lyman Porter gave the resolution his "full endorsement." 

    5. Charles Powell, ASUC President, evaluated the ASUC Senate's role in the "free speech" controversy: 

    "Overall, we've missed the boat. We have in many ways been inadequate in dealing with the free speech problem." 

    December 9

    1. Edward W. Carter, chairman of the University Board of Regents, issued the following statement: 

    "The Constitution of the State of California clearly charges the Regents with full and ultimate authority for conducting the affairs of the University of California. This they exercise principally through their appointed administrative officers and by delegation of certain specific but revocable powers to properly constituted academic bodies. 

    "It now appears that on the Berkeley campus these traditional methods have proved inadequate to deal effectively with the extraordinary problems created there by regrettable recent incidents. Hence, the Regents will consider this whole matter directly at their next meeting now scheduled to be held on December 18 in Los Angeles." 

    2. Governor Edmund G. Brown, president of the Board of Regents, issued the following statement: 

    "I have been asked to comment on the Academic Senate at Berkeley. I have also been asked to comment on reports that I will be asked to grant amnesty to members of the FSM who were arrested on December 3. The Academic Senate proposes fundamental changes in the policies now in effect at Berkeley and the other eight campuses of the University of California. These proposals deserve and will get my careful attention. But I do not intend to make a judgment on them until the Board of Regents meets in Los Angeles next week. 

    "As to the request for amnesty, I will not intervene in the cases now pending before the courts, nor do I intend to intervene at any other stage. For ten weeks the campus of one of the world's leading universities has been in turmoil. The orderly pursuit of knowledge has been all but impossible. This strife and dissention has deeply disturbed the people of California who have been generous in their financial support of the University and in their defense of its need for academic freedom to grow in intellectual stature. 

    "The trouble on campus has been caused by a group called the Free Speech Movement which had a grievance and which had several courses to follow in petitioning for a redress of that grievance. The FSM chose a chaotic course of demonstrations, sit-ins and threats against the administration of the University of California. Their actions resulted in charges against several hundred students. Whether the charges will be sustained by a court, I do not know, and I do not intend to prejudge their cases. But it should be clear to the members of the Free Speech Movement that in a society governed by law, a decision to defy the law must include a decision to accept the consequences. I have considered the question of amnesty carefully and my decision is final. I will not intervene." 

    3. Two hundred and fifty teaching and research assistants pledged themselves to abide by the constitution of the Union of University-Employed Graduate Students, formed today at Berkeley. The union was constituted "for the purposes of affiliation with organized labor." Teaching and research assistants from almost every department are included in the new organization, with strongest support from the mathematics and economics departments. Under the chairmanship of Michael Abromovitch, mathematics, the group passed a motion to adopt a constitution to be discussed and amended at a later date. The proposed constitution was drafted by Barry Shapiro, philosophy grad student on leave of absence; David McCullah, philosophy teaching assistant, and Michael Rabbitt, economics teaching assistant. 

    4. The Berkeley Chapter of the American Association of University Professors met today and heard the following statement by its Executive Committee: 

    "Six days ago, in the darkest hour this campus has seen, the Executive Committee of the Berkeley Chapter of AAUP called for amnesty for students and for a new chief campus officer. Our concern was for fresh leadership which could enter upon the work on restoration without the taint of past discords. 

    "Events of the past five days have gone a distance toward this restoration. Fresh leadership was provided by the committee of department chairmen. For future leadership in this crisis we can look toward the newly created Executive Committee of the Academic Senate. 

    "The amnesty we sought for students has been granted by the President of the University in an agreement with the department chairmen. 

    "The faculty has closed ranks in this crisis and has acted with unprecedented unity. Actions of a devisive character must be avoided in the work of re-knitting our campus community. 

    "For these reasons the Executive Committee presents no motion to the membership. It wishes to make two further statements. 

    "1. Chancellor Strong has long been a respected member of this faculty. We are immensely saddened by the news of his illness and hope for his early recovery to full health. 

    "2. There must always be the continuous possibility of direct and human negotiation between students and a local administrator who has full authority commensurate with his responsibility for order on the campus." 

    A motion from the floor, duly seconded, called for adoption of the Executive Committee's statement of December 3, requesting amnesty for students and removal of Chancellor Strong. After thorough debate, the motion was tabled. 

    December 13

    1. Chancellor Edward W. Strong, released from the hospital yesterday, cancelled, then approved with qualifications, a pre-court client-counsel meeting scheduled at 7:30 p.m. in Wheeler Auditorium. The meeting was moved to the Berkeley Community Theater. 

    Dean of Students Katherine A. Towle initially approved a request, on December 10, to hold the meeting in Wheeler Auditorium for the purpose of "legal representation for arrested students." The request was submitted by Thomas Barnes, associate professor of history and a member of Campus CORE. 

    At the time the request was presented, Dean Towle did not realize the meeting would involve private client-counsel relationships, a University spokesman said later. 

    Late this afternoon, Chancellor Strong cancelled the meeting, explaining: 

    "State property cannot be used for the private practicing of attorneys counseling their clients." 

    At 6:30 p.m., one hour before the meeting was scheduled to begin, Chancellor Strong released the following statement: 

    "The meeting is approved for open informational presentation of general statements of legal principles and procedures applicable to such cases. It is not proper to use University facilities for the private counsel-client relationships." 

    Loudspeakers outside Wheeler Hall informed the 768 students that the Chancellor had refused permission to use the building, and that the meeting had been moved to the Community Theater. 

    2. The University Students for Law and Order denied the "implied authorship" of a leaflet being circulated on the Berkeley campus: 

    "University Students for Law and Order deny the implied authorship of a ditto copy dated December 11 and distributed to departmental mailboxes referencing alternative proposals to those of the Academic Senate. This ditto copy is typical of the smear tactics which have been employed by the opposition in pursuit of their goals." 

    3. Sculptor Benny Bufano donated a sculpture of a crouched polar bear to the Academic Senate to help raise funds to support the "free speech" movement. Bufano estimated the sculpture could raise $5,000, "if handled properly." 

    4. A number of meetings and programs related to the "free speech" controversy were announced over the weekend: 

    1) James Baldwin would give a benefit lecture for the Free Speech Movement on Wednesday (Dec. 16). 

    2) James Farmer, national director of CORE, would speak at noon Tuesday (Dec. 15) on the subject: "Civil Liberties and Civil Rights." 

    3) Students interested in participating in local forums throughout the state on the "administration-student controversy" were asked to leave their names at the Student Union information desk. 

    4) A meeting to discuss how "students can effectively communicate support to the Regents of the Academic Senate proposal" would be held Monday (Dec. 14) at Hillel Foundation. 

    5) John Hendrix, Vince Guaraldi and Les McCann would appear in a benefit jazz concert for the arrested students at 8:00 p.m. tomorrow (Dec. 14) in Wheeler Auditorium. 

    6) The Graduate Co-ordinating Council announced a tutoring program for persons arrested recently and who may have been hurt academically by the recent controversy. 

    December 14

    1. Berkeley Municipal Court Judge Rupert Crittenden continued the cases of most of the persons arrested in the Sproul Hall sit-in to January 5. Judge Crittenden's action came during a hearing in the Berkeley Community Theater. The continuance allows most students to leave Berkeley for Christmas-New Year vacation. 

    Judge Crittenden anticipated defendants would begin entering pleas on January 5. He planned to handle 100 pleas a day. 

    2. Dean of Students Katherine A. Towle refused to permit use of Wheeler Auditorium for a benefit concert scheduled for 8:00 p.m. this evening. The concert was planned to raise funds for the defense of students arrested in the Sproul Hall sit-in. The concert was moved to the Finnish Hall in Berkeley. 

    In refusing Arthur Goldberg permission to hold the concert in Wheeler Auditorium, Dean Towle said: 

    "I cannot approve Slate's request for tonight's proposed jazz concert in Wheeler Auditorium, because it includes the collection of donations prohibited by University regulations." 

    The application for use of the hall had been received only five and one half hours before the concert was scheduled to begin, Dean Towle said. But, even if it had been received sooner, Dean Towle noted, the request would have been denied, because it violated rules restricting collection of funds to the Sather Gate and Bancroft-Telegraph areas. 

    Dean Towle also criticized FSM for selling tickets and advertising the concert before asking permission to hold it. Dean Towle did, however, suggest possible alternative off-campus locations where the concert could be held. 

    3. The proposed appearance of author James Baldwin was cancelled because of the no-collection edict. Instead, Baldwin appeared at the Masonic Auditorium in San Francisco. 

    4. An initiative petition was circulated on campus, asking the ASUC Senate to pass a motion supporting the Academic Senate: 

    "The ASUC Senate fully supports the position on campus regulations adopted by the Berkeley Academic Senate on Dec. 8, 1964; and urges the Regents to adopt this position as University policy." 

    5. The Academic Information Committee, an ad hoc group, began distribution of pamphlets entitled "A Message on the Proposed Solution to the Free Speech Controversy." The pamphlet is sponsored by Professors Henry Nash Smith, William Kornhauser, Sheldon Wolin, Charles Muscatine, Charles Sellers and David Freedman. It was prepared by a volunteer committee of the University professional staff. 

    According to Jay Levine, professor of English and Information Committee Secretary: 

    "Our main purpose is to publicize the position taken by the Academic Senate... We are in no way connected with the FSM... Our fund is being used entirely to inform the public of the nature and grounds of the resolution. We're not persuading anyone to do anything." 

    6. The Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate today elected six members of the Emergency Executive Committee, authorized by Senate motion on Dec. 8. 

    Elected to the Committee were Raymond G. Bressler, professor of agricultural economics; Earl F. Cheit, professor of business administration; Arthur M. Ross, chairman of the department of business administration; Carl E. Schorske, professor of history, and Robley C. Williams, professor of 
    molecular biology. Richard W. Jennings, professor of law and chairman of the Berkeley Division, holds an ex-officio position on the committee. Professor Ross was elected committee chairman. 

    December 15

    1. James Farmer, national director of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), addressed an FSM noon rally while standing on City of Berkeley property, outside the disputed Bancroft-Telegraph area. The rally, originally planned to be held on Sproul Hall steps, was moved as "our token of good faith," according to Steve Weissman, FSM leader. The rally was moved, Weissman said, so as not to alienate either the faculty or the administration. FSM would do nothing to make the faculty's attempt at settlement less effective, and it would do nothing where someone could claim "it's our fault," Weissman said. 

    The University administration invited Farmer to speak in Pauley Ballroom. But, as FSM spokesman John Sutake explained: 

    "It was felt it should be an outdoor rally; that is the nature of FSM rallies." 

    If the "battle for free speech and advocacy" is lost, Farmer warned the crowd of approximately 3,000, it would provide "a tool to turn off the faucet on the mainstay of the civil rights movement." Farmer also praised the protesting students: 

    "Whenever the battle for equal rights is fought, the students of the University of California are in the forefront... I applaud you and salute you. I come as your guest and will lend whatever support I possibly can to your ultimate victory..." 

    Farmer described charges that he was pulling strings in the Free Speech Movement as "absurd" and "ridiculous," but he said he was "not afraid" of being labeled "an outside agitator... 

    "Every housewife knows the value of an agitator. It's the instrument inside the washing machine that bangs around and gets out all the dirt." 

    Both Steve Weissman and Martin Roysher spoke to the crowd before Farmer was introduced. 

    Roysher said: 

    "We have definite interests as students... which might indeed be different from the faculty. We the students believe, yes, the faculty and students should have a voice, a determining role, but we should be as equals on this campus. There should be no paternal subordinating relationship between students and the faculty or the administration." 

    Jacobus tenBroek, professor of political science who introduced Farmer, avoided the "student voice" reference when he said: 

    "The faculty and the students have identical interests in broad areas: that students should have the rights guaranteed to them by the Constitution, and that this is an educational institution." 

    That education, Professor tenBroek added, should "encourage students' commitment to the action and passion of our time." 

    2. The newly elected Emergency Executive Committee of the Academic Senate requested a conference with the University Board of Regents during its meeting in Los Angeles, Thursday and Friday, December 17 and 18. The request was delivered to President Kerr's office after two meetings of the Committee today. A statement issued by the Committee today said: 

    "The newly elected Emergency Executive Committee met twice today and requested a conference with the Board of Regents at its Los Angeles meeting this week. Pledged to support the faculty resolution passed December 8, 1964, by the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate, the Committee will seek to present the resolution to the Regents as a basis for restoring a campus environment in which teaching, learning and research may be effectively resumed. Under its provisions members of the University community would be assured freedom of political expression under reasonable regulation as to time, place and manner, safeguarding the University's primary academic functions. 

    "In view of the Committee, these proposals of the Academic Senate fall largely within the framework of the Regents' policies governing political activity enunciated at their meeting of November 20. The Committee regards the proposals which will be presented to the Regents as an extension of Chancellor Strong's interpretation of their policies. Accordingly, the Committee does not regard itself as in conflict with either the Administration or the Regents. 

    "The resolution proposes that disciplinary measures in the area of political activity be determined by a Senate committee. The Emergency Executive Committee observed that the Academic Senate had responsibility in this area until 1938, and that present circumstances justify the return of this function to the Senate." 

    3. The ASUC Senate tonight approved (6-5) a recommendation that the Regents approve the five-point Academic Senate proposal to end the "free speech" controversy. The resolution was introduced by Bob Nakamura, newly elected Slate commuter-independent representative. 

    December 16

    1. State Senator Hugh Burns (D-Fresno), chairman of the State Senate Subcommittee on Un-American Activities, said that his committee will not hold public hearings on the student revolt at Berkeley. Public hearings at this time would serve no useful purpose, Burns said. A hearing "would create a climate which would make it difficult for the University of California Board of Regents to solve the problem," Burns added. He had few kind words for the Free Speech Movement, however, describing it as "a group of malcontents, silly kids and addle-headed teachers, egged on by Communist stooges." The Committee would discuss the student revolt in its next report, Burns promised. 

    2. The ASUC Senate, called into emergency session tonight by President Charles Powell, wrangled over the expenditure of $500 to be spent on forums to discuss the "free speech" issue throughout the state. 

    The Senate passed a resolution last Tuesday night, authorizing the forums and an expenditure of $500 for staging them. 

    Mike Adams, men's residence hall representative and forum coordinator, planned to spend $200 to print a report compiled by eight graduate political science students. The 40-page report was intended to refute charges of "outside agitation" and "Communist subversion" in the Free Speech Movement. 

    At the emergency Senate meeting, Representative-at-Large Art Shartsis proposed that the $500 could only be spent on physical arrangements. Shartsis' motion specifically forbade printing of the report. "This document (the report) is not factual. It presents only one side," Shartsis said. 

    The Senate voted, 10-2, with one abstention, in favor of Shartsis' motion. 

    3. A new organization of undergraduate students, called the 
    Undergraduate Association, has grown rapidly since its founding 10 days ago, according to an announcement by Richard Romanoff, founder of the new group. The group already had 700-800 members, Romanoff claimed. Romanoff is a senior in anthropology. 

    Explaining his group's growth, Romanoff said: 

    "A huge number, perhaps even a majority, of the undergraduates feel the ASUC has dismally failed to represent them in any meaningful way... 

    "During the Free Speech Movement crisis the ASUC did nothing whatsoever to speak for the undergraduates, or to guide and aid them. The demand for the Undergraduate Association has grown from the failures of the ASUC." 

    Earl Salo, a junior in history, added: 

    "Many people hope the newly elected members of the (ASUC) Senate from Slate will carry ASUC government out of the sandbox. 

    "But, it may be the ASUC is structured so it is incapable of effectively taking action for the undergraduates, no matter who its members are. We need an Undergraduate Association to do the things the ASUC Senate is too restricted to do." 

    Although many members of the new Undergraduate Association were also members of Slate and FSM, Romanoff said the Association is entirely independent of Slate and FSM: 

    "You don't have to be a member of FSM or agree with its actions to be a member of the Undergraduate Association." 

    The new Association would be organized along departmental lines, Salo said: 

    "This way, each department has its own small group to engage in activities that interest only members of that department, and also membership in the central Undergraduate Association, which will be large enough to give the students a real voice in University affairs." 

    One of the new organization's first activities would be establishment of a tutoring program similar to that announced by the Graduate Co-ordinating Council. Many students who are not in academic difficulty have expressed interest in tutorials as a method of individual communication between teachers, graduates, and undergraduates, Romanoff said: 

    "The ASUC has done nothing to help undergraduate students achieve a closer contact with graduates and faculty. This will be one of our first objectives." 

    Other Association goals would be improvement of teaching quality, and study, and encouragement of possible course changes and other academic reforms. 

    December 17

    1. Twelve University Regents, including Governor Edmund G. Brown, met with the Emergency Executive Committee of the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate for two hours in Los Angeles. After the meeting, Governor Brown said he could see little misunderstanding between the faculty and the Regents. Emergency Committee Chairman Arthur Ross called it "a frank discussion." The Academic Senate committee had requested the meeting Tuesday. 

    According to Ross: 

    "This meeting permitted the Committee to make a full presentation of the Berkeley Division resolution of December 8 as a basis for a constructive solution to the crisis at Berkeley." 

    2. While Berkeley faculty representatives met with the Regents, the statewide Academic Council of the Academic Senate held its own meeting at UCLA. The Academic Council issued its report and recommendations directly to the Board of Regents (see Appendix)

    3. During a news conference, President Clark Kerr said: 

    "We are dealing in difficult areas, such as the distinction between advocacy and action." 

    The President went on to say that the Regents put up no bars against on-campus advocacy in their meeting of Nov. 20. He also emphasized that the Regents "will not respond to threats." 

    4. Robert Dussault, founder of University Students for Law and Order, resigned as chairman of that group's executive committee: 

    "This resignation has become effective, not because of internal policy disagreement or harrassment by the opposition, but rather because of immediate responsibilities as indicated by my marriage and January graduation." 

    USLO would continue as an organization in pursuit of its original goals, Dussault added, but he will act only in an advisory capacity. 

    December 18

    1. The University Board of Regents, meeting in Los Angeles, did not accept the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate's proposed solution to the "free speech" controversy. Instead, the Regents adopted the following motion: 

    "1. The Regents direct the administration to preserve law and order on the campuses of the University of California, and to take the necessary steps to insure orderly pursuit of its educational functions. 

    "2. The Regents reconfirm that ultimate authority for student discipline within the University is constitutionally vested in the Regents, and is a matter not subject to negotiation. Implementation of disciplinary policies will continue to be delegated, as provided in the by-laws and standing orders of the Regents, to the President and Chancellors, who will seek advice of the appropriate faculty committees in individual cases. 

    "3. The Regents will undertake a comprehensive review of University policies with the intent of providing maximum freedom on campus consistent with individual and group responsibility. A committee of Regents will be appointed to consult with students, faculty and other interested persons and to make recommendations to the board. 

    "4. Pending results of this study, existing rules will be enforced. The policies of the Regents do not contemplate that advocacy or content of speech shall be restricted beyond the purview of the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution." 

    The Regents also issued a four-point statement to the University faculty: 

    "1. The Regents express appreciation to the Academic Council of the University-wide Senate for its constructive proposals and analysis of recent developments, and welcome the continuing discussion taking place in the divisions of the Academic Senate on the several campuses. 

    "2. The Regents reaffirm faith in the faculty and student body of the University, and express the conviction that this great academic community is in the process of finding the means to combine the freedom with responsibility under today's new circumstances. 

    "3. The Regents respect the convictions held by a large number of students concerning civil rights and individual liberties. 

    "4. The Regents reaffirm devotion to the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution, and note that 
    University policies introduced in recent years have liberalized the rules governing expression of opinion on campus. The support of all the University community is essential to provide maximum individual freedom under law consistent with the educational purposes of the University." 

    Edward W. Carter, chairman of the Board of Regents, stressed that the Board was standing firm on its resolution of Nov. 20, which provided that students could plan lawful off-campus political or social action, with the Regents retaining the right to regulate such activities on-campus. 

    2. The Emergency Executive Committee of the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate, which met with 12 Regents yesterday, issued the following statement today: 

    "Members of the Emergency Executive Committee of the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate announced today that they believe substantial progress has been made toward solving the problems which have beset the Berkeley campus. 

    "Our extensive discussion with members of the Board of Regents and with President Kerr, plus the actions of the Regents today, assure that the University will not restrict the content of speech or advocacy on the campus. This was the main point in the resolution passed over-whelmingly by the Berkeley Faculty Senate on December 8, and represents a desirable clarification of University policy sought by student groups. 

    "It is now clear that the advocacy of ideas and acts, which is constitutionally protected off the campus, will be protected on the campus. 

    "The Committee is satisfied that President Kerr stands committed personally to follow the policy, announced on December 7, that in view of the cases pending in court, the University will not take additional disciplinary action against students involved in the recent sit-ins. 

    "The Regents have established a Study Committee and charged it with the urgent mission of reviewing and, where necessary, revising University policy with respect to student political activity. If possible, this assignment is to be completed before the opening of the Spring Semester. The Regents' Committee will consult with students and faculty with the intent of providing maximum freedom with responsibility. 

    "The Regents reaffirmed their ultimate responsibility for discipline, and their delegation of authority to the President and the Chancellors. The Emergency Executive Committee believes further study and negotiations must be pursued in order to guarantee procedures which will preserve impartial adjudication of violations in the area of campus political activity. 

    "The positive attitude of the Regents, their resolution on advocacy, and the current development of new regulations by administrative and faculty committees working with students at Berkeley, make it possible for the campus to return to its primary functions of teaching, learning and research. 

    "We believe that the base is being established for full political freedom within academic order, and we call on all members of the University community to join in strengthening it." 

    3. Free Speech Movement leaders were unhappy with the Regents' action. 

    In Los Angeles, Michael Klein, a Berkeley graduate student and an FSM spokesman, said the Regents' four-point resolution was "an affront to the Academic Senate." He said Free Speech Movement unhappiness with the Regents' action did not, in itself, constitute a threat of "immediate demonstrations ... But," Klein warned, "if an atrocity is committed, we'll be prepared to take whatever actions are necessary." Such an "atrocity," he said, would be "suspension of the students who participated in the December 3 sit-ins." (President Kerr said no action is pending against arrested students and teaching assistants.) 

    FSM leaders in Berkeley termed the Regents' decision to uphold the Administration's authority in discipline on political matters "a repudiation of the policy we've been fighting for." 

    In a prepared statement, Steve Weissman said: 

    "We are shocked that the Regents refused (the faculty's) recommendations... Despite the efforts of students and faculty, the Regents have decreed that there shall be no change in the policies repudiated by both students and the Academic Senate. 

    "The students, as in the past, will continue to defend the rights of the academic community. The faculty, we hope, will stand with us in this fight." 

    Mario Savio declared the Regents' "horrendous action" marked a "tragic day in the history of the University." FSM had not planned a specific response to the Regents' action, Savio said; but, he reminded, "we're moving into a long vacation period that will give us time to speak with the faculty, consolidate our forces, and decide what appropriate action to take." 

    In an aside, Savio said he was somewhat surprised by the Regents' strong stand: 

    "The Board was not as tactically adept as I had suspected they were. I had expected some action less clear." 

    December 28

    The Committee on Academic Freedom of the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate released its recommendations concerning regulation of student political activity. The report was formally presented to the Academic Senate on January 5. (Full text, see Appendix) 

    December 31

    Chancellor Edward W. Strong announced the Committee on Academic Freedom's recommendations would go into effect "provisionally" on Monday, January 4, the first day of classes after the Holiday Recess. 

    January 1

    Chancellor Strong revised his previous statement on implementation of the Committee on Academic Freedom's proposals, adding: 

    "The recommendations of the Senate Committee on Academic Freedom contain certain minor points that require further study and clarification. 

    "The statement by me yesterday should not be taken as implying approval of the committee's recommendations." 

    January 2

    An emergency meeting of the Board of Regents named Martin Meyerson, dean of the College of Environmental Design, as "Acting Chancellor" for the Berkeley campus, replacing Edward W. Strong. Strong was granted a leave of absence "to recuperate from his recent illness." Meyerson's appointment was effective "immediately" and was for an "indefinite" period. 

    Acting Chancellor Meyerson conducted a series of meetings with faculty, administration and students over the New Year's weekend. 

    January 3

    Acting Chancellor Martin Meyerson issued two statements. The first was addressed to "Colleagues and Students." This statement was primarily Acting Chancellor Meyerson's introduction of himself to the campus community; it included a lengthy discussion of the new chancellor's philosophy, especially as it related to the current crisis. His second statement, issued later in the day, set down provisional rules for political activity on the Berkeley campus: 

    "The Regents and the President have asked me to issue provisions concerning the time, place and manner of political activity on the Berkeley campus. I shall do so as soon as I have had the opportunity to hear the views of the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate on the reports of its Committee on Academic Freedom, and the views of others, as they relate to Regents' policies. 

    "Meanwhile, for political activity during this interim period, the following rules will cover those matters of greatest concern during the next few days: 

    "1. OPEN DISCUSSION AREA: Until final plans can be developed for a suitable alternate discussion area, the Sproul Hall steps are available for temporary use for this purpose at the noon hour and between 4:00 and 6:00 p.m. Suitable voice amplification will be provided by the University. 

    "2. TABLES: Student organizations may set up tables in the following areas between 7:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. 

    (a) At the Bancroft and Telegraph entrance. 

    (b) At the Golden Bear Restaurant area, east of the low concrete wall. 

    (c) At the North Gate and Tolman Hall areas, and between Kroeber Hall and the Law Building. 

    (d) Student organizations may receive donations, distribute literature, recruit members, and engage in the sale of such items as buttons, pins, and bumper stickers at the tables. Publications of a student organization may be sold at the tables. 

    (e) Posters or placards identifying the sponsors are to be attached to the tables and other posters may also be attached. 

    "3. SPEAKER NOTIFICATION: The required advance notification for off-campus speakers is reduced to 48 hours; the Dean of Students Office will reduce or waive this requirement in those instances in which 48-hour notification is not feasible for reasons beyond the control of the sponsoring organizations. 

    "Students should refer to the office of the Dean of Students for necessary clarification. 

    "The Emergency Executive Committee of the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate concurs in these rules." 

    January 4

    The Free Speech Movement held its first legal rally on the steps of Sproul Hall at noon. 

    Between ballads sung by folk singer Joan Baez, FSM spokesmen expressed dissatisfaction with the proposals of the Committee of Academic Freedom, denounced the new rules for campus political activity, and announced a pending "investigation of the Board of Regents" under the auspices of the American Federation of Teachers. 

    Discussing the appointment of Acting Chancellor Meyerson, Mario Savio said: 

    "The important comment is that the person is nowhere near as important as the pressures on the person from higher up. His statement yesterday was hopeful. He seems to understand the situation, whereas the previous Chancellor (Strong) did not." 



    Copyright (C) 1998-2000 by the Library, University of California, Berkeley.
    All rights reserved. Document maintained on server: http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/ by Elizabeth Stephens
    Last update 03/21/00. Server manager: webman@library.berkeley.edu 




    1960 - 1975 Counterculture Timeline

    1960 June 13 Newsweek: apathy of students - get this
    June Baez & Seeger sing at Newport Folk Festival, which
    is ended with a hootenanny
    summer? Holiday magazine: Kerouac
    summer Gerde's Folk City in Greenwich Village starts
    holding Monday night hootenannys
    summer Univ of Michigan Daily editor Tom Hayden, having read
    On the Road, hitchhikes to California & meets
    SLATE members in Berkeley
    summer Trailways & several southern department store chains
    desegregate their lunch counters
    mid- Sidney Cohen's survey of 5,000 individuals who had taken
    LSD 25,000 times concludes it is safe
    Aug 9 Timothy Leary, 39, tries psilocybin mushrooms in Cuernavaca
    fall back at U Mich, Hayden founds VOICE
    fall Leary returns to Harvard, secures a supply of psilocybin from
    Sandoz, & starts the Harvard Project;
    also makes contact with Huxley and his group:
    Gerald Heard (Huxley's friend from England's
    Bloomsbury group), Humphrey Osmond (English
    psychiatrist in Canada), Al Hubbard
    Oct 12 Khruschev bangs shoe on desk at the U.N.
    Oct 19 MLK & 35 students choose jail after arrest for sit-in
    requesting service at the snack bar of Atlanta's
    Rich's department store
    Oct 25 MLK, held over on old traffic ticket charges, is
    denied bail & sentenced to four months hard labor
    Oct 26 JFK calls Coretta King & RFK call helps MLK's release 
    (& JFK p.r.)
    Nov Ike tries to cut US foreign military spending causing gold 
    drain, warns against power of the "military-industrial complex"
    Nov US sends troops to Nicaragua & Guatemala
    Nov JFKennedy defeats Nixon
    with 40% margin among Negro voters in key states,
    who shifted from 40 to 70% Democratic since the 1956 election
    Dec Boynton vs. Virginia: Supreme Court prohibits segregation in
    waiting rooms & restaurants serving interstate bus passengers
    Dec 20 Look: The Explosive Generation - ed. George Leonard - get this
    Dec Birth control pills go on sale in the US
    [when were I.U.D.s?? - around 1962 also]
    when? Charles Van Doren is among 13 contestants on television show
    "21" arrested for perjury in testifying that answers to
    questions were not given them in advance

    when? The Place & The Co-Existence Bagel Shop close 
    (Grant Ave in San Francisco's North Beach)
    Beatles first trip to Hamburg, Germany
    8 musicians meet in Ireland to form the Ceoltoiri
    Chualann; 5 of them later form the Chieftains
    Congress investigates payola, Teamsters Union
    Nineteen new nations emerge in Africa
    France: Manifesto of the 121 calls on draftees to
    refuse to fight in the Algerian War, cosigners include
    Simone de Beauvoir & Jean Paul Sartre 
    Sammy Davis Jr marries Swedish actress Mai Britt

    Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polka Dot Bikini,
    Are You Lonesome Tonight?, Green Fields
    *Everly Bros: Cathy's Clown
    Drifters: Save the Last Dance for Me
    Hank Ballard: Finger Poppin' Time 
    & original version of The Twist 
    Chubby Checker, 19, records The Twist
    Joan Baez first album

    television sets: US 85 mill; Brit 10.5 mill; WGer 2 mill; Fr 1.5 mill
    TV: The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis, My Three Sons
    Jean Paul Belmondo first movie, Breathless 
    (by Godard) becomes U.S. hit
    Hiroshima Mon Amour [recheck - have this earlier]
    Never on Sunday
    Big Deal on Madonna Street
    (Psycho: Hitchcock)
    Last Year at Marienbad - Alain Resnais

    Paul Goodman: Growing Up Absurd
    Black Like Me: John Howard Griffin
    John Updike: Rabbit, Run
    Allen Watts: Beat Zen, Square Zen, & Zen
    Kerouac: Visions of Cody, The Scripture of Golden Eternity
    Ginsberg: Kaddish
    To Kill a Mockingbird: Harper Lee
    John Barth: The Sotweed Factor
    Summerhill: A Radical Approach to Child Rearing - A.S. Neill

    1961 when? HUAC film: Operation Abolition depicting SLATE activities
    in Berkeley draws activists to Berkeley
    (Bomb shelters being built)
    61 when? South Africa: African National Congress (ANC) banned (check)
    (see note Apr 60 about 11 African countries independence 
    Apr 60 - Apr 61)

    Jan Bob Dylan, 19, shows up in Greenwich Village's The Wha?,
    and visits Woody Guthrie in the hospital
    Jan Atlanta civil rights demonstrations
    (Life: JFKennedy calls attention to Bomb Shelters)
    Feb 1 (First anniversary of the Greensboro sit-in):
    demos all across the south, including
    Nashville movie theater desegregation campaign
    (which sparks similar demos in 10 other cities);
    nine students arrested at lunch counter in Rock Hill, S. Car.
    choose to take 30 days hard labor on a road gang;
    the next week, four other students repeat the sit-in,
    also choose jail.
    when? (between Jan & May): Univ of Georgia: riots against
    admission of first two Negro students
    61 Feb 18 Bertrand Russell, 89, & Committee of 100 lead march of 20,000
    & sit-down of 5,000 anti-nuke outside U.K.
    Defense Ministry and is jailed for 7 days
    Mar (early) Richard Alpert takes psilocybin as part of the
    Harvard Project
    Mar JFKennedy initiates 17 billion dollar nuclear missile program,
    increases military aid to Indochina (=So Vietnam)
    & announces creation of the Peace Corps
    Apr 11 Dylan does first billed performance at Gerde's Folk City
    Apr 12 USSR: first man in space (Yuri Gagarin)
    61 Apr 25 Bay of Pigs: 1400 Cubans trained in the U.S. attempt
    to invade Cuba & are defeated by forces led by Castro
    May JFKennedy calls for 12,000 new Marines, the training of new
    anti-guerilla units ("Special Forces"/"Green Berets")
    and tripling of funds for fallout shelters & other
    civil defense programs
    May 4 James Farmer & CORE leads Freedom Rides (biracial
    groups ride interstate buses & use station facilities 
    to challenge non-?observance of 1957 & 1960 civil
    rights legislation
    May 14 first Freedom bus attacked & burned outside Anniston,
    Alabama & riders beaten
    (Dylan writes Ballad of Emmett Till)
    May 16 SNCC students replace CORE riders
    May 21 Mobs attack First Baptist Church, Montgomery
    May 25 First Amer in space: Alan Shepard (blast off May 5)
    May 25 Montgomery, Ala: violence breaks out Negro and white
    May 28 Amnesty International founded (by English lawyer Peter
    Benenson & friends) with notice in the London
    Observer and the Paris Le Monde
    June JFKennedy first summit with USSR's Nikita Khrushchev
    "diplomatic setback": K threatens to take over West Berlin
    June Nearly 200 more arrested & jailed (Montgomery, Alabama??)
    July 21 Second American in space: Grissom
    61 Aug 7 Bob Moses (& SNCC) begins first voter registration school in
    Mississippi (McComb, Fayette County)
    Aug 13 East German border guards begin construction of Berlin Wall
    Aug 29 Bob Moses beaten while trying to register two voters in Liberty
    Sept Dylan plays Gerde's Folk City in Greenwich Village,
    gets first review (Times)
    Sept 17 U.K.: March & sit-down, Parliament Sq
    large numbers & many arrests (while Russell in jail)
    Sept 24 Herbert Lee, 52, local Negro leader & freedom school attendee, 
    Fayette City, shot by State Rep. Hurst (check)
    Oct 4 Mass arrest of 3 SNCC members & 110 Negro high school students 
    praying on McComb City Hall steps in protest of Lee's slaying &
    suspension of two Freedom Riders - ends SNCC voter registration project
    Oct The Twist is still the rage and Chubby Checker leaves for European tour
    (Oct 11 Hayden & Paul Potter beaten on visit to voter registration activities)
    Oct SLATE leads vigil against resumption of nuclear testing by US &
    USSR; 50,000 women around US demonstrate against the resumption
    Nov. 1 -> Women Strike for Peace
    Nov 1 Tennessee: state auctioneers selling off Highland (?Folk Center)
    Nov 1 Pushed through by the Kennedys, ICC rules against interstate
    segregation go into effect - demos throughout the south
    Nov 9 Brian Epstein first sees the Beatles at The Cavern, Liverpool
    Dec 9 U.K.: Committee of 100 (w Russell) demos at various
    U.S. air & nuc bases
    D 10-15 SNCC Freedom Rider test of ICC ruling in Albany, Georgia
    leads to five days of arrests of 469/500 students for
    marching around city hall. Some 350 choose to stay in
    jail as part of the Albany movement.
    Dec 11 First two U.S. Army helicopter units land in South Vietnam
    Dec 16 MLK arrested Albany, Georgia with some 250 more demonstrators
    D 23-30 Sat Eve Post: "Youth - The Good Generation"
    (in response to Look?

    The Twist -> #1 record for the second time
    (-> Watusi, Hully-Gully, Stop & Swim, Mashed Potato +)
    Michael Row the Boat Ashore, Moon River, Big Bad John, 
    Hit the Road Jack, Little Sister, Barbara Ann, Runaround Sue,
    Where the Boys Are
    Ricky Nelson: Travelin Man
    The Dovells: Bristol Stomp
    Chris Kenner: I Like It Like That
    Where Have All the Flowers Gone - Pete Seeger
    Ramblin' Jack Elliot starts
    Judy Collins first album

    Breakfast At Tiffany's, West Side Story [rechck-have as earlier]
    Truffaut: Jules et Jim
    Kurosawa: Yojimbo
    Godard: A Woman Is a Woman (his 3rd feature) - also w Belmondo
    Kerouac, Ginsberg, etc: Pull My Daisy

    Salinger's Franny and Zooey published as a book
    Baldwin: Nobody Knows My Name
    Eric Berne: Transactional Analysis in Psychotherapy
    Carl Rogers: On Becoming A Person
    Heinlein: Stranger in a Strange Land
    John Lilly: Man and Dolphin
    Jane Jacobs: The Death and Life of Great American Cities
    Miller's Tropic of Cancer finally legally published in US
    Harvard ?Student Union's first edition of Let's Go!

    Alan Watts speaking on campuses around US

    1962 "the East Village, with blacks, comes into being ard Tompkins Sq
    western border: Cooper Square" - Hettie Jones

    when? Vanessa Redgrave (among others) speaks at Bertrand
    Russell's Committee of 100 anti-nuclear
    weapons demonstration at Air Ministry in London
    when? Cesar Chavez starts NFWA in Delano with his own savings
    for 300,000 migratory farmworkers
    when? Gideon case: all people accused of serious crimes
    have a right to be represented by counsel
    when? Amelia Newell opens her land at Gorda Mountain, Big Sur
    for the first open-land commune (at its peak in 1967,
    200 people lived there; ended 1968)
    when? Herman Hesse dies, nearly unknown to U.S. readers

    Feb 7 First U.S. Army support companies arrive in Saigon
    F 16-17 Boston SANE & fledgling SDS hold first anti-nuclear
    march on Washington; 4000-8000 show up
    Feb 20 First Amer to orbit earth: John Glenn
    F? M? Baker v. Carr: one man/one vote
    (Mar? Harvard Psilocybin Project challenged)
    (meanwhile Leary has discovered LSD)
    Mar Bob Dylan: first album
    Mar? (14 months after JFK in office) military budget up 9 billion
    Mar Strategic Hamlet program started in Vietnam
    Apr (Dylan writes Blowin in the Wind)
    Apr 27 LA Negro uprising (according to Eyes on The Prize)
    Griffith Park - 200 youths vs police arresting one
    for horseplay on a merry-go-round
    1962 Jn12-16 Port Huron Statement (SDS)
    (summer: first doubts about LSD research start to surface)
    (35 Harvards meet at Hotel Catalina in Zihuatanejo)
    summer Neal Cassady visits Ken Kesey at Perry Lane,
    having read One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest
    summer Jamaica, Trinidad, & Tobaga become independent
    July 10 Martin Luther King & Abernathy choose to go to jail
    for their part in Dec. Albany demos. 
    July 12 Unidentified Negro man (secretly sent by JFK) pays MLK's fine
    July 19 First tv picture crosses Atlantic ocean by Telstar satellite
    July 27 Martin Luther King back in jail (to Aug 10)
    Aug Ban the Bomb demos UN, London, Helsinki, Tokyo, Hiroshima
    Women's Strike for Peace (End the Arms Race, Not the Human Race)
    Aug 4 Sat eve: Marilyn Monroe dies at 36 (? of drug o.d.??)
    fall Leary founds International Foundation for Internal Freedom 
    (IFIF) to promote LSD research & publish The Psychedelic Review;
    IFIF rents two houses in Newton as "Freedom House"s
    Sept SNCC voter registration drive leaders in Georgia sniped at
    & churches burned & Mississippi (Ruleville)
    Sept 30 -Oct 1 JFK calls out troops to allow James Meredith 
    to become the first Negro admitted to U Miss
    (Dylan writes Oxford Town)
    (troops stay until late summer 1963, after Meredith has his degree)
    Oct 22 Vaughn Meader tapes The First Family album
    1962 O 22-28 JFK's Cuban Missile Blockade
    (after 10 months of CIA's Operation Mongoose)
    (Dylan writes A Hard Rains A-Gonna Fall)
    when? US-USSR sign Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (bans atmospheric
    tests) & Nuclear non-proliferation pact (after Oct 62)
    Nov Nixon loses for governor for California (to incumbent Pat Brown)
    Nov first (Berkeley) sit-in against racial discrimination
    at Mel's Drive-in, San Francisco
    & demos around the country and the south
    Dec Mariner 2 sends photos of Venus

    Let Me In, Wah-Watusi, Mashed Potato, 
    He's a Rebel (Gene Pitney/Crystals),
    Lonely Tear Drops, Girl From Ipanema
    June 2: Isley Bros: Twist and Shout
    Twisting the Night Away
    *Everly Brothers: Crying in the Rain
    *Beach Boys: Surfin' & Surfin' Safari
    Dick Dale: Surfer's Choice
    Ian & Sylvia first record (from Canada)
    Little Boxes - Malvina Reynolds

    TV: Beverly Hillbillies
    Fellini: Boccaccio ?70
    Vaughn Meader doing JFK improvisations

    Abraham Maslow: Toward a Psychology of Being
    Harrington: The Other America
    Kerouac: Big Sur
    Rachael Carson: Silent Spring
    Miller: Tropic of Capricorn
    Ken Kesey: One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest
    Aldous Huxley: Island (utopian community)
    Alan Watts: The Joyous Cosmology
    ?Adelle Davis: Exploring Inner Space
    Euell Gibbons: Stalking the Wild Asparagus

    Esalen Institute founded
    Findhorn Foundation (Scotland) founded
    Jan Albama Gov. Wallace's "Segregation Forever" speech at inauguration
    Feb 20 Greenwood, Miss: SNCC Voter Registration headquarters
    & 4 Negro businesses burned
    Feb 28 Jimmy Travis, 20, Bob Moses & Randolph Blackwell,
    returning from V E Project meeting, shot at
    Mar shootings & burnings in Greenwood & arrests
    & Republicans introduce stronger civil rights
    legislation into Congress
    East Su (when?) SANE, NYC "Peace Walk"
    Apr 3 Birmingham: sit-ins & demos begun by SCLC & volunteers
    A 11 Birmingham, Alabama city officials (including Bull Connor)
    obtain injunction against any demonstrations
    A 12-20 Martin Luther King & Abernathy go to jail in Birmingham
    for marching in defiance of the injunction
    May? Dylan tapes John Birch Society Blues for the Ed Sullivan tv show (censored)
    May 2 Birmingham: 958 children go to jail for marching
    May 3 Connor orders fire houses & dogs turned on children
    marching out of the 16th St Baptist Church in Birmingham to keep
    them from marching out of the "Negro section"
    1963 May 6 (Mon) Birmingham: 1000 children & adults arrested,
    making a total of about 2500
    (Ella Baker, Dave Dellinger, James Forman, Dick
    Gregory, Guy & Candie Carawan, Joan Baez in Birmingham)
    [when? JFK "ordered Alabama National Guard placed under Federal
    control, used display of military force to impose deseg"]
    May 7 thousands of Negro children enter downtown "white" Birmingham
    May 8 Buddhist uprisings against Diem start in Hue
    May 9? meetings between white & Negro leaders negotiate an end
    to much of Birmingham segregation
    May 11 (Sat) KKK rally just outside of Birmingham and
    bombing of A.D. King's home & Gaston Motel,
    followed by riot around the motel area
    May 16 sit-ins & marches throughout the south
    next 10 weeks: 758 demonstrations in 186 cities, 
    14,733 arrests in 11 southern states
    (throughout June & July)

    May Freewheelin' Bob Dylan (with Blowin in the Wind)
    Joan Baez and Bob Dylan sing at Monterey Folk
    Festival, and Baez starts introducing Dylan at her concerts
    when? Cooper makes 22 orbits
    May 28 Medgar Evers gets agreement of negotiations in Jackson
    which is then withdrawn; 4 students & professor harassed
    during sit-in at Woolworth's lunch counter
    May 31 600 children arrested for marching [Jackson?? or Birmingham?]
    June 1 First Buddhist monk, Quang Duc (73) immolates self in Vietnam
    (June) Leary quits Harvard; Alpert fired
    1963 June Dylan's Blowin in the Wind in the top 10
    June ?1 Saturday Review: They Split My Personality
    (negative on LSD) - get?
    June demonstrations & arrests - Tallahasee, North Carolina
    June 5 First Negro student enters University of Mississippi
    law school (without incident)
    June 9 Arinell Ponder of SCLC & 5 students arrested & beaten
    for using white Trailways bathrooms, Winona, Miss.
    June 11 Cambridge, Md: 25 arrested outside courthouse;
    firehoses in Danville, Va send 48 of 65 demos to hospital
    June 11 Gov. George Wallace, trying to fulfill campaign promise 
    to "stand in the schoolhouse door" to halt integration,
    is confronted by Alabama National Guard,
    placed under Federal control by JFKennedy,
    June 11 two Negro students quietly registered at University of Alabama
    June 11 JFKennedy tv speech promises Civil Rights bill, 
    Southern Democrats vow to block
    June 12 Medgar Evers (NAACP Field Sec) shot dead, Jackson, Miss
    on arrival at his home
    (Dylan writes Only a Pawn in their Game)
    June 12 Buddhist monk Trich Quan Duc publicly immolates himself, Saigon
    summer Leary hosts Freedom House groups in Zihuatanejo, Mexico
    & is forced to move on to Dominica & then Antigua (ck Time mag)
    Jul (end) Newport Folk Festival: 37,000 attend, debut for
    many new folk musicians, including Dylan
    (Ag 3-4 picketers in Torrance, Calif and other places)
    1963 Aug 28 MLK's I Have a Dream speech, Wash DC Civil Rights March
    200,000 / 300,000 - 500,000 / 210,000 - 250,000+
    (Baez, Odetta, Josh White, SNCC Freedom Singers, Peter, Paul & Mary, Dylan perform)
    Sept? negative pieces on Leary/Alpert firing appear in 
    Esquire, Saturday Evening Post, Look (get?)
    mid-Sep Timothy Leary, Richard Alpert, and other Harvard alumni
    LSD-researchers move to the Hitchcock's estate in 
    Millbrook, New York (+ The Psychedelic Exp going to printer)
    fall Time mag on IFIF - get?
    Sept Birmingham fights over school integration
    Sept 10 20 Negro children integrated into Birmingham schools
    Sept 13 Wallace announces candidacy for president
    63 Sept 15 16th St. Baptist church in Birmingham bombed, killing four
    young Negro female Sunday School students
    (Addie Mae Collins 14, Denise McNair 11,
    Carol Robertson 14, Cynthia Wesley 11)
    Oct JFK signs first Atomic Test Ban Treaty
    (banned atmospheric tests? in space & beneath the sea)
    & first wheat sale to USSR
    Oct 13 Beatles at London Palladium shown on tv;
    media discovers Beatlemania
    Nov 1 Vietnam: Military junta overthrows and assassinates Diem
    Nov early: "Freedom Vote" 90,000 Mississippi Negroes "vote"
    (in parallel election organized by SNCC) for the first time
    Nov Playboy: Allen Harrington's account of LSD session
    & Huxley's last piece on the psychedelic dream - get?
    Nov Leary's IFIF mutated into Castalia
    end JFK plans withdrawal/withdraws 1000 of 17,000 advisors in
    Vietnam, quietly opens a dialogue with Castro's Cuba,
    and pursues detente with the USSR (Hayden)
    Nov 22 JFKennedy assassinated, LBJohnson sworn in;
    also Aldous Huxley dies, on LSD
    Nov 16,000 troops in Vietnam
    Nov 24 LBJ signs national security memorandum stating US goal in 
    Vietnam is helping the Saigon government to a military "victory"
    when? Nov? Oswald assassinated

    Hello Muddah, The Singing Nun
    Guantanamara, If I Had a Hammer, 
    Puff the Magic Dragon, ?Charlie off the MTA?
    There But For Fortune - Phil Ochs
    Chad Mitchell Trio (with John Denver)
    Beach Boys: Surfin' USA & Surfer Girl (with Little Deuce Coupe)
    Jan & Dean: Surf City
    Ventures: Surfing
    Chris Kenner: Land of 1000 Dances
    Beatles: first album
    Tom Paxton: The Last Thing on My Mind (?album)
    Dave Van Ronk starts
    Judy Henske records three albums
    Buffy Sainte-Marie: It's My Way (1st album) w Universal Soldier
    *Freewheelin' Bob Dylan w Blowin in the Wind
    Bo Diddley first album
    Otis Redding first album
    Little Stevie Wonder
    (Bunny Wailer, Marley, Tosh start playing together)

    Fellini: Eight and a Half
    (Great Escape)
    Dr. Strangelove, directed by Kubrick

    Mary MacCarthy: The Group
    Book of the Hopi - Frank Waters
    Betty Friedan: The Feminine Mystique
    James Baldwin: The Fire Next Time
    John Cage: A Year From Monday
    Vonnegut: Cat's Cradle (ice 9)
    Leary +: The Psychedelic Experience 
    (version of the Tibetan Book of the Dead/Bardo Thodol)

    height of the Mods and Rockers in UK (according to Quadrophenia)

    1964 when? Indian fishermen fish-ins, Nisqually River, Washington
    when? Sup Ct affirms members of Native Amer Church
    use of peyote in religious ceremonies
    early Kesey moves to La Honda, Merry Pranksters form

    Jan LBJ state-of-the-union: declares war on poverty while
    cutting budget and uranium production
    when? Economic Opportunity Act: War on Poverty 
    (creates community action agencies)
    Jan 11 Surgeon General's cigarette warning
    Jan Bob Dylan: The Times They Are A-Changin'
    Beatles: *I Want to Hold Your Hand -> #1 US
    Jan 23 24th Amendment eliminates polling taxes
    Jan 30 New military junta takes over in South Vietnam
    Feb 9 Beatles on Ed Sullivan
    Feb 11 Beatles: Washington D.C.
    Feb (Dylan visits southern US & writes Chimes of Freedom)
    (Dylan & Baez at Berkeley Community Theater)
    Feb 25 Muhammed? Ali (Cassius Clay) beats Sonny Liston
    Mar 6 protest against Sheraton Palace Hotel's
    discrimination in hiring (SF)
    Beatles: Can't Buy Me Love, And I Love Her
    and filming A Hard Day's Night
    Mar After RFK investigation, Hoffa
    indicted on jury-tampering charges in 1962 mistrial
    for misuse of union pension funds
    Mar Malcolm X, silenced by Elijah Muhammed's Muslims, visits Africa
    Mar 21 Leary starts first week of solitary LSD
    spring Newsweek on Millbrook - get?
    64 Apr Kitty Genovese, age, coming home from a night job in the early 
    a.m., stabbed repeatedly and over an extended period of time,
    while 38 residents of Kew Gardens, a "respectable" New York
    neighborhood heard and witnessed but did not even call police
    Apr 23 Beatles at the Hollywood Bowl
    Apr 24 Crosses burned in 64 of Mississippi's 82 counties
    to prepare for Freedom Summer 
    May very first LA Free Press at first? KPFK Renaissance Faire
    May Dylan's first visit to England, meets Beatles,
    Rolling Stones, Eric Burden of Animals (who is doing 
    first "folk-rock" piece House of Rising Sun); 
    turns Beatles on to marijuana
    1964 oldest baby boomers reach 18, graduate high school
    June Lenny Bruce goes on trial in NYC
    June 19 Carol Doda dances in a Rudi Gernreich topless bathing suit
    in The Condor nightclub, North Beach
    June 19 200 college students leave Oxford, Ohio to join
    1,000 total civil rights volunteers as part of
    Civil Rights "Freedom Summer" to register Negro voters
    June 21 Three civil rights activists 
    (James Chaney (21), Andrew Goodman (20), Michael Schwerner (24))
    killed on arrival in Mississippi by KKK
    June 6 Negro churches burned in Mississippi (21 more by September);
    30 Negroes murdered January to August
    June 22 Henry Miller's Tropic of Cancer, still being smuggled into U.S.
    from Paris, finally ruled legal for distribution in U.S.
    summer SDS ERAP: 125 members organizing the poor in the slums
    of nine cities
    summer Millbrook House LSD sessions
    when? Realist piece by Robert Anton Wilson - get?
    summer Saturday night "happenings" in Spui Square start in Amsterdam
    July 2 LBJ signs Civil Rights Act: public facilities opened to all
    July Kesey & Merry Pranksters' first Magic Bus trip (to NY)
    July 18 Negro uprising in Harlem
    July 20 Brooklyn Negro uprising
    July 22 Rochester Negro uprising
    July? Sun House first reappearance (Newport Folk Festival)
    Aug 2-4 U.S. navy destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin air action against 
    North Vietnamese PT boats 
    the torpedo boats & their bases. (???fix)
    Also new military junta takes over.
    Aug 2-4 New Jersey Negro uprising
    Aug 7 Congress passes Gulf of Tonkin resolution
    (only Sen Ernest Gruening of Alaska & Wayne Morse of
    Oregon dissent) (19 years after bombing of Hiroshima, Nagasaki)
    & Seventh fleet sent to Vietnam
    Aug 11-14 New Jersey Negro uprising
    Aug 16-17 Chicago Negro uprising
    Aug 20 LBJ signs War on Poverty Bill
    is this "The Great Society" program?
    did this create VISTA? Head Start?
    Aug x Democratic convention refuses to seat more than two
    representatives from the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
    64 Aug Ken Kesey & his Merry Pranksters visit? Leary & Alpert
    at Millbrook
    Aug Dylan: Another Side of Bob Dylan (all love songs)
    Aug 23 Beatles Hollywood Bowl concert
    Aug Beatles: *Hard Day's Night released in US
    A 28-30 Philadelphia Negro uprising
    Ag-Sept Beatles first U.S. tour: 25 N. Am. cities
    fall Ralph Metzner, Harvard alumni of Leary's group, goes to India,
    contacts & studies with Lama Govinda
    (?The Way of the White Clouds)
    fall oldest baby boomers enter college
    Sept Selective Service calls up 27,500, more than in
    any month since 1953
    Sept Wilderness Act becomes law (by 1988 adds 80 million acres to
    the 11 million acres currently in the wilderness system)
    Sept early: Clark Kerr bans all politicking outside UC Berk's
    main gate
    late: Kerr suspends 8 students for political activities
    Sept 27 Warren Commission Report on JFK assasination released;
    says Oswald's was the only bullet
    Oct 1 UC Berkeley math grad student Jack Weinberg is arrested 
    for setting up CORE information table in Sproul Plaza; 
    police car is surrounded by demonstrating students for 32 hours;
    Free Speech Movement is formed Mario Savio; Baez
    Weinberg: "Don't trust anyone over thirty."
    when? Berkeley Barb starts
    Oct 14 Khrushchev deposed in U.S.S.R. -> Brezhnev
    Oct 16 China tests first atomic bomb, becoming fifth nuclear power
    Oct 26 Rolling Stones on Ed Sullivan
    Nov Johnson defeats Goldwater
    Dec 2 Joan Baez sings on Sproul Hall steps 
    Dec 2-3 FSM overnight sit-in in Sproul Hall to protest discipline of 
    four who took part in the October police car sit-in; 800 arrests
    Dec 4 900 students boycot classes
    Dec 7 U.C. Berk administration presentation at the Greek Theatre 
    to 18,000; followed by strike by 9,000 of the 27,000 students
    & faculty resolution (824 to 115) supporting FSM
    Dec 10 MLK awarded Nobel Peace Prize
    Dec 11 Singer Sam Cooke dies of gunshot wounds, Los Angeles

    In 1964, California surpassed New York as most populous state

    Walk On Boy, We'll Sing in the Sunshine, Baby Love,
    King of the Road, A Spoonful of Sugar
    Jan & Dean: Ride the Wild Surf & Little Old Lady from Pasadena
    *from UK: Pacemakers, Herman's Hermits, 
    Chad Stuart & Jeremy Clyde, 
    Petula Clark (first hit: Downtown),
    The Kinks, Manfred Mann, The Hollies,
    Dave Clark Five: I Like It Like That)
    *The Rolling Stones first record & 12 x 5?
    Fred Neil first album
    Phil Ochs first album (w There But For Fortune?? see lista63))
    *Dylan: The Times They are a Changin'
    *Another Side of Bob Dylan

    TV: Gomer Pyle, Gilligan's Island, U.N.C.L.E.
    Zorba the Greek the movie (when was the book?)
    Woman of the Dunes
    It's A Mad Mad Mad Mad World
    (people are basically mad, so there's no hope for the world)
    La Jette: Chris Marker (Fr)

    Herbert Marcuse: One Dimensional Man
    Marshall McLuhan: Understanding Media
    Carl Jung: Man and His Symbols
    I Never Promised You a Rose Garden: Hannah Green
    David Halberstam: The Making of a Quagmire

    op art
    Rudi Gernreich: topless bathing suit
    textured stockings

    1965 Adrian Cronauer broadcasting in Vietnam
    First DC-9 aircraft built
    Volkswagen starts American sales campaign "Think Small"
    Peace Corps returnees having trouble with "re-entry"
    when? Leary visits in India, returns late spring to
    find Millbrook in poor state, Alpert asked to leave
    Washington judge rules Puyallup tribe does not exist,
    and cannot fish on the Puyallup River

    Jan Time Mag says "generation of conformists" 
    Jan 4 FSM holds first legal rally on Sproul Plaza
    ?Feb Byrds release single of Mr. Tambourine Man
    Feb Police raid Owsley's house in Berkeley
    Feb 8 U.S. starts bombing North Vietnam & begins using jet 
    bombers inside South Vietnam for strikes against "VC" targets
    (`Operation Rolling Thunder')
    Feb MLK & 770 others arrested in Selma, Alabama for picketing
    county courthouse to end discrim voting rights
    Feb 21 Malcolm X shot and killed, Harlem auditorium
    Mar 6 "First Amer soldier officially sets foot on Viet battlefields"
    Mar 8-9 3,500 Marines land to protect Da Nang air base
    Mar Dylan: Bringing It All Back Home (all rock)
    with Mr. Tambourine Man
    65 Beatles: Eight Days a Week hit
    Mar 3 Owsley starts making LSD: large quantities of acid
    available for the first time
    Mar 7 Selma, Alabama: police violence against march
    Mar 8 Sup Ct rules co s need not believe in existence of a
    Supreme Being (Daniel Seeger case)
    (and June 15 Elliott Welsh II case)
    Mar 9? first attempt to march from Selma to Montgomery
    (turned back)
    Mar 16 Quaker Alice Herz, 82, immolates self in Detroit
    in protest of the Vietnam war
    Mar 16 Police break-up demonstration of 600 in Montgomery, Alabama
    Mar 17 1,600 demonstrate at Montgomery, Alabama courthouse
    Mar 18 Soviet cosmonauts float in space
    M 21-25 MLK: Alabama march (Selma to Montgomery capital 25,000)
    Mar 24 ?SDS organizes first Viet War teach-in: University of Michigan
    (all night) 500 expected, 3000 come
    Mar 28 MLK on tv calls for boycott of Alabama
    Dylan to England (tour filmed for Don't Look Back)
    Mar Sen. Frank Church & Geo McGovern come out against the war
    Apr 2 Kesey busted for marijuana first time
    Apr 5 Alpert & Metzner at Vanguard Theater, Greenwich Village
    Apr 17 SDS leads first antiVietwar march in Washington: 25,000 
    `March on Washington to End the War in Vietnam'
    I.F. Stone & Sen. Ernest Gruening of Alaska speak
    Phil Ochs, Judy Collins, Baez / 20,000 (Bd & Pup)
    April 25,000 American troops in Vietnam
    (note: number of marchers almost equal to number of troops)
    May 3 Drop City commune founded, ?in New Mexico? 
    on Interstate Hwy 125 into Colorado
    May 6 First two Marine divisions arrive Vietnam
    65 May Beatles: A Ticket to Ride hit
    May Berkeley: Vietnam Day & teach-ins at many other colleges
    May 17 National Teach-in broadcast over radio from Wash.
    May L.A. Free Press starts regular publication
    (the Mime Troupe)
    Spring Albin House concerts
    May 26 Riverside County salmonella crisis causes new look at
    water supplies in the US
    1965 June Red Dog Saloon, Charlatans at Virginia City
    First psychedlic light shows by Bill Ham
    First "Happening": Wholly Communion,
    with Ginsberg, Ferlinghetti, Corso & English poets,
    Royal Albert Hall, London (June 11):
    Dylan's Like A Rolling Stone single released
    (and meets The Band)
    June 11 Queen awards Beatles the MBE
    June 12 Ky heads new military regime in South Vietnam (more on Ky)
    Summer Baez/Sandperl Institute for the Study of Nonviolence (Carmel):
    first students
    Summer Byrds: Mr. Tambourine Man hit
    Summer (Sept 8?) National Farm Workers Association joins 
    Delano grape walkout by 800 AFL-CIO pickers;
    within a week, 2000 pickers (led by Chavez)
    strike in two counties (33 growers, one quarter of
    the table grape industry) (by 65: 1700 member families)
    July First Provo manifesto appears in Amsterdam
    July 25 Dylan goes rock and gets booed at Newport Folk Fest
    (backed up by Paul Butterfield Blues Band)
    (and wearing London mod)
    July Natl Coord Committee to End the War in Vietnam formed
    summer attempts to stop troop trains in Berkeley & Emeryville
    summer SDS starts ERAP in West Oakland
    65 Aug Help! released
    Aug Dylan: Highway 61 Revisited
    Aug Eve of Destruction released, goes to top of charts
    within 5 weeks (fastest rising song in rock history)
    ("you're old enough to kill, but not for votin'")
    Aug Joan Baez's first hit: There But For Fortune
    Aug Kesey meets Hunter Thompson who introduces the Hells Angels 
    to the Merry Pranksters; Ginsberg & Alpert are at the party
    Aug 6 LBJ signs Voting Rights Act
    65 A 11-16 Watts uprising
    Aug 13 Marty Balin opens Matrix: Jefferson Airplane
    Beatles at Shea Stadium: 55,000 screaming girls
    + Merry Prankster party at La Honda: Owsley meets Kesey
    Aug 26 Last day getting married could improve your draft status
    Aug 29 Beatles Hollywood Bowl
    Aug 31 LBJ signs law amending Selective Service Act to make draft
    card burning a federal offense
    65 fall start of mini-skirts in stores?
    fall Ballad of Green Berets tops charts
    Sept 2 Beatles Cow Palace 
    Sept 5 SFEx writer Michael Fallon applies the term "hippie"
    to the SF counterculture in an article about the
    Blue Unicorn coffeehouse where LEMAR (Legalize
    Marijuana) & the Sexual Freedom League meet, 
    & hippie houses
    declares the Beat movement is alive in the Haight
    fall Millbrook house breaks up
    fall Brigette Bardot in Time and Life
    65 Oct. 15 U.C. Berkeley Teach-in & march (Tele Ave) 14,000
    Norman Thomas spoke??
    Oct. 16 repeat march in Berkeley, to Oakland Army Base
    [15,000 - Bohemia book]
    (Vietnam Day Committee) & conflicts w police & Hell's Angels
    Catholic Worker David Miller burns draft card
    Oct. 16 Viet protests (teach-ins, marches) in 80 cities including
    Fifth Ave, NY 15-20,000; Ann Arbor; Madison; Boston;
    Detroit; Phil; Tokyo; London; Rome +)
    100,000 people in nearly 1,000 cities (Hayden)
    Natl Coord Com to End the War in Viet
    Oct. 16 Family Dog's First Concert 
    "A Tribute to Dr. Strange" at Longshoreman's Hall (ILWU),
    Fisherman's Wharf: Jefferson Airplane & Charlatans
    (with Dan Hicks)
    Oct 18 First draft card burning arrest (under new law): David Miller
    Che Guevara goes to Bolivia
    Nov Unsafe at Any Speed published (Ralph Nader)
    Nov 1 J.Edgar Hoover: war demos in US "represented a minority for
    the most part composed of halfway citizens who are neither
    morally, mentally, nor emotionally mature"
    1965 Nov 2 (election day) Norman Morrison, 32 yr old Quaker, father of 
    three, immolates self below Secretary of Defense McNamara's
    Pentagon window to protest Vietnam War
    Nov 6 Bill Graham's first: benefit to raise money for Mime
    Troupe, busted for performing in park without a permit
    (Airplane, Fugs, Warlocks, Committee, Ferlinghetti +++)
    Nov 9-10 Power Failure: NY & east coast
    Nov 9 Roger Allen La Porte, Catholic Worker, immolates self
    in front of UN
    Nov 22 Dylan marries Sara Lowndes & moves to Woodstock
    Nov 27 `March on Washington for Peace in Vietnam' Wash, D.C.
    15,000 (Life, Chron), 25,000 (Bd & Pupt), 30,000 (D.S.)
    SANE + Natl Coordg Committee of left wing orgs.
    Mar to Dec: Wm Frosch at Bellevue Psych Hosp, NY,
    treats 65 acid freak-outs
    Dec Selective Service calling up 40,200/month
    Dec 10 Bill Graham second benefit for Mime Troupe,
    at Fillmore (first time there) Fillmore & Geary - 3,500
    Dec 15 Gemini 6 & 7 rendezvous in space
    D 21-J6 Tom Hayden (26), Lynd, Aptheker to Hanoi
    Dec 25 Leary stopped at the Mexican border & busted for mj
    Dec 27 Old leadership of SDS unseated & women hold a closed
    door workshop at the SDS convention
    1965 National Welfare Rights Organization founded
    3 books out on the New Left
    1965 end: 184,000 American troops in Vietnam

    My Girl, I Got You Babe, Hang on Sloopy, Help Me Rhonda,
    Stop in the Name of Love, Woolly Bully
    R.E.S.P.E.C.T. - Otis Redding
    The Year of "Folk-Rock"
    Simon & Garfunkel: Sounds of Silence
    *Donovan: Catch The Wind & Fairytale
    *Rolling Stones Now! & Out of Our Heads 
    w Satisfaction & December's Child
    *Dylan: Bringing It All Back Home w Mr. Tambourine Man
    & Hwy 61 Revisited w Like A Rolling Stone
    *Beatles: We Can Work It Out/Day Tripper
    Rubber Soul w Yesterday
    *Byrds: Mr. Tambourine Man
    & Turn! Turn! Turn!
    when was Eight Miles High with sitar
    *(Paul) Butterfield Blues Band
    *frm UK: Animals (w Eric Burdon): 
    We Gotta Get Out of this Place
    *frm UK: Yardbirds (with Eric Clapton): For Your Love
    *frm UK: Them (with Van Morrison)
    Lovin Spoonful
    The Fugs in the Village 
    (rock musicians with poets Ginsberg, Corso)

    The Knack - And How to Get It
    Fellini: Juliet of the Spirits
    The Loved One - Evelyn Waugh (Forest Lawn)

    John Barth: The Sot-Weed Factor listed under 1960 also
    Malcolm X Autobiography (published posthumously)
    (written by Alex Haley)

    Manchild in the Promised Land - Claude Brown
    Unsafe At Any Speed - Ralph Nader
    Light on Yoga - B.K.S. Iyengar
    Dune - Frank Herbert
    ?African Genesis

    George Leonard of Look Mag & Michael Murphy, founder Esalen 
    Institute, found Human Potential Movement
    pop art

    1966 400-1000 U.S. draftees flee to Canada
    Peace Corps peak ?enrollment: 16,000
    Defense Secretary Robert McNamara announces "Project
    100,000" to rehabilitate and draft "rejects"
    James Brown's first appearance before white audiences
    (at Madison Square Garden, NYC)
    Swami Satchidananda founds Integral Yoga Institute
    Chinese Cultural Revolution 1966 to late 1968-69
    N.O.W. (National Organization of Women) founded
    Freedom of Information Act
    66 Model Cities Program passed by Congress (check)

    Jan 3 Ron & Jay Thelin open head shop on Haight Street:
    The Psychedelic Shop
    Jan 8 8,000 GIs attack Iron Triangle, after B-52 bombing strikes
    Jan 14 march on Atlanta to protest ouster of Julian Bond,
    Negro pacifist, from Georgia House of Representatives, 
    after his endorsement of SNCC statement criticial of
    US involvement in Viet; MLK spoke
    Jan 17 A US B-52 bomber collides with a tanker aircraft during
    mid-air refueling operation. Three 10-megaton H-bombs
    drop onto Palomares, Spain below; a fourth falls into
    the sea. Luckily, none of them explodes. The entire
    event is ?covered up. (Rough Guide: Spain p.173)
    Jan 20 Kesey busted again (with Mountain Girl)
    J 21-23 Stewart Brand's Trips Fest, Longshoreman's Hall, SF:
    first light show, Grateful Dead, 10,000 people
    Feb Kesey disappears (to Mexico)
    Feb 4 Bill Graham's first non-benefit show
    Feb 19 first Chet Helms concert at Fillmore (Airplane & Big Brother)
    Mar Time sez there's an acid epidemic get this?
    March SFEx front page: bust of 25 "beatnicks" from 408 Ashbury
    66 Mar 10 Provos in Amsterdam smoke "bomb" royal wedding
    of Dutch Crown Princess to German
    Mar 11 Timothy Leary sentenced in Texas to 30 years for
    trying to cross into Mexico as a tourist with a small
    amount of marijuana; Leary appeals & gives press interviews
    March President of GM apologizes to Senate subcommittee
    for investigating Nader's private life 
    + car safety protests
    66 Watts flares up again
    when? (early) all time DOW Jones high (995.15); drop starts
    (to end of year)
    Mar 25? Life: Photos of firing squads in South Vietnam
    M 25-27 March, Fifth Ave, NYC - 25,000 anti-Viet
    + 7 U.S. & 7 foreign cities
    Est Sun Love-in Elysian Park??? (Amelia sez) CHECK THIS
    Est Sun 25-day, 250 mile NFWA march arrives Sacramento
    Volunteer picketing of groceries starts
    Life: NFWA becoming first effective fmwkrs union
    East Day after: youths riot at Glen Echo Amusement Park, Wash D.C.
    Apr FBI treats the press to its LSD file
    -> negative press on LSD
    Apr 7 Sandoz stops supplying LSD to researchers
    66 Apr Life: Is USSR/China break starting?
    Vietnam: Buddhists protest dismissal of Buddhist Lt. Gen Thi
    from the government by South Vietnam Premier Ky
    30 Mississippi Negroes build tent city under LBJ's window
    to protest housing conditions in Mississippi
    April Richard Farina's Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up
    To Me published, and Farina killed
    Brower & the Grand Canyon dams [more!]
    Discotheques going: The Trip, LA; The Cheetah,
    Broadway NY; Arthur, NY; The World, Garden City, NY;
    Le Bison, Chicago; The Lightworks - multiscreen light
    shows by Andy Warhol [ditto Look Nov 30: 50+]
    Life: teen-age bands forming everywhere with electric 
    guitars and colorful names
    Apr 12 NY Stock Exchange anti-war leafletting
    Apr 14 75 demo outside NY Stock Exchange
    Ap 16 4,400 march NYC
    Ap 16 G. Gordon Liddy & FBI raid Millbrook
    & bust Leary for possession of mj
    April (end of) Helms to Avalon (Sutter & Van Ness)
    May Dylan: Blonde on Blonde
    May Beatles: Paperback Writer/Rain
    May 10 Vietnam: General Thi dismissed
    from government by Ky; Buddhist revolt starts
    May 15 10,000+ picket White House & rally at Wash Mon w 63,000
    (SANE + 4 other organizations)
    M 20-23 Buddhist & labor union demonstrations against Ky govt in Saigon
    May 26 Second day of Internatl Days of Protest: 20,000 Fifth Ave, NYC
    called by "National Coordinating Committee to End the
    War in Vietnam"
    May 29 Buddhist nun immolates self in Hue, the first of
    eleven immolations in next three? weeks
    June 15,000 hippies living in the Haight
    June Provos elect first representative to Amsterdam Municipal Council
    J 1-2 White House Conf on Civil Rights with 
    Roy Wilkins of NAACP; Whitney Young Jr of Natl Urban League;
    Floyd McKissick & James Farmer of CORE; 
    Martin Luther King Jr of SCLC; Stokely Carmichael of SNCC 
    ("We feel that integration is irrelevant. We have 
    got to go after political power.").
    June 3 Graduation protest at Amherst (McNamara honorable degree)
    June 6 James Meredith shot while marching alone thru Mississippi 
    to encourage Negroes to register to vote
    June 7 MLK (SCLC), Floyd McKissick (CORE), Stokely Carmichael
    (SNCC) announce larger march on same route
    June 8 Graduation protest at NYU (McNamara honorable degree):
    270 walk out
    June 9 NYTimes Sierra Club ad on Grand Canyon dams
    June 10 IRS tells Sierra Club it will lose its tax
    deductible status if it keeps taking such political stands
    June 12 Graduation protest at Brandeis (Goldberg honorable degree)
    June 13 Sup Ct: Miranda case: suspects entitled to be informed of
    their rights when arrested (right to remain silent,
    be told anything you say may be used against you,
    have a lawyer)
    1966 J 13-15 Confrontation between Amsterdam police & demonstrating
    construction workers with Provo supporters, Dam Square
    June 21 March ends at Mississippi capital in Jackson, with
    15,000, with Meredith, recovered, there to speak
    Summer Haight Ashbury: Shops opening, dances every weekend,
    HIP merchants, Diggers
    Morning Star Ranch, owned by Lou Gottlieb
    of the Limelighters, along with Ramon Sender, open
    the land (32 acres) to anyone who wants to live there
    LA: Sunset Strip scene
    Velvet Underground at The Trip 
    June 24 Ky agrees to add ten civilians to his military directorate
    & announces elections for constitutional convention
    J 29-J5 US starts bombing major oil facilities in Hanoi
    & Haiphong harbor
    July (early) Beatles to Germany, Japan, Philippines
    J 1-4 CORE adopts Black Power concepts, Baltimore
    J 3-5 Omaha Negro uprising
    J 4-9 NAACP rejects Black Power concepts, LA
    J 12-15 Negro uprising in Chicago
    July 13 Eight Chicago nurses killed by Richard Speck
    J 15-22 Negro, Puerto Rican uprising Brooklyn
    July 16 SF: Negro off-duty policeman shooting of Negro
    armed robbery suspect followed by Hunters Pt demonstrations
    July 18 Negro uprising Jacksonville, Fla
    J 18-23 Negro uprising Cleveland 
    July 24 McClure's "The Beard" busted at Fillmore
    J 28-29 White gangs invade Baltimore Negro district
    July 29 Dylan motorcycle accident ->15 mos convalesence
    Aug 1 U of Texas sniper kills 16 & wounds 31 from observ. tower
    Aug 3 Lenny Bruce dead at 40 (Hollywood)
    Aug 5 4,000 whites confront MLK marching with 600 in Chicago
    Aug 6 (21st anniversary Hiroshima): anti-war demos:
    5,000 Times Square NY + Phil, SF, Madison, Cleveland,
    Denver, Minneapolis, LA, Pittsburgh, Boston, Atlanta,
    Niagara Falls
    Aug 9 (21st anniversary Nagasaki): 200 demo Dow, NY
    Aug Gemini 10 shoots pix of world surfaces
    HUAC hearings: Rubin in revolutionary outfit (Gitlin p. 233)
    Emmett Grogan, living near the Haight, joins Mime Troupe
    &, with Billy Landout, starts the Diggers, putting out
    the Digger Papers
    66 Aug Jefferson Airplane first album released nationally
    Aug Youngbloods: Lets Get Together
    Aug Beatles: Revolver released
    Aug another Beatles tour: Beatlemania again
    with Bible Belt record burnings based on Lennon's
    remarks that "most young people are more
    interested in rock `n' roll than in religion . . .
    we're more popular than Jesus now"
    66 Aug 29 Beatles: Candlestick Park, SF - last concert ever
    S 6-12 Negro uprisings in Atlanta; Carmichael arrested
    for "inciting riot" alone with 105? others
    Sept 9 SF Oracle starts
    Sept 11 First Elections in South Vietnam
    Sept first Lunar Orbiter photo of Earth
    Vietnam Air War going on
    Mobilization to End the War in Vietnam formed
    George Harrison to India for 6 weeks to study 
    sitar with Ravi Shankar
    Sept 15 Gemini 11 shoots pix of world surfaces
    Sept 19 Baez leads 160 Negro children to Mississippi elem school
    Sept late: Leary holds press conf NY Advtg Club announcing
    formation of a psychedelic religion - League for
    Spiritual Discovery ("Turn on, tune in, drop out")
    & starts nightly presentations at the Village Theater
    Sept 25 LA Free Press headline: The lesser of two evils
    is still an evil (explain) (?about Reagan?)
    Oct 6 LSD illegal - first big free concert in GGPk Panhandle
    (sev thous people at "Love Pageant Rally")
    & Diggers started free food in Panhandle (to March 67)
    Oct DMZ Battle
    Oct Bobby Seale & Huey P. Newton form Black Panthers of Oakland
    (met as student leaders at Merritt College, dropped out,
    & working as community organizers for the North Oakland
    Poverty Program, write 10-point platform & program.
    Stand-up comedian Seale becomes "Chairman",
    Newton "Minister of Defense", start patrolling Oakland
    on weekend nights
    66 Oct 19 Kesey, back from Mexico, arrested
    Oct 25 UCLA Teach-in
    Oct 31 Ken Kesey's Acid Test Graduation
    Nov 5 Walk for Love and Peace and Freedom: 10,000+ (NYC?)
    Ginsberg, Snyder, Krassner, Fugs (Mobilization)
    "first hippie style demo in NYC"
    Nov? Housewives revolt against soaring food prices
    LBJ trip to Cam Ranh Bay
    Nov 8 First Negro elected to Senate (Massachusetts)
    Nov CAFF demonstrations on Sunset Strip (over teen curfew)
    -> Byrds?: Look What's Happening There
    Nov Reagan elected gov of Calif (66-74)
    Lunar Orbiter II: photos of moon
    Dec 6 Rally, Madison Sq Garden: SANE & 36 supporting organizations
    Floyd McKissick, I.F. Stone, Pete Seeger
    100s of balloons with peace doves released from ceiling
    Dec 100 student leaders send letter to LBJ (covered in
    NYT front page) warning that unless the government
    changes its war policy, more & more of its young men
    will choose jail rather than bare arms
    Dec Cream's first album: Fresh Cream 
    (Eric Clapton from John Mayall, 
    Jack Bruce from Manfred Mann, and drummer 
    Ginger Baker from Graham Bond's Organization)
    Dec 17 Death & Rebirth of the Haight-Ashbury
    (Hairy Henry + Fyllis bust)
    1966 end: 385,000 American troops in Vietnam

    Green Berets
    Jacques Brel at the peak of popularity in France
    Suzanne - Leonard Cohen
    Dylan: Blonde on Blonde
    Beatles: Yesterday and Today *Revolver
    *John meets Yoko
    *RS: Aftermath & Got Live
    *Byrds: Turn, Turn, Turn (or was it 65?) & Fifth Dimension
    *Donovan: Sunshine Superman
    *The Who
    *Mamas & Papas: California Dreamin & Monday Monday
    Beach Boys: Good Vibrations
    *Simon & Garfunkel: Wednesday Morning 3 A.M.
    *Sounds of Silence
    *Parsley, Sage, Rosemary & Thyme
    which :Scarborough Fair
    *Hollies (from UK)
    The Association
    Judy Collins: In My Life

    Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf 
    (Prod. Mike Nichols: "raw dialogue" & Liz Taylor)
    Bergman: Persona
    Antonioni: Blow Up
    King of Hearts first released
    Cul-de-Sac directed by Roman Polanski
    Fahrehheit 451 directed by Truffaut
    Morgan! with Vanessa Redgrave
    Tom Jones
    Raquel Welch
    Alfie, A Man & A Woman
    Fantastic Voyage (movie)
    Georgy Girl with Lynn Redgrave

    Alan Watts: The Book - On The Taboo Against Knowing Who You Are
    Norman O. Brown: Love's Body
    Masters & Johnson: Human Sexual Response
    Intelligent Life in the Universe - I.S. Shklovskii & Carl Sagan
    John Barth's Giles Goat-Boy (university organized as military)
    Eric Berne's Games People Play (recheck if 65)
    Rod McKuen: Stanyan Street (?and other poems?)

    Foxfire project started, Rabun County High School, Georgia
    National Organization for Women (N.O.W.) founded
    when? Free University in New York
    ?Ledbetter's in LA

    1967 Toronto group starts to help draft resistors
    who are fleeing to Canada, eventually 20,000 come
    Birth-rate [crude], declining since 1957, drops to lowest level
    in history
    when? Chavez calls first grape boycott
    when? Jann Wenner (21) drops out of U.C. Berkeley
    and starts Rolling Stone Magazine

    Jan 1 New Year's Day Wail! - Angel's party for the Haight
    in the Panhandle - "First free rock concert in the park"
    Jan 1 Steve Durky/Durkee starts to buy land for Lama Foundation,
    northern New Mexico (re-ck Communes USA)
    Jan Leary's LSD "Celebration" arrives in SF
    Jan 6 Berkeley Strike
    [Jan 10 Provos in Amsterdam "bomb" royal wedding] delete? see 3/10/66
    US troops move into Mekong delta
    Jan 14 Gathering of the Tribes for the First Human Be-In - 
    20,000 Polo Field GGP 
    [20,000 Bohemians bk ?!300,000(Ringolevio)]
    (Ginsburg, McLure, Snyder, Leary, Ferlinghetti, Lenore
    Kandel) put on by Haight Independent Proprieters (H.I.P.)
    + the Communication Co.
    Jan 18 Leary speaks at UCLA
    Jan 23 Kerr announces tuition for U.C.
    Jan 27 US, USSR, UK sign treaty banning nuc weapons in space
    Jan 27 death of Grissom, White, Chaffee Apollo 1 blow up
    puts several month halt to space program
    67 Feb 25,000 US troops to Cambodian border
    Feb *Beatles: Strawberry Fields Forever 
    (second use of sitar ?in pop/rock music)
    and Penny Lane, Michelle, Yesterday
    Feb 19 Tribal Stomp (explain)
    spring SF: Happening House, Huckleberry House,
    and the Switchboard started, as well as Free Clinic
    Mar 1 Adam Clayton Powell denied House seat
    (re-elected without campaign April 11)
    Mar 1? Emmet Grogan to NY ("6 wks" to Apr 9)
    Mar Mime Troupe busted at Univ of Calgary for marijuana seed
    March James Hoffa finally goes to prison (appeals exhausted)
    (8 year sentence)
    March Science: LSD causes chromosome damage
    March Berk Barb: smokable banana rumor
    67 March Haight people start to hear about and
    visit to Morning Star Farm (Sonoma)
    Mar 9 Fillmore opens 6 nights/week
    Mar 26 10,000 at Be-In NY Central Park (Easter?) the Equinox??
    Mar 18 The first big oil spill:
    Torrey Canyon U.S. supertanker wreck
    off Land's End, England: 119,000 tons/90,000 tons
    wash up on Devon, Cornwall, Brittany
    Apr 5 Grayline Tours starts touring Haight
    Apr 7 Tom Donahue takes over KMPX, turns it into prog rock
    A 8-10 Nashville Negro uprising, following Carmichael's
    speech at Fisk University
    Tenn Hse of Reps calls for Carmichael's
    deportation from the state?
    wk bef Apr 15: 1965 draft card law held unconstitutional
    by US first Circuit Court of Appeals
    67 A 10-15 Vietnam Week: draft card burnings and turn-ins 
    & anti-draft recruiter demonstrations
    Apr 15 400,000 march from Central Park to UN against V War
    addressed by MLK, McKissick, Carmichael, Spock
    ("led by MLK's Spring Mobilization Committee To End the
    War in Vietnam") & SF 65,000 (Bd & Pup est.)
    250,000 Bd & Pup & 175 draft cards burned
    A 11-24 Open housing drive: Louisville, Ky
    Apr 16 Negro uprising, Cleveland
    Apr 21 Military junta seizes control of Greece (deposing king)
    May first week Oakland Black Panthers demonstrate in the State
    legislature; first national media attention
    wkbfM19 Stokely Carmichael turns over Chair SNCC to H. Rap Brown
    May Bertrand Russell's War Crimes Tribunal meets in
    Stockholm, denounces U.S. leaders for
    crimes against humanity in Vietnam
    May `End of Provo' event - Vondelpark, Amsterdam
    --> formation of Kabouters
    May Life: "Who Says College Kids Have Changed?
    At Indiana Univ, the students' main concern is
    looking out for No. 1"
    1967 May Paul McCartney reveals that Beatles have all taken acid
    (May 20 NYC: Flower Power Day)
    May 27 Scott MacKenzie: Are You Going to San Francisco enters charts
    May 30 Biafra declares independence from Nigeria
    May 30 (Mem. Day) NYC, Tompkins Square Park, Lower East Side:
    confrontation between hippies & Puerto Ricans
    June Alpert to India for 3 mos
    June early - Diggers attend & boggle SDS meeting in Michigan
    June 2 Sgt. Pepper released US
    J 16-18 Monterrey Pop Fest: 50,000 hear Byrds, Jef
    Airp, Otis Redding, Mamas & Papas, Shankar
    + new Joplin, Hendrix, Who
    June Steve Durkee founds Lama (Foundation) 115 acres New Mexico
    67 June 21 Solstice party in Golden Gate Park: 30-50,000?
    ? "First day of summer": New Buffalo founded near Taos,
    New Mexico (9 miles south of Lama)
    June 25 Beatles on tv introduce "All You Need Is Love"
    "Summer of Love": 75,000/100,000 in Hashbury
    [100,000 - Bohemians bk]
    June (end) Kesey sentenced to 6 mos.
    June 30 448,800 American troops in Vietnam
    (summer Dylan playing with The Band at Big Pink)
    July?? First Reggae Sunsplash Festival
    July 2 Congress passes Selective Service Act reform:
    ends grad student deferments & puts them in a pool to
    be drafted in June 68
    (July 5 Diggers become the Free City Collective)
    July 11 Fonteyn & Nureyev busted in Haight
    67 July 12-17 Negro uprising, Newark, NJ
    (set off bycab driver John Smith's beating by police, after 
    arrest for tailgating & driving the wrong way on one-way street)
    1000 injured, 1400 arrested, 16 mill dollars property damage
    July 19 Congress outlaws crossing state lines to "incite to riot"
    J 23-30 Detroit Negro uprising: largest U.S. riot of the century
    July 25 H. Rap Brown speech in Cambridge is followed by uprising
    (rt bef next) 1,100 at Black Power Conference in Newark:
    Playwright LeRoi Jones; H. Rap Brown of SNCC;
    Charles Kenyatta of the Harlem Mau Maus;
    Ron Karenga of US; Dick Gregory
    July 26 H. Rap Brown arrested Washington airport under the new law
    July 27 Uprisings: Toledo, Ohio; Rochester, NY;
    East Harlem (Puerto Rican youths); Pontiac, Mich +++
    (100+ cities)
    Natl Guard called out for first time in quarter century
    Aug when? Abbie Hoffman & others drop dollar bills on the
    floor of the New York Stock Exchange
    67 Aug 1 Stokely Carmichael calls for black revolution at 
    conference for Lat-Am Solidarity in Havana
    echoed by Rep. Adam Clayton Powell (in Bimini)
    first use of "black" noticed by media
    Aug 3&6 Shob & Superspade killed 
    (John Kent Carter, 25 & William Thomas, 26)
    when? Doors: Light My Fire Top 40 14 weeks
    Aug Life: Discotheques "dazzle senses in an attempt to 
    simulate a drug experience": Electric Circus in the
    East Village adds audience participation
    Life: "its quite the thing to do to head for Kathmandu"
    Shankar touring US & opens Kinnara school of music LA
    Aug 7/8 George & Pattie Harrison visit the Haight
    Aug 15 MLK urges civil disobedience drive in northern cities
    & support of peace candidate in 68 (at Southern
    Christian Leadership Conference, Atlanta)
    Aug 25 Beatles go to Wales to talk to the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi 
    about Transcendental Meditation
    Aug last week: Chocolate George killed in car collision
    Aug 30 Thurgood Marshall, first black Sup Ct Justice, appointed
    Sept? Alpert meets Bhagwan Dass at the Blue Tibetan in Katmandu,
    stays in India & follows him until he meets his guru
    Sept 500,000 in South Vietnam, 600,000 in Southeast Asia
    Sept Tom Hayden & 30 Americans meet North Vietnamese leaders in
    Czechoslovakia; Hayden goes on to Vietnam to help
    return three U.S. P.O.W.s (to Nov 11)
    Sept 15 Donovan at Hollywood Bowl (must be)
    Oct 2 Dead House at 710 Ashbury is busted
    Oct 3 Woody Guthrie dies
    Oct 4 Psychedelic Shop closes
    and Thelins go to Wash DC for exorcism of Pentagon
    Oct 5 Lawrence Lipton starts class at UCLA
    67 Oct 6 Death of Hippie, Loyal Son of Media, birth of free man
    Oct 8 Che Guevara killed in Bolivia (by troops trained in U.S.)
    Oct 9 First edition Rolling Stone
    Oct Carl Stokes becomes first black mayor of Cleveland
    Oct 6-12 LA Free Press: Why did you get up this morning? 
    67 Oct 11&12+? Teach-in at UCLA (w David Harris)
    Oct 12 "A Call to Resist Illegitimate Authority", NY Review of Books
    2,000 sign, including academics, clergymen, writers
    O 16-22 Stop the Draft Week: Anti-draft/draft-card "turn-in" rallies:
    Chicago, Phil, Boston, Cincinnati, Portland
    organized by National Mobilization Committee,
    a broad coalition of pacifist, religious, & radical groups
    O 17 Joan Baez + 122 arrested Oak Induction Center
    date? & Rev Wm Sloane Coffin Jr (43, Yale chaplain), 
    Dr Benjamin Spock (64), Mitchell Goodman (41, novelist),
    Marcus Raskin (33, former White House Disarmament aide
    & co-director of Washington research organization), and
    Michael Ferber (23, Harvard grad student)
    and 1 other deliver draft cards to U.S. Justice Dept.
    O 21-22 35,000/50,000/100,000 Wash DC - 647 arrested at Pentagon
    O 21 Diggers "Exorcism of the Pentagon"
    (psychedelic face paint & flowers stuck in barrels of guns)
    Oct Rev. Philip Berrigan, a Josephite priest, Tom Lewis, 
    David Eberhardt, and James Mengel pour duck's blood over 
    draft files in the Baltimore, Md. Sel. Serv. hdqs.
    Oct 28 5 a.m.: Huey Newton (25) questioned by police in Oakland
    "desolate district". One hour later under arrest at hospital 
    w gunshot wound in stomach. Few weeks later indicted
    on murder of one officer (John Frey Jr.), wounding of
    another, & kidnapping of bystander.
    Nov 7 Gen. Hershey announces draft crackdown on deferred
    college students who are active in anti-war demos
    Nov 14 5,000 demo outside NY foreign policy banquet
    addressed by Sec of State Rusk
    Nov 21 Exorcism of the Pentagon, Wash DC march: 50,000
    250 arrested including Norman Mailer
    (N 25 "last flower-child hippie-type demos in NYC -
    after this, militant")
    Nov Air war against N. Viet accelerated (bombing Hanoi)
    Nov Don McCoy & friends start community at Olompoli Ranch
    Nov Cream: Disreali Gears
    Nov 30 Eugene McCarthy (Senator from Minnesotta) announces
    candidacy, running on anti-war platform
    was this the start of the People's Party?
    Dec Life: Return of the Red Man
    Dec 4 MLK announces Poor People's Campaign in Wash D.C.
    (to start late spring)
    Dec 5 Opening of Apple Shop, Baker St, London
    with murals by The Fool
    Black boycott of Olympics (announced?)
    Dec 5-8 "Stop the Draft Week" at Whitehall, NY Army Induction Center
    546/585 arrested, including Spock & Ginsberg 
    + Madison, Manchester N.H., Cincinnati, New Haven
    Dec 8? Otis Redding records "Dock of the Bay", his only major hit
    Dec 10 Otis Redding dies at 26 in plane crash
    Dec 22 Owsley busted in Orinda (stops production of acid)
    solst "people started to leave for the country"
    Dec?? Beatles: Magical Mystery Tour
    Dec 31 Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, Paul Krassner, Dick Gregory,
    & friends pronounce themselves "Yuppies"

    1967 end: 486,000 American troops in Vietnam
    Of the 15,000 killed, 60% died in 1967

    Beatles: Magical Mystery Tour
    *RS: Between the Buttons w Ruby Tuesday
    & Flowers
    & Satanic Majesty
    *Donovan: Mellow Yellow
    *Wear Your Love Like Heaven 
    San Francisco - John Phillips
    *Airplane's Surrealistic Pillow (second album)
    *Grateful Dead
    *Big Brother & the Holding Co (w Janis Joplin)
    *Byrds: Younger Than Yesterday
    *Buffalo Springfield
    *Country Joe and the Fish
    *Jimi Hendrix: Experienced
    *Doors: Light My Fire & first album
    & Strange Days
    when was The End with sitar?
    *Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention
    *Velvet Underground: first
    *Van Morrison (on his own) (from UK)
    *Bee Gees (from UK)
    *Spencer Davis Group (from UK)
    *Pink Floyd (from UK)
    *Procol Harum (from UK)
    *UK: John Mayall ?Bluesbreakers(with Eric Clapton)
    Incredible String Band (from UK)
    *Canned Heat
    *Moby Grape
    *Pearls Before Swine
    Arlo Guthrie: Alice's Restaurant
    Simon & Garfunkel: Parsley, Sage, Rosemary
    & Thyme??? w Feelin Groovy
    Janis Ian (16)'s first hit?: Society's Child
    (about interracial dating)
    Judy Collins: Who Knows Where the Time Goes
    Leaving on a Jet Plane - John Denver
    Waist Deep in the Big Muddy - Pete Seeger
    *Laura Nyro
    ? :Up Up & Away

    TV: Smothers Brothers
    D.A. Pennebaker's Don't Look Back (Dylan)
    Bonnie & Clyde
    The Battle of Algiers
    Ingrid Bergman returns to US stage for first time 
    after her US career was "killed by scandel" in the late 40s
    La Guere est Finie directed by Alain Resnais
    How I Won the War with John Lennon 
    The Graduate directed by Mike Nichols
    (The Dirty Dozen)
    Planet of the Apes [check]

    R. D. Laing: Politics of Experience
    Richard Brautigan: Trout-fishing in America

    Lama Foundation, San Cristobal, New Mexico, founded
    (Washington Mag says maxis)

    1968 number of divorces, & divorce rate, both jump by 12%
    and start rise
    Charlie Hall, Hashbury, invents the waterbed as a school project
    Steve Gaskin starts the Monday Night Class
    Yogi Bhajan comes to U.S. to teach Kundalini Yoga
    (Healthy, Happy, Holy)
    when? Huey Newton starts 34 mos in jail during trial for
    manslaughter in Oakland (released 1970)
    Wiretapping becomes a federal crime
    Gun Control Act curbs sale of handguns
    Dec 67 - mid-68: first heart transplants
    Hong Kong flu (?the first flu brot back from Vietnam?)
    when? Dennis Banks, Russell Means, Clyde Bellecort & others
    found AIM in Minneapolis, working towards improving
    living conditions for urban Indians
    Akwesasne Notes started by members of Mohawk Nation
    Amer scientists tell natives evacuated in 1946 from
    Bikini it is safe to return; by 1978, 139 who return
    found to contain dangerous levels of cesium & re-evacuated
    The dollar is worth 362 yen; Japan is still known
    for "cheap" trinket import items
    68 SDS has 100,000 "members"
    Ivan E. Sutherland at Univ of Utah, invents first
    head-mounted Virtual Reality display, but 
    powerful enough computer to use with it does not yet exist

    Dylan: John Wesley Harding
    Carnegie Hall: Tribute to Woody Guthrie
    (Pete Seeger, Jack Elliott, Judy Collins, 
    Arlo Guthrie, Tom Paxton, Odetta, Richie Havens, 
    & Dylan with The Band)
    Jan-May 40,000 students participate in 221 major demonstrations
    on 101 campuses
    Jan 2 Federal: bilingual ed.
    Jan 5 Spock, Coffin, Mitchell Goodman, Michael Ferber, &
    Marcus Raskin indicted for delivering draft cards (Oct)
    Jan 16 Youth International Party (Y.I.P.) founded -
    Country Joe & Fish, Fugs, Ginsberg, Arlo Guthrie,
    Abbie Hoffman, Paul Krassner, Phil Ochs, Jerry Rubin
    (25 artists, writers & revolutionaries)
    68 Jan 18 Eartha Kitt visiting LBJ at White House speaks out
    against the war
    Jan 22 B-52 carrying H-Bomb crashes in Greenland
    Jan 23 Pueblo seized by Korea
    Jan 31 Viet Cong launch Tet Offensive - (to Feb 24)
    70,000 Viet Cong troops attack 100 S.Viet cities
    start of the turnaround
    + picture of police chief shooting VC in head
    Feb 9 In the land of the blind
    Feb 16 Draft deferments for most grad students & all
    occupational deferments eliminated
    Feb 17 Second Tribal Stomp
    Feb Leary evicted from Millbrook house
    Feb *Beatles to India to visit Maharishi 
    (at Rishikesh on the Ganges)
    + Mia Farrow, Donovan
    Ringo stays 10 days, Paul 9 weeks, John & George longer
    & Maharishi Mahesh coming to US
    Feb 29 RFK & Javits, NY's Senators, speak out
    Morning Star Ranch busts -> Wheeler Ranch opened to settlers
    winter Bill Wheeler (28) opens nearby Sheep Ridge Ranch (Wheeler's
    Ranch) (320 acres) for people to live on the land
    Mar 2 RFK speech to Congress about Vietnam
    68 Mar 8-9 Warsaw student uprisings, Mar 11 workers uprising
    March Hue bombed to rubble in "25 days of horror" to retake
    from VC / during "peace feelers"
    (including Mylai massacre March 16: 200 - 500 villagers killed)
    Mar McCarthy's "Children's Crusade": thousands work on New
    Hampshire primary, calling on nearly every voter in the state
    Mar 12 10,000 students go door to door in heavy snows
    Mar 12 Eugene McCarthy wins 42% of New Hampshire vote, overtaking
    the Pres, & causing RFK to "reconsider" on Vietnam
    (& LBJ not to run, sez Great Expectations p.113)
    Mar 16 RFK declares candidacy
    Mar 19 Pres advisors advise getting out of Vietnam war
    (Mar 22 first N.Y. YIP event)
    Olympic boycott
    Mar 31 LBJ announces decision not to run again
    and offers partial bombing halt
    and appointment of Averell Harriman to seek negotiations
    Apr 1 Supreme Court extends one-man, one-vote doctrine
    to local governments ?Baker vs. Carr -> reapportionment
    68 Apr 4 MLK shot and killed, at Memphis motel, 7 p.m.
    during Poor People's Campaign (39 years old);
    within two hours:
    A 4-11 Black uprisings Chicago, Baltimore, Wash DC, Cincinnati,
    Boston, Detroit, Phil, SF, Toldeo, Pittsburgh
    125 cities in 29 states total
    Apr 6 Cleaver arrested with a bullet-shattered leg
    during Oak police ambush on Panthers
    + Bobby Hutton (17) shot and killed
    Apr 11 LBJ signs civil rights bill banning housing discrimination
    (with anti-riot felony amendment)
    Apr 11 Major call-up of reserves for duty in Vietnam
    Apr 14 (Easter Sunday) Love-in Malibu Canyon
    Peak of demonstrations in West Berlin against
    Axel Springer & his publishing empire, after
    assasination attempt on Rudi Dutschke ("Red Rudy")

    Apr 15 Spring Mobilization against the war
    68 A 23-30 Students take over 5 Colombia Univ bldgs
    protesting University's affiliation with the Institute for 
    Defense Analysis and its Pentagon-related research, and 
    construction of athletic facility opposed by neighboring Harlem
    (Mark Rudd becomes famous as leader)
    700+ arrested, strike continues for another month
    Apr 25 Paul Horn records in the Taj Mahal
    Apr 29 Rev. Ralph Abernathy succeeds MLK as President 
    of Southern Christian Leadership Conference
    Ap/May Black Panthers start Free Breakfast for Children program
    My 2-17 SCLC Poor People's March on Washington
    3,000 erect Resurrection City, tent city on the Mall
    My 2-14 Street fighting in Paris
    May 13 US & Viet begin talks in Paris
    68 M 13-30 France: Sorbonne demonstrations: humanism vs technology
    French students occupy the Sorbonne
    Demonstrations in Madrid, Rome, Berlin, NY,
    & Czechoslovakia (during "Prague Spring")
    May Two Virgins: Lennon & Yoko naked
    Beatles launch Apple Corps
    when? Former Stanford Student Body President David Harris 
    marries Joan Baez
    May Life: abundance of show biz people in Presidential campaign
    68 May 21 Tom Donahue & djs from KMPX start [new format at] KSAN
    May 21 Second mass arrest at Columbia University
    May 22 H. Rap Brown of SNCC convicted for carrying weapon
    across state lines
    May 24 Philip Berrigan & Tom Lewis sentenced to 6 years
    May before or after? Philip Berrigan, out on bail, and
    brother Daniel, a Jesuit priest, and seven others
    remove records from Catonsville, Md. draft board
    office and set them on fire outside in the presence
    of reporters and onlookers
    May 28 McCarthy wins over RFK in Oregon primaries
    June 3 Andy Warhol shot
    June 4 Calif primaries: RFK wins
    June 5 RFK shot (42), Ambassador Hotel, LA 
    (Sirhan Sirhan arrested)
    (Jn 8 James Earl Ray (accused of MLK murder), arrested London)
    68 June 14 Spock, Coffin, Ferber, Goodman convicted of conspiracy 
    for "draft counseling"
    1968 June oldest baby boomers graduate college
    June 18 Monterey Pop
    June 25 Poor People's Campaign March 50,000 Georgia to Wash D.C.
    June Libre, Colorado community founded
    summer early - Hayden to Paris to confer w N. Vietnamese reps.
    68 summer Haight Ashbury Media Summer + "Young Americans Abroad"
    July 4 Graham first concert at Fillmore West (Van Ness & Market)
    July Yellow Submarine movie
    July Haight Ashbury riot (including B of A burning
    leads to H.I.P. boarding up their stores
    Wallace campaign, and McGovern enters the race
    J 23-24 Cleveland black uprising
    July Pope's birth control encyclical
    Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty signed
    Operation Breadbasket, Chicago, begins with boycott 
    of A&P stores over discrim in hiring, 
    with Jesse Jackson, 27, as head?
    July U.S. Viet tropps increase by 19,000 to 535,000

    1968?? Peace & Freedom Party campaign?
    Cleaver for Pres, then Dick Gregory??

    Aug Cream: Wheels of Fire
    Aug First Apple release: Beatles: Hey Jude & Revolution
    Aug 1000 meet in prayer before UN for food aid to Biafra
    Aug Panthers Tommy Lewis, 18 & Steve Bartholomew, 21
    and ?Arthur Morris, 28
    shot to death by police in Los Angeles
    A 20-21 Soviet tanks invade Prague, Czech with 200,000 troops
    A 25-29 Democratic Convention in Chicago:
    demonstrations & police riot
    10,000? demonstrators vs. 11,000 Chicago police; 
    6,000 National Guard; 7,500 U.S. army troops; 
    and 1,000 FBI,CIA & army/navy intelligence services agents
    (Humphrey nominated on platform supporting the war)
    (A 27 candlelight, matches at Yippie Festival concert, coliseum)
    fall women's movement groups start in Berkeley
    68 Sept 8 Huey Newton (leader Black Panther Party) convicted
    Oakland vol manslaughter Oak policeman
    Sept Stock Market starts 18 month +? downhill slide
    Sept American Indian Movement (AIM) born as a volunteer
    street patrol to combat police brutality, Minneapolis
    Sept 18 Troops invade Mexico City Natl Univ (demos since mid summer)
    Sept "Eldridge Cleaver banned from lecturing on U.C. Berk campus"
    Oct 2 After 9 weeks of student strikes,
    Mexican military opens fire on 6,000 gathered 
    in housing project plaza for march on
    Natl Polytech Institute to protest army occupation of campus
    28-200 killed, 200-500 wounded, 1500 jailed
    Oct 3 Yippie Jerry Rubin arrives at HUAC's inquiry into Aug
    uprisings w a toy M-16 & a red, blue & yel cape
    resembling VC flag 
    Oct Angela Davis, 26?, goes to jail
    Oct 18 John & Yoko busted
    Oct late- 4000 demonstrators at U.C. Berk after Regents
    deny credit for Cleaver's course
    Nov ("a few weeks after late Oct") Cleaver flees to Algeria
    68 Nov First Whole Earth Catalog 
    O31/N1 LBJ orders halt to all bombing in Viet
    Nov 5 Nixon defeats Humphrey 
    (narrowest victory since 1912: .7% (43.4-42.7))
    also Shirley Chisholm, first black female
    elected to Hse Rep (from NY)
    (Stock Market starts drop)
    Nov 6 San Francisco State: strike called by students
    Pres. S.I. Hayakawa stations several hundred police on campus
    Nov Cream's Farewell Concert at the Royal Albert Hall
    Priests from all over US meet in Wash to protest Pope's
    ban on contraception. Many start to renounce their vows
    ?Dr. Paul Ehrlich & Dr. Thomas Eisner found ZPG at Yale
    Nov Yoko's miscarriage
    Nov Hayakawa closes SF State for 8 days (reopens Dec 2)
    N?D? Emmet Grogan delivers payment to Fred Hampton in Chicago for
    (cooperation?) in the making of a movie called 
    "American Revolution II"; Hampton later used this as
    a medium for forming the Rainbow Coalition
    Dec (1) National Commission on the Causes & Prevention of Violence 
    releases "Walker report" which censures Chicago Police for
    behavior during "Police Riot" at Democratic Natl Convention
    Dec 2 NY City high school students uprising: Brooklyn +
    D 13-16 San Mateo College closed
    D 21-27 Apollo 8 with three astronauts circles moon ten times 
    & takes photo of earth rising behind the moon on Dec 24

    Abraham, Martin & John
    *RS: Beggar's Banquet
    ?Beatles: White Album [or was this 69?]
    Hey Jude; Lady Madonna
    Dylan: John Wesley Harding
    *The Band: Music from the Big Pink
    *Donovan: From a Flower to a Garden 
    & Hurdy Gurdy Man
    Simon & Garfunkxx: Bridge over Troubled Water
    *Doors: Waiting for the Sun
    *Hendrix: Axis Bold As Love 
    & Electric Ladyland
    *Fleetwood Mac
    *Steve Miller
    Dr. John: first solo
    *Sly and the Family Stone
    Creedence Clearwater Revival
    *Blue Cheer ("Heavy Metal")
    *Iron Butterfly ("Heavy Metal")
    *Velvet Underground: White Light/White Heat ("H M")
    *Deep Purple ("Heavy Metal")
    *Moody Blues
    *Electric Flag
    *Blood, Sweat & Tears
    *Seatrain (formed from Blues Project)
    *Jeff Beck Group (from UK)
    *Traffic (from UK)
    *Joe Cocker (from UK)
    *Bonzo Dog Band (from UK)
    *Pentangle (from UK)
    *Joni Mitchell (first)
    *Leonard Cohen
    *Randy Newman
    Taj Mahal
    ?Cream [at UCLA May 68]
    Commander Cody and his Lost Planet Airma?n
    moves from Detroit to SF
    (?Roberta Flack)

    If . . .
    Yellow Submarine
    2001 directed by Kubrick
    Hair (from April 29)
    (Planet of the Apes, Barbarella)
    ??I Am Curious - Yellow

    first Zap Comix
    Tom Wolfe: Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test
    Eldrige Cleaver: Soul on Ice
    Dr. Paul Ehrlich: The Population Bomb
    Akwesasne Notes starts publication
    Carlos Castaneda: The Teachings of Don Juan
    Aerobics - Dr. Kenneth Cooper 
    (first use of the term for exercise)

    Tiny Tim
    Peter Max
    "Unisex clothing"
    Forty heart transplants
    Joan Baez marries David Harris and
    David Harris starts 3 year jail sentence
    for refusing to register for the draft
    Auroville Cooperative, India, founded
    Ananda Cooperative Village, Nevada City, California, founded

    1969 Peak of China's "Cultural Revolution"
    Airplane hijackings reach peak (65 seized in 69)
    North Sea oil operations start (U.K.)
    Cuyahoga River catches fire in Cleveland, Ohio due to pollution
    SDS has all-time high of 304 chapters (Geo. Leonard p. 340)
    150 community-based underground newspapers (Leonard p. 341)
    Charles Evers of Fayette, Miss becomes first black mayor of
    an integrated community in the south (doublecheck year)
    spring: 150 Navajos meet to oppose Peabody Coal Co strip mining

    Jan Panthers John Huggins, 23 & Alprentice (?Bunchy) Carter, 26
    shot to death in UCLA lunchroom
    Jan 6 SF State reopens after 3 weeks (sic)
    Jan 7 Gov. Reagan asks Calif legislature to "drive criminal
    anarchists & latter-day Fascists off the campuses"
    Jan 8 San Fernando State 1,000 demo & attempt to occupy admin bldg
    Jan 8 San Jose: Teachers join strike
    Jan 28 Sta Barb oil well blowout (continues into midsummer)
    Jan 30 Howard Univ: Med schl frosh boycott anatomy courses
    until Feb ouster of dept chairman
    Feb Four aquanauts descend 50 feet to a sea lab on the
    bottom of Great Lameshur Bay in the Virgin Islands,
    to live there 60 days
    Feb massive strike U.C. Berkeley for ethnic studies
    Feb 5 Reagan declares state of extreme emergency
    Feb 11 St. George Williams College, Montreal: 200 students smash
    computer with axes & set computer center on fire during
    sit-in protesting prof's racism
    Feb 12 Howard Univ: law school protest
    Feb 13 Univ of Mass: 33 arrested at admin bldg sit-in
    F 18-19 Howard Univ: bldg seized & boycott started
    Feb 22 Rice Univ: 1,000 students & 200 faculty rally
    protesting presidential appointment
    F 24-25 Penn State Univ: admin bldg occupied
    Feb 27 U.C. Berkeley: police charge student picket lines,
    club and arrest two Chicano leaders
    Feb 27 U of Wisconsin (Madison): thousands rampage thru nine
    buildings over black enrollments
    Feb 27 University of Chicago: march
    Mar Chicago Eight indicted
    Mar 12 Paul McCartney marries Linda Eastman
    Mar 13 George Harrison's house raided
    69 Mar ?13 Secret bombings of Cambodia start:
    3,650 B-52s drop four times the tonnage of bombs
    dropped on Japan in all of World War II
    Mar 20 John & Yoko fly to Gibraltar & get married
    then fly to Amsterdam for one week "lie-in" for peace
    Mar 24 Lennox Raphael's play Che is busted for obscenity
    two days after opening at the Free Store Theatre in Manhattan
    69 Apr Dylan: Nashville Skyline
    Apr Beatles "Get Back" single released
    Apr start creating People's Park on land near the U.C.
    campus, vacant for a year or two since houses bulldozed
    when? ASUC election: in large turnout, UC students vote to
    keep the land as a park
    Apr 3 Fed Reserve Bd raises prime rate from 5 1/2 to 6%
    (highest in 40 years)
    Apr 4 Smothers Brothers tv show canceled `controversial'
    also Bill Cosby tv show canceled around this time
    Rowan & Martin 's Laugh-in starts around this time
    Apr 4-6 Demonstations on the anniversary of MLK's death & anti-war:
    Chicago; Memphis (10,000 gather to pay tribute);
    NY (20,000+ up Fifth Ave, some with "33,000" armbands-explain)
    (Is this the Bryant Park demo?)
    Apr 9 Harvard: 300 led by SDS seize Univ Hall
    Apr 10 Harvard: Police called in; 37 injured, 200 arrested
    Apr 11 Harvard: start of 3 day student strike
    Apr 18 Harvard votes to make ?ROTC "extracurricular"
    Apr 22 Harvard faculty votes to create black studies program & 
    give students vote in selection of its faculty
    Apr 22 City College of NY closed after black & Puerto Rican students
    lock selves inside asking higher minority enrollment
    69 Apr 24 B-52 launch biggest attack on N? Vietnam
    demos NY (Sixth Ave), Atlanta, Chicago, Calif - 40 cities
    Demos and strike at Cornell
    Apr 30 543,000 US soldiers in Vietnam
    May when? Fifteen people enter Chicago central draft depository
    and destroy all records of twelve local draft boards
    and some files of eight others
    May when? John and Yoko: Montreal bed-in week
    and record "Give Peace a Chance"
    May 7 Lou Gottlieb deeds Morning Star Ranch to God
    May 13 Nixon sends draft reform plan to Congress
    May 14 Sup Ct Justice Abe Fortas resigns under fire for
    personal conduct (first in history)
    May 14 Night: police build fence around People's Park
    May 15 People's Park: James Rector (25) killed
    Reagan: "If it's a blood bath, then let it be now."
    orders gassing of U.C. campus
    60 wounded, 
    including Alan Blanchard blinded for life, Steve Carr
    -> 17 days of street fighting, ending in march by 30,000
    150 demonstrators shot & wounded
    May 19 Sup Ct overturns Leary conviction for crossing Mex to
    Texas w mj - overturns 2 fed anti-mj laws
    May 20 134 day class boycott of San Francisco State settled
    May 21? Police in helicopters drop teargas on U.C. Berk campus rally
    May 22 Colombia: 100 (SDS) students flee 2 bldgs after warrants
    (asking no military recruitment on campus,
    end to ROTC, black studies program)
    + Queens (NYC) & Cornell
    when? "Canadian govt allows Am mil deserters to settle in Canada"
    May 30 (Mem Day) 20,000 people in People's Park - with permit
    flowers on the fences
    May Apollo 8 photo of earthrise over the moon published
    as US postage stamp & circulated widely, 
    as Buckminster Fuller uses the term "spaceship earth"
    June Berkeley Ecology Center (first in U.S.) opens
    June Progressive Labor Party takes over SDS, Weathermen born
    69 June 8 Nixon announces withdrawal of 25,000 troops from Viet 
    (of 540,000) by Aug 31
    June Prime? rate 7 1/2 to 8 1/2% (third hike in 69)
    June Commencement protests anti-Viet
    + (Brandeis, Yale, Wesleyan +++)
    Brown University: two-thirds of graduating class turn
    their backs on Henry Kissinger's address
    June 28 Police raid of Christopher Street, NY bar 
    sets off Stonewall Riots --> start of gay lib mvmt
    recheck 1969-70
    1969 July?1? First Draft Lottery could this be? see 11/69
    July 3 Brian Jones of Rolling Stones dies
    July 7 Charles Ever sworn in as first black mayor of biracial
    town in Mississippi since Reconstruction (Fayette)
    July 9 Canada language bill signed, giving right to use
    either French or English
    July 11 Spock & Ferber's 68 conviction overturned by First
    Circuit Court of Appeals, Boston & Coffin & Goodman
    cases sent back for retrial
    July 14 park activists storm People's Park
    July 18 Sen. Ted Kennedy's accident at Chappaquiddick
    (Mary Jo Kopechne, 28, killed)
    Life: The Youth Communes
    July 20 Apollo 11: Armstrong & Aldrin first walk on the moon
    & earthrise from the moon photo taken
    when? Cleaver (still) in Algeria & Carmichael in Guinea
    69 summer Gaskin's travels -> The Farm founded, Summertown, Tenn.
    summer & fall: In the wake of the success of Easy Rider, Hollywood
    briefly opens up to new, young, low-budget filmmakers
    July 31 People's Park paved over (huh?)
    Aug Blind Faith forms, with Eric Clapton, Ginger Baker from
    Cream and Steve Winwood from Traffic
    Aug Sonoma County sends bulldozers onto Morning Star
    Ranch to remove structures
    Aug 9 Sharon Tate & LaBiancas found murdered
    Aug 17 wkend Woodstock: 300,000
    Richie Havens, Jef Air, Dead, CSN&Y, Creed C Rev,
    Who, the Band, Joplin, Hendrix
    Aug 20 Oakland: Bobby Seale, Natl Chair BPParty, arrested for 
    New Haven murder of former Panther Alex Rachey
    (suspected black informer) (charges eventually dropped)
    Aug last Sat & Sun Isle of Wight Festival: 200,000
    including Dylan with The Band [I've seen this as 70 too]
    69 Sept 3 Ho Chi Minh dies
    69 Sept 13 Toronto: Lennon & "Plastic Ono Band" 
    Sept 15 David Brower announces founding of Friends of the Earth
    Sept 24 Trial of Chicago Eight starts
    (David Dellinger, Rennie Davis, Thomas Hayden,
    Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, 
    John Froines, Lee Weiner, Bobby Seale)
    Sept 28 W Germany: first (postwar) Socialists take power (Willy Brandt &
    Social Democrats in coalition with Free Democrats)
    Oct early: Beatles: Abbey Road
    Dylan bootleg: Great White Wonder
    oct 6 Weathermen blow up statue commemorating police victims
    of Haymarket bombings
    Oct 8 Weathermen/Weather Underground violent "Days of Rage"
    demos, Chicago - 3 shot, 300 arrested
    Oct 9 2,500 Natl Guard called in -> Oct ll
    Oct 12? Gitlin says Manson arrested and charged
    69 Oct 15 Viet Moratorium ** [Peace Day] thruout US
    (organized by Sam Brown & David Mixner)
    100,000 Boston Common / 40,000 Bryant Park, Manhattan /
    30,000 candlelight march past White House, led by MLK (Life)
    Wash D.C.: names of 45,000 Amers killed in Viet carried
    12,000 Chicago
    & Pres of 79 colleges appeal to Nixon to step up withdrawal timetable
    (black armbands worn all over the U.S.)
    [10 million involved throughout the U.S.]
    John Lennon returns MBE to protest UK's involvement in
    the Nigerian war & its support of US in Vietnam

    Oct 21 Jack Kerouac dies
    McCartney dead? rumor starts
    O 29-31 Chicago Eight Trial: Judge Hoffman orders Bobby Seale 
    bound & gagged (after refused permission to act 
    as or have his own defense counsel)
    Oct 30 Supreme Court orders immediate desegregation thru out U.S.
    Oct 31 Wheeler's Ranch invaded by 25-man army of policemen,
    narcotics agents, juvenile officers, FBI agents, etc.
    without search warrant; when one of female residents
    arrested, Bill Wheeler objected, and was attacked;
    Bill Wheeler and four others arrested for assault;
    all later found not guilty
    Nov 3 Nixon announces "Vietnamization" program to shift
    Vietnam fighting from U.S. troops to U.S.-trained local troops
    Nov 4 Chicago Eight Trial becomes Chicago Seven Trial:
    Seale cited by Judge Hoffman for contempt & given 4 years
    in jail; retrial ordered on Seale's case
    Nov Attempt to introduce the maxi (coat) starts
    Nov eight bombings in Manhattan
    Nov 9 78 Native Americans land on & occupy Alcatraz Island
    in San Francisco Bay, site of an abandoned military base
    Nov 13 Second National Moratorium
    N 13-15 Weathermen led by Rubin & Hoffman march on Justice Dept.
    69 Nov 14 Crosby-Stills Nash & Yg concert 
    + Joy of Cooking (Winterland) before 
    Nov 15 Mobilization: Wash DC march
    250,000 (-750,000 Gitlin) Capitol to Penn Ave to Wash mon
    Speakers: McCarthy, Sen. George McGovern, Sen. Charles
    Goodell, Coretta King, Dick Gregory, Leonard Bernstein;
    Singers: Arlo Guthrie, Pete Seeger, Peter, Paul, & Mary,
    John Denver, Mitch Miller, touring cast of Hair
    Nov 19 Congress passes random selection of draftees thru lottery
    & permits first calling of 19 yr olds & expired college
    deferments & allows call-up by birthday
    (+ second lottery by first letter of last name within
    each date group + third for within letters)
    Nov 21 Senate turns down first Sup Ct nominee (Nixon's) since 1930
    Nov 24 Apollo 12: second landing on moon
    Nov 30 U.S. Army Lieutenant William Calley charged with
    covering up the massacre of 567 civilians by his troops
    at Mylai, Vietnam in March 1968
    Nov 30 600 Native Americans occupying Alcatraz
    Dec 1 First Draft Lottery
    Dec 4 Panthers Fred Hampton (21) & Mark Clark (22) shot and 
    killed in their beds by Chicago police during raid
    making at least 19 Panther leaders (they claim 28)
    killed in 18 months (+ Huey Newton currently in prison)
    Dec 24 Manson `Family' indictments
    Rolling Stones free concert at end of tour,
    Altamont racetrack, Ca: 300,000 attend
    Meredith Hunter (18) killed

    1969 by end, over 100,000 Americans have died in Vietnam
    65,000 troops brought home to U.S.

    *Beatles: Abbey Road
    *Lennon & Plastic Ono Band: Give Peace a Chance
    *Lennon & Ono: Two Virgins
    *Harrison: Wonderwall
    *RS: Let It Bleed
    *Rod Stewart
    *Dylan: Nashville Skyline
    Great White Wonder (first Dylan bootleg)
    *Baez: David's Album (late 69)
    *Joni Mitchell: Clouds
    *Mother Earth
    *Dan Hicks
    *Janis Joplin: Kozmic w Bobby McGee?
    Jim Croce
    *Neil Young (from Buffalo Springfield) first solo
    Jethro Tull
    *Captain Beefheard: Trout Mask Replica
    *Led Zeppelin
    *MC5 ("Heavy Metal") 
    *Black Pearl ("Heavy Metal") 
    *Grand Funk Railroad ("Heavy Metal")
    *King Crimson
    *Miles Davis
    (*Desmond Decker: The Israelites - pre-Reggae)
    ? Jim Kweskin's Jug Band (with Maria Muldaur)

    Fellini: Satyricon
    Midnight Cowboy; Alice's Restaurant; 
    Monterey Pop; Easy Rider*; 
    Putney Swope*; Medium Cool*; 
    Last Summer*; Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice;
    Goodbye, Columbus; 
    They Shoot Horses, Don't They?; Oh! What a Lovely War;
    The Who pop opera film; 
    Wild Bunch [recheck - have this earlier]; Butch Cassidy;
    Startrek taken off tv after 3 yr run

    Vonnegot: Slaughterhouse-Five
    French Lieutenant's Woman - John Fowles
    Everything You've Always Wanted to Know about Sex
    But Were Afraid to Ask - David Reuben (more 70?)
    Portnoy's Complaint - Philip Roth
    The Strawberry Statement-James Simon Kunen
    I'm OK - You're OK - Thomas Harris (Eric Berne's 
    transactional analysis)
    The Peter Principle - Dr. Laurence J. Peter & Raymond Hull
    Charles Bukowski: Notes of a Dirty Old Man
    Theodore Roszak: The Making of a Counterculture
    Dr. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross: On Death and Dying
    Buckminster Fuller: Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth
    How to Keep Your Volkswagen Alive - John Muir
    Custer Died for Your Sins - Vine Deloria, Jr.
    Arcology: The City in the Image of Man - Paolo Soleri

    maxi coats (floor length)
    first? unixsex haircutting salon

    1970 Common Cause founded
    Jim Hightower founds Agribusiness Accountability Project,
    Nader-type group to investigate conglomerate influence over 
    U.S. food supply
    Celestial Seasonings founded, Boulder, Colorado
    when? Dem. Party Commission (Sen. Geo McGovern, chair) begins reform
    174 bombings on college campuses between fall 69 and spring 70
    400,000 Americans soldiers in Vietnam, sez EWJ

    when? Gdansk shipyard strike (Poland)
    Jan Radical Chic parties by Bernsteins 
    to raise funds for Panthers
    The Last Days of Biafra
    Jan 1 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) signed by Nixon
    (?creates EPA+)
    Jan 2 Supreme Court rules unconstitutional General Lewis
    Hershey's 1967 directive that local draft boards reclassify 
    to 1-A (eligible for active duty) anti-draft demonstrators
    Jan 5 Mississippi integrates first three districts of its
    public schools
    Jan 6 Supreme Court upholds prohibition of underground GI
    anti-war newspaper at Fort Bragg
    Jan 13 Three black prisoners killed by guard at Soledad Prison
    during melee
    Jan 16 Guard killed at Soledad Prison;
    Soledad Brothers (including George Jackson) accused
    Feb Leary sentenced to 10 years for Texas/Mex mj bust
    Feb 4 "riot in Isla Vista protesting Chicago verdicts,
    ended in B of A bombing" (sez Gitlin)
    Feb 9 NY: Underground `Rat' publishes Robin Morgan's
    "Goodbye to All That" feminist statement
    Feb 16 Demo for "The Chicago Seven" - City Hall Park & Foley Sq (NYC?)
    Feb 19 Chicago Seven Trial: Dellinger, Davis,
    Hayden, Hoffman, & Rubin found guilty of
    crossing state lines to incite riot; Froines &
    Weiner acquitted; attorneys William Kunstler & Leonard
    Weinglass sentenced for contempt of court; all appealed
    Feb 20 - sentenced
    Feb 19-28 in prison on Judge Hoffman's contempt charges
    "half a million people in the streets"
    (Oil spill Tampa Bay near St. Petersburg)
    Explosions in 3 office buildings in NY; 
    Explosions in Calif; Wash; Maryland; Mich
    Feb 25 Isla Vista, Santa Barbara Bank of America burning
    Mar 6 three Weathermen blow themselves up in Greenwich Village
    (house of Cathy Wilkerson's father)
    (Diana Oughton, Cathlyn Wilkerson, Kathy Boudin)
    Cambodia: Prince Sihanouk deposed by conservatives for 
    allowing Pathet Lao & N. Viet forces to cross the Plain of Jars
    Mar Women's Wear Daily decrees skirts are going midi.
    For the first time, not everybody listens
    Alaska's oil bonanza/rush
    While Sihanouk is in Europe, Cambodian government demands
    that the North Vietnamese & Viet Cong troops withdraw
    Mar 18 Coup in Cambodia
    Mar 23 Nixon calls out Natl Guard to alleviate delays caused
    by the first widespread postal workers' strike
    Mar 31 Oak Induc Center
    spring 2500 Berkeley students turn in draft cards, typical
    of U.S. (before Cambodian protests even start) (Gitlin)
    spring Dennis Hopper in Peru making The Last Movie 
    (Kristofferson music), meets Joplin
    spring Huey Newton released
    70 Apr Post office strike starts (huh? - see Mar 23)
    Apr Philip & Daniel Berrigan go underground to avoid
    serving sentences
    Apr 7 Ronald Reagan, Gov. of Calif: "If it takes a
    bloodbath, let's get it over with."
    Apr 10 McCartney announces dissolution of Beatles
    John & Yoko to California for 4 months of Dr.
    Arthur Janov's Primal Scream therapy
    Apr Apollo 13 (third trip to the moon) - accident
    70 Apr 22 Earth Day: millions participate in Wash, NY, +
    Apr 23 (ck) Bobby Seale (Chicago?) retrial begins
    Apr 30 Nixon sends troops into Cambodia to aid the Lon Nol govt
    (until June 30) (30,000 US + 40,000+ So Viet) (announces on tv)
    when? "a few months after Feb": U of Wisconsin bldg bombed,
    killing researcher
    May First week: 30 ROTC bldgs burned or bombed,
    Natl Guard on 21 campuses in 16 states
    May 1 (Saturday) ROTC bldg ransacked College Park, Wash D.C.
    "M 1-2" New Haven: new protests over the pending trial of Seale
    & Ericka Hu/iggins -> 20,000 by Sunday
    May 2 (Sunday) ROTC bldg burned down at Kent State
    May 3 Yale Day: 15,000 protest 9 Black Panthers awaiting
    trial in New Haven
    70 May 4 Kent State University, Ohio: National Guard fires into crowd 
    at anti-war demonstration, 4 students killed & 8 wounded
    May 4 5,000 demo at College Park, Wash D.C., 450 policemen
    unable to disperse, 600 Natl Guard sent in
    _____ _____________________________________________________________
    M 6-20? The Strike 448 colleges 1 million+ students
    "4 million students"
    Gitlin: 750+ campuses (of 2500 nationwide), demos at 1200+
    (demonstrations against sending troops to Cambodia)
    when? ?including? Stanford "worst riots in its history"
    (75 campuses stayed closed thru rest of the school year)
    ----- ------------------------------------------------------------
    May 8 (ck) Nixon fire Gen. Lewis Hershey as director of the
    Selective Service & agrees to withdraw all U.S. troops
    from Cambodia within 30 days
    May 9 Mobilization: 100,000+ in Wash D.C. on only 10 days notice (Git)
    M 9-11 50-60,000 demonstrators gather in Washington
    May 13 Movement for a New Congress - to elect peace
    candidates founded at Princeton Univ
    70 M 14/15 Jackson State College woman's dorm, Mississippi:
    two black students killed, 9/12/12 wounded - no media coverage
    May Philip Berrigan captured, sent to Federal Penitentiary
    Also H. Rap Brown jumps bail on way to Maryland trial
    for inciting riot & arson
    Ma/Jun? Alcatraz removals
    70 wkbfM22 crashing Stock Market: last 18 months
    985 -> 631 "greatest loss since '29"
    ?June Five Kabouters elected to Amsterdam Municipal Council
    including former Provo theorist Roel van Duyn,
    who starts off by arriving at meetings on a bicycle
    June Dylan: Self-Portrait
    June Lou Gottlieb back in court to defend ownership of
    Morning Star Ranch by God
    June 15 Sup Ct rules any indiv may object to military service 
    on ethical & moral grounds, if such convictions 
    "are deeply felt",
    giving more responsibility to local draft boards
    June 19 Two banks bombed in Berkeley
    June !commencement demonstrations/anti-commencements
    Dylan accepts honorary degree at Princeton
    June 22 Voting age lowered to 18
    wk bef J 29 Senate votes 81-10 to repeal Gulf of Tonkin res &
    passes the future aid to Lon Nol without congessional approval
    June 28 First Gay rights march NYC
    70 June 29 Last Amer soldiers in Cambodia withdrawn
    1970 July 1 Second(?) draft lottery
    July?? Abortions legalized?
    summer 28 commissioned military officers, representing
    250 others, form Concerned Officers Movement
    against the war
    summer Chicago Grant Park riot
    Aug 5 Huey Newton ruled not guity of voluntary manslaughter 
    & released (+ trip to China)
    Aug 7 Courtroom kidnap in San Rafael:
    Jonathan Jackson, 17, h.s. student from Pasadena and
    Angela Davis's ex-bodyguard & brother of George
    Jackson, one of the Soledad Bros., attempt to spring
    James McClain at his hearing, 
    plus ?Ruchell Magee & Wm Christmas
    who are present as inmate witnesses; 
    McClain & Christmas killed, as well as Judge Harold Halay
    Aug 11 Daniel Berrigan recaptured, sent to Fed. Pent.
    Aug 29 Powder Ridge, Conn music fest prohibited but 30,000
    show up anyway
    Aug 29 Selective Service Systems report: prosecutions for
    draft evasion have increased ten times over 1965 level
    Aug 29 thousands of Chicanos gather at Laguna Park in East L.A.
    to protest disproportionate number of deaths of Chicano
    soldiers in Vietnam. LAPD attack & one shot, fired into
    Silver Dollar Bar, kills Ruben Salazar, LA Times columnist
    & commentator on KMEX TV (accused by LAPD of inciting
    the Chicano community)
    Aug (end) Amsterdam bans sleeping outdoors; confrontations
    lead to establishment of Vondel Park
    sleeping area (for 3 years)
    Sept Selective Service Systems report: 271 "anti-draft
    occurrances" since January 
    Sept 12 Leary escapes prison (San Luis Obispo) with help from
    the Weather Underground, joins Cleaver in Algiers
    Sept 18 Jimi Hendrix dies at 27
    Monterey Folk Festival (Kristofferson)
    70 Oct 4 Janis Joplin dies at 27
    Oct Jane Fonda starts campus speaking tour 
    Oct Yoko has miscarriage
    Oct 12 Gaskin's caravan leaves SF
    Oct 13 Angela Davis, 26, arrested Manhattan
    charged with involvement in Aug courtroom kidnap
    Still trying to get the midi in
    Oct Dylan: New Morning
    Oct 26 Bank of America fire, Irvine
    Nov 3 Chile: Allende (first Marxist) sworn in
    Nov 5 Indians occupy federal land near Davis
    Nov 17 Trial of Bobby Seale & Ericka Huggins begins
    (ended May 25, 71)
    Dec 4 Cesar Chavez jailed for lettuce boycott 
    (was this the first?)
    Dec 15 Bank of America bombing, Santa Barbara
    70 Dec McCartney sues to dissolve Beatles
    Dec John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band : "the Primal album"
    God is a Concept, the dream is over
    (Lennon's first solo album)
    Dec Hundreds of Vietnam Veterans Against the War testify at 
    "Winter Soldier" investigations in Detroit
    about Vietnam atrocities
    Senate votes to halt funds for SST development
    Dec Geronimo Pratt, Black Panther's Defense Minister,
    charged with murder & starts 17 years in prison
    Dec Nixon signs Natl Air Quality Control Act, requiring
    90% reduction in car-exhaust pollution by 75 

    1966-70 Military desertion rate 300%
    1967-70 Conscientious objectors 20,000 -> 40,000
    1971 80,000 draft resistors have fled to Canada
    1970 another 140,000 troops brought home to U.S.
    (Stock market at a low, starts recovery)

    Hot Tuna out
    Ry Cooder
    CSN&Y: Deja vu
    *Joni Mitchell: Ladies of the Canyon
    *Dylan: New Morning
    ?Lennon: A Working Class Hero (what album was this)
    *Eric Clapton
    *Hendrix: Band of Gypsys
    *RS: Get Yer Ya Ya's Out
    *Harrison: All Things Must Pass
    *Beatles: Let It Be
    *Black Sabbath ("Heavy Metal")
    Judy Collins: Whales & Nightingales
    *Linda Ronstadt
    *James Taylor
    Rita Coolidge
    *CSN & Y: Deja Vu
    *Stephen Stills first solo
    *Simon & Garfunkel: Bridge Over Troubled Water
    *John McLaughlin
    *Allman Brothers Band
    Johnny Winter
    *Elton John (from UK)
    *Jimmy Cliff: first
    *John Renbourn: first solo
    *Cat Stevens
    Eric Clapton's first solo (Easy Now)
    Harrison: All Things Must Pass
    Delanie & Bonnie & Friends: Mad Dogs & Englishmen tour 
    (with Rita Coolidge along)

    TV: Dick Cavett show starts
    Bergman: The Passion of Anna
    Fellini: The Clowns
    Bertolucci: The Conformist
    Five Easy Pieces
    They Shoot Horses, Don't They (I have this as 69 too)
    M*A*S*H (war humor) (the movie) 
    (was this when the tv show started?)
    Catch 22 the film
    Women In Love (" ")
    Hair all over the world
    Woodstock the film
    Little Big Man
    Virgin & the Gypsy
    (Love Story)

    Living on The Earth - Alicia Bay Laurel
    The Tassajara Bread Book
    Our Bodies Ourselves
    Painless Childbirth - Fernand Lamaze (translated from 
    the French edition published around 1956)
    Domebook One - Lloyd Kahn & Bob Easton
    The Greening of America - Charles Reich
    Tom Wolf: Radical Chic
    Scott & Helen Nearing's Living the Good Life republished 
    & sells 170,000 copies
    Jerry Rubin: Do It!
    More than 50 underground anti-war military newspapers 
    being published
    Sexual Politics - Kate Millett
    Alvin Toffler: Future Shock
    I and Thou - Martin Buber
    Zen Mind, Beginners Mind - Suzuki Roshi
    Deschooling Society - Ivan Illich
    Vitamin C and the Common Cold - Linus Pauling
    Arthur Janov: The Primal Scream
    What Color is Your Parachute? - Richard Bolles
    Up the Organization - Robert Townsend
    Jonathan Livingston Seagull - Richard Bach
    Erik Van Daniken [.. over a] - Chariots of the Gods
    Gabriel Garcia Marquez: 100 Years of Solitude 
    (orig? translation?)

    Paulo Soleri starts building Arcosanti
    Swami Muktananda introduced to US (by Ram Dass) 
    - Siddha meditation

    1971 when? Oregon becomes first state to pass a bottle deposit
    and return bill
    when? D.Q. University established
    Supersonic transport (SST) project canceled
    National debate over fate of elms in central Stockholm
    square (Kungstradgarden)

    Jan Two Standard Oil tankers collision & spill, SF
    five days later, Esso tanker spill, Long Island Sound
    Jan Senator George McGovern opens campaign for Pres
    Jan 7 DDT use outlawed by U.S. Court of Appeals
    Jan 12 Rev. Philip F. Berrigan (47) (serving 6 yr term in Fed prison
    Danbury, Conn. on charges of destroying draft records)
    + 5 others indicted on charges of conspiring to kidnap Kissinger
    & plotting to blow up the heating terminals of Fed bldgs
    (Rev. Joseph R. Wenderoth, 35; Rev. Neil R. McLaughlin, 30;
    Anthony Scoblick, 30 - former priest; Eqbal Ahmad, 40
    - fellow of Adlai Stev Inst of Public Affairs; Sister
    Elizabeth McAllister, 31 - of Marymount Col, Tarrytown, NY
    Jan 25 Charles Manson(36), Susan Atkins (22), Patricia Krenwinkel (23),
    Leslie Van Houten (21) found guilty/convicted
    71 Feb oil prices raised by OPEC for the first time
    16,000 South Vietnamese troops march into Laos
    with massive U.S. air support - "hundreds of thousands
    protest in Wash & SF"
    Senate hearings start on army spying on private citizens
    Mar 1 Bomb explodes in Capitol men's room; Weather Underground 
    claims responsibility "in retaliation for the Laos decision"
    Mar 8 Supreme Court rules that objection to a particular war
    is not sufficient grounds for conscientious objection
    (Guy Gillette & Louis Negal? cases)
    Mar 11 Puerto Rico: uprising Univ of Puerto Rico
    Mar 23 Congress votes to lower voting age to 18
    Mar 29 Calley convicted
    Mar 29 Manson + 3 sentenced (to death) (after 9 1/2 month
    trial - longest in Calif history)
    spring Abbie Hoffman releases Steal This Book
    ?? spring Werner Ehrhard (sp?) holds first EST training (yes-1971)
    Homosexuals march in NY (see Life Dec 71)
    A 19-23 1000+ Veterans demonstrate against Viet war in Wash 
    D.C., throwing their medals over the Capitol fence
    Apr 24 200,000 Veterans march - Wash D.C.
    + SF simultaneous march of 156,000
    Apr Retreat from Laos what's the date?
    Apr First China visit by US journalists since xx
    & U.S. table tennis team is invited to China
    Repub. Congressman Paul McCloskey talking of running 
    against Nixon on anti-Viet war platform
    71 Apr 26- 50,000 demonstrators (Vets?) in Washington D.C. set up
    "Algonquin Peace City" (in West Potomac Park),
    May 1 attempt to blockade govt for a day; 
    5,000 District police, 1,500 Natl Gd & 8,000 fed troops
    start evacuating: 7,000 arrested
    [another source: "20,000 Natl Gd & police, 10,000 paratroopers"]
    M 3-5 1,200 arrested - final total 12,614 (record)
    May Amtrak starts operations (182 trains to service 300 cities)
    May England's former prime minister Harold Wilson says LBJ
    could have ended the Viet war in Feb 67
    May 4 Dollar crisis starts in Europe, as five currencies are
    freed from parity with US dollar 
    May Bobby Seale released after charges of ordering murder 
    of Black Panther Alex Rackley in New Haven dropped,
    out on bail on 4 year Chicago trial contempt charges
    May 13 "13 Black Panthers acquitted" (is this the same?)
    May 15 Second anniversary of People's Park demo, "instigated"
    by Daily Cal, leads to Daily Cal moving off U.C. Berkeley campus
    May 25 Bobby Seale & Ericka Huggins case dismissed (same as second?)
    May Philip & Daniel Berrigan indicted for "conspiracy to
    kidnap" a high govt official ie. the Pres.
    71 May Gaskin's caravan arrives in Tennessee
    May The Last Whole Earth Catalog
    May French left joins Larzac farmers in protest against
    French government's planned expansion of military base
    May Life: Rosie Grier does needlework
    May Airlines start super cheap flights to Europe
    1971 June Demise of Whole Earth Catalog party
    June 10 Mexico student uprisings
    June 11 Alcatraz Indians ousted
    J 13-15 Pentagon Papers, secret Pentagon history of the 
    Vietnam war, copied by Daniel Ellsberg and Anthony Russo, 
    appears in the New York Times
    June American vets start admitting to US atrocities in Viet
    US starts dismantling biological arsenal huh?
    June Nixon announces he will visit China 
    summer Danish rock fest, Amsterdam scene
    summer French secretly explode hydrogen bomb in the South Pacific
    July 3 Jim Morrison, 27, dies in Paris
    Aug 1 Concert for Bangla Desh: Harrison, Clapton, Leon Russell, 
    Ringo + Dylan, Ravi Shankar (Madison Square Garden)
    71? Aug Pir Vilayat sufi retreat at Chamonix, France (?first?)
    Aug 6 Huey Newton's second manslaughter trial ends in mistrial
    Aug Marijuana bust on The Farm - Gasking takes responsibility
    Aug Camden 28 raid draft board in Camden, New Jersey
    Aug 13 John Lennon & Yoko Ono check in to St. Regis Hotel, NY
    Aug 15 Nixon declares 90-day wage/price freeze
    & takes US off the gold standard
    Aug 18 Shootout Jackson, Miss: hdqs of Republic of North Africa
    Aug 21 George Jackson (29) killed during San Quentin escape
    attempt, while about to face another trial
    on charges of murdering a white guard
    Aug 31 Stephen Bingham, 29, lawyer to Jackson, charged with
    smuggling weapons into prison
    fall when? Life: high school kids concerned about security
    & order (Sara Davidson)
    71 Sept Attica Federal Prison: 5 day revolt ends with 1000
    state & local police & prison guards storming
    the prison, 41 prisoners? dead
    Sept 16 Japan: 5,000 farmers & students battle 5,000 police in demo
    to prevent govt taking of land for Tokyo Intl Airport at Narita
    Oct Last LOOK Mag
    Oct Follow-up to 68 Kerner Commission report says if present trends
    continue in inner-city racial problems, "most cities by 1980
    will be preponderantly black & brown, & totally bankrupt"
    Oct Huey Newton returns to US to begin a new trial
    Oct 16 E Cleaver press conference in Algiers to announce his
    return to U.S. (sez Ringolevio)
    71 Oct 16 H. Rap Brown, Pres SNCC captured after black bar hold-up, NY
    (with 3 St. Louis black men including Richard Moore &
    Eddie Josephs) after 17 mos fugitive (since May 70)
    Oct drive to enroll 25 million new voters is getting 5 new
    Democrats to 2 new Repubs, influencing local
    elections; college towns get uptight
    Oct 29 Duane Allman killed riding motorcycle
    Nov 2 18 to 20 year olds vote first time
    (but which election would this be???)
    Nov 5 UN votes to seat (Red) China (also seen as Oct 25)
    Ed Muskie, Dem. running for Pres.
    Nov 13 Mariner 9 in orbit around Mars
    Nov Larzac, Fr: 6,000 march to protest expansion of NATO base
    Nov US pulling out of Vietnam 
    (Nov. 11: 188,300 US soldiers left)
    under Nixon's "Vietnamization" withdrawal program
    Dec 2 Dollar dives in reaction to reports that Nixon is
    considering devaluation (326.76 yen; 3.289 Deutsche marks)
    Dec 3 War breaks out in Bangladesh
    Dec 11 Third retrial of Huey Newton ends in mistrial
    Dec 14 Detective Frank Serpico tells Knapp Commission
    of widespread police corruption in NY
    D 17-18 Dollar devalued 8.57%
    Dec 26 15 Viet Vets sit-in inside Statue of Liberty to protest bombing
    Dec 28 80+ Viet Vets arrested Lincoln Memorial, trying to
    block entrance with a human chain

    Greenpeace formed, Vancouver, Canada
    Use of DES discontinued after 7 cases of a rare cancer
    found among women at one Boston hospital
    (20,000 -> 100,000 women a year were prescribed DES for
    prevention of miscarriage between 1960 and 1970)

    RS: Sticky Fingers
    Hendrix: Cry of Love & Rainbow Bridge
    John Lennon: Imagine
    *Joni Mitchell: Blue
    *Carole King ?Tapestry?
    *Carly Simon
    *Cat Stevens
    *Elmerson, Lake & Palmer
    *Herbie Hancock
    *Weather Report
    *Tyrannosaurus Rex
    *Earth, Wind & Fire ("Funk")
    Led Zeppelin "more popular than Beatles": Stairway to Heaven
    (*Bob Marley & the Wailers: first)
    Alice Cooper group

    TV: All In The Family (starts Jan. 12)
    A Clockwork Orange directed by Kubrick
    The Last Picture Show
    Carnal Knowledge (Mike Nichols)
    Harold & Maude
    Murmur of the Heart (Louis Malle)
    Gimme Shelter (Altamont movie)
    Walkabout (Nicolas Roeg)
    ?King of Hearts re-release (is this when?)
    El Topo (Alexandro Jodorowsky)
    Jesus Christ Superstar rock opera "worldwide success"
    (The Exorcist)

    Michael Harrington: The Other America 
    focuses awareness on continuing US poverty
    Germaine Greer: The Female Eunuch (US publication)
    Diet for a Small Planet - Frances Moore Lappe
    Buckminster Fuller: Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth 
    (I have this as 69)
    Carlos Castaneda: A Separate Reality
    Be Here Now: Baba Ram Dass, Lama Foundation
    Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: Dee Brown (sez EWJ)
    The Crack in the Cosmic Egg: Joseph Chilton Pearce
    The Massage Book - George Downing
    Another Roadside Attraction
    Love Story
    East West Journal, Brookline, Massachusetts

    Vitamin C 
    Hot Pants, men's shoes with heels
    ?Day-care centers
    Christiania free city founded in Copenhagen
    Helen Caldicott begins (successful) campaign to stop nuclear
    atmospheric testing in France
    Gray Panthers founded

    1972 Federal Coastal Zone Management Act passed
    Airlines required to screen passengers & their
    luggage to prevent hijackings
    Over 300,000 black Mississippians, 59% of eligible,
    registered to vote 
    Terrorist attack at Munich Olympics
    1955 prize-winning public housing in St. Louis, Pruitt-Igoe,
    blown up due to delapidation and 65% unoccupency
    American Indian Movement (AIM) founded (sez EWJ -
    maybe only became known to greater public, see earlier)
    Erewhon natural foods opens retail and wholesale 
    operations on West Coast
    Venturi & Brown: Learning from Las Vegas
    marks displacement of modern architectural movement
    by post-modernism

    Jan 10 2 black protestors in Baton Rouge killed in shootout with
    police during demo + 8 wounded (+ 2 white deputies killed)
    Jan 17 New Jersey Supreme Court ends death penalty
    Jan 25 Shirley Chisholm (Representative from Brooklyn, NY)
    becomes first black female to seek major party's
    Presidential nomination
    Feb 18 California Supreme Court ends death penalty
    Feb Life: "Today's high school generation is interested in
    security, stability, & comfort."
    72 F 21-28 Nixon visits China
    Feb 23 Angela Davis is released (after 16 months)
    Feb 24 Daniel Berrigan released after 18 months of 3-year term 
    (for Catonsville 9 xxx); goes to Harrisburg where
    brother Phil is on trial
    Feb 28- Angela Davis trial starts, San Jose
    Mar Rodger McAfee, 33, dairy-farmer in Caruthers, Calif.,
    uses farm as collatoral to pay Angela Davis's bail
    Mar Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) passes Congress 
    (by yr end, only 22 states have ratified)
    Mar? Raymond Yellow Thunder, Sioux, killed, Nebraska
    Mar 22 13-member National Commission on Marijuana & Drug Abuse
    recommends legalization of marijuana
    Mar 27 Soledad Brothers acquitted
    Mar 30 North Vietnamese troops go south through the DMZ into
    So Vietnam
    Apr? Mar y Sol rock fest Puerto Rico 30,000
    Apr Demonstrators in Harrisburg, Pa. support Phil Berrigan
    and six co-defendents;
    Apr 5 Harrisburg 7 trial ends in mistrial after 11 weeks
    (this was for plotting to kidnap Kissinger & blow up
    heating xxx );
    only P. B. & Sister Elizabeth McAllister declared guilty,
    and only of smuggling letters in & out of prison
    Apr 15 Nixon & Canada P.M. Pierre Trudeau sign pact to clean
    up Great Lakes
    Apr Heavy US bombing of North Vietnamese entering So Viet
    A 15-28 New wave of antiwar protests on campuses & near military & 
    defense-industry installations - 100s of arrests across U.S.
    May? First? Mother Earth News (recheck & add to lista)
    May 1 Quang Tri captured by North Vietnam
    May 2 J. Edgar Hoover dies (after 48 yrs as only Director of FBI)
    May Nixon talks in Moscow, signs landmark nuclear arms pact
    May 8 bombing of Hanoi & Haiphong (Harbor?)
    May Univ of Michigan protest against ROTC
    and protests on dozens of US campuses against
    the renewed bombing of N Viet i.e. Colombia
    May 11 District/Fed Appeals Court overturns Chicago Seven
    (& 2 attorneys)'s contempt sentences
    & orders trials on Hoffman's citations
    May 15 George Wallace shot, Wash D.C. & paralyzed,
    drops out of presidential race
    May 18 Phil Berrigan back to jail (Danbury) to complete 6 year
    term for destruction of draft records in Baltimore
    & Catonsville, Md.
    May when? Retreat in Vietnam
    Davis: protestors block train carrying military supplies
    May 21 Catholic Lithuanian youth immolates self
    -> week of uprisings vs Soviet troops
    June 4 Angela Davis acquitted (13 week trial)
    June 14 EPA bans DDT
    1972 June 17 Five men caught breaking into the Watergate Hotel
    Democratic campaign headquarters:
    director of security for CREEP + 4 others
    ?with electronic eavesdrop equipment
    June 23 Life: photos of S. Viet children running from napalm
    June Expo '72 evangelist week-long rally in Texas 80,000
    Jl 1-4 First Rainbow Gathering, Strawberry Lake, Colorado
    Aug Nixon says investigation by White House counsel John Dean
    revealed no administration officials involved in
    Watergate break-in
    Aug Democratic convention held in Miami due to threat
    of demonstrations in San Diego
    Aug 11 Last U.S. military unit in Vietnam withdrawn
    Aug 12 B-52s heaviest bombing of N Viet
    Sept 5 Arabs kill Israeli athletes at Munich Olympics
    Oct Nixon & Gromyko sign arms limitation treaty
    Oct Kissinger: "Peace is at hand" in Vietnam
    US negotiating a settlement that would withdraw
    Amer troops but leave revolutionary troops, until
    set-up of a newly-elected government; Saigon
    government refuses to agree
    Oct 18 Congress passes the Clean Water Act over Nixon's veto
    Nov 2 500 AmerInds sit-in at BIA hdqs, Wash 
    (Trail of Broken Treaties)
    month? California voters adopt coastal protection
    Nov 7 Mob figure Meyer Lansky, 71, arrested Miami
    Nov 7 7th Circuit Court of Appeals reverses convictions of
    last 5 of Chicago Seven
    72 Nov Nixon defeats McGovern (re-election)
    (Also ran: Wallace, Humphrey, Henry Jackson, Edmund Muskie, 
    John Lindsay, Shirley Chisholm) [third "People's Party"]
    18-20 year olds first presidential vote
    (Nov 14 Stock Market: Dow Jones tops 1,000 first time)
    Nov 16 Two black students killed by buckshot Baton Rouge, La
    Southern Univ as police clearing demos from admin bldg
    (Note: see Jan 10, 72)
    Nov 29 Phil Berrigan parolled
    Dec Nixon makes last attempt to get North Vietnam to submit:
    18 days of "carpet" bombing of homes, hospitals,
    and civilians of Hanoi & Haiphong through Christmas; 
    first B-52 pilots refuse to fly missions 
    Dec 29 last Life Magazine after 36 years)
    (when did People Mag start?)
    Dec 30 Nixon orders end to bombing

    RS: Exile on Main St and summer tour
    Eric Clapton with Derek & the Dominoes
    McCartney touring with Wings
    *David Bowie: Ziggy Stardust
    Glitter Rock - New York
    *Lou Reed (from Velvet Underground): first solo
    *Blue Oyster Cult (Heavy Metal)
    *Uriah Heep (Heavy Metal)
    *Alice Cooper (Heavy Metal)
    Rare Earth?
    *Leon Russell: first solo
    *Chick Corea with Return to Forever
    *Fairport Convention (from UK)
    *Joni Mitchell: For the Roses
    *Bonnie Raitt
    *Steely Dan
    *Jackson Browne
    Curtis Mayfield
    Don McLean: American Pie
    Bette Midler
    Nitty Gritty Dirt Band with country music stars: 
    Will the Circle Be Unbroken

    The Godfather (Coppola)
    (first time regular movie prices are raised to over 4 dollars)
    Last Tango in Paris (Bertolucci)
    Play It Again, Sam & Everything ... Sex - Woody Allen
    Brother Sun, Sister Moon (St. Francis of Assisi)
    Jodorowsky working on The Holy Mountain
    Grease "50s revival"
    Fritz the Cat
    Deep Throat (seized Aug 18, ruled obscene Mar 73)

    Ms. Magazine starts (actually Dec. 71)
    I.F. Stone stops publishing The Weekly
    The Vegetarian Epicure (I) -
    The Joy of Sex - Alex Comfort
    The Massage Book - George Downing (I have this as 71)
    The Alexander Technique - Wilfred Barlow
    Carlos Castaneda: Journey to Ixtlan
    Mandala - Jose & Miriam Arguelles
    Ringolevio - Emmett Grogan
    Jonathan Livingston Seagull 
    (I have this as 70) (saw again as 72)
    Watership Down - Richard Adams
    The Foxfire Book published, a compilation of reprints
    from quarterly Foxfire magazine, a teenage
    staff's reports on dying folk customs and arts
    of the Georgia Appalachians
    Joan Baez takes a year off to volunteer for Amnesty Intl
    Norwegian philosopher Arne Naess introduces 
    the idea of deep ecology

    "szechwan food"
    "below the knee hemlines"
    "use of Ms"
    Mark Spitz (Munich Olympics) & that Russian gymnast?
    Burt Reynolds "first" nude male portrait in Cosmopolitan

    1973 Watergate investigation continues
    "Baby Bust" (birth rate drop)
    First time more woman than men in college (50.3%)
    Mississippi leads the south with 145 elected black
    officeholder (tho only 1 black legislative representative)
    when? Endangered Species Act
    Arab-Israeli war followed by Arab oil embargo & energy crunch,
    gas lines, & the go ahead to drill for oil in Alaska
    Alaska Pipeline built 73-75
    Hoedads of Oregon formed
    Chipko movement starts in Himalayas
    Last year of draft (ended June 30), army becomes volunteer 
    ?Maharaj Ji event at Houston Astrodome
    Pig By The Tail, first American charcuterie, opens in
    Berkeley -> California Cuisine movement
    when? Hayden marries Fonda
    when? Alan Watts dies
    Rod Hackney, young architect writing PhD at Manchester
    University, who had organized neighbors in Macclesfield to
    oppose area's demolition, gets improvement grants 
    from town council for 34 of houses - in 1975 wins Good
    Design in Housing Award from U.K. Dept of the Environment

    Jan 100,000 demonstrate at Nixon's inaugural
    Jan 7 Sniper shoots 6 from atop Johnson's Motor Lodge, New Orleans
    Jan 11 Nixon ends 17 month wage-price controls
    Jan 22 Supreme Court: Roe vs. Wade strikes down 
    existing state anti-abortion laws
    Jan 22 LBJ dies in Texas
    Jan 23 Nixon announces all American troops to be out of
    Vietnam in 60 days
    73 Jan 27 Vietnam ceasefire agreement with US (Paris)
    (the same agreement as was drafted the previous October)
    (23,000 American troops still left in Vietnam)
    and announcement of? draft end
    3 million Americans are enlisted in the military
    55,000 have died in the Vietnam war
    Great Exp: 58,000 dead / 153,000 wounded
    / 35,000 widows & orphans created
    275,000 Americans experience a death in their family
    1.4 million saw someone in their family wounded
    6.5 million served in armed forces, 1 mill+ saw combat
    Jan 30 James W. McCord & G. Gordon Liddy of Nixon's re-election
    committee, found guilty of Watergate burglary & wiretap attempt
    Feb 12 Second dollar devaluation in 14 months - 10%
    Feb 14 Nixon: floating exchange rate
    early Stock Market starts drop
    F 16-22 Student uprisings in Greece
    73 Feb 28 250 AmerInds (AIM) occupy Wounded Knee (to May 8)
    early Custer, South Dakota AIM courthouse protest
    Mr 1-19 Dollar crisis in Europe
    Mar 6 Nixon: gas & oil price controls
    Mar 23 Judge Sirica reveals letter from McCord saying he & others
    were pressured to plead guilty & commit perjury to avoid
    implicating others in Watergate
    Mar 29 Nixon declares meat price controls to stave off
    housewives meat boycott set to start April 1
    Mar 29 Last American troops withdrawn from Vietnam
    Mar 29 H. Rapp Brown (+ 3 others?) convicted for Oct. 16,71 robbery
    73 A 16-17 US bombs Laos
    Apr 30 Nixon accepts resignation of H.R. Haldeman & John Ehrlichman
    & fires John Dean
    May 10 John Mitchell & Maurice Stans, former Nixon Cabinet members,
    & financier Robert Vesco indicated for Vesco's illegal
    200,000 dollar contribution to Nixon campaign
    May 11 Daniel Ellsberg charges dropped
    May 15 Bobby Seale's campaign for Oakland mayor ends in defeat
    May 20 17 of Camden 28 found not guilty (of destroying draft files)
    May 29 Tom? Bradley elected in Los Angeles (first black mayor)
    1973 Jn 25-29 John Dean testifies in front of Senate Select
    Committee, indicting himself, Nixon, Ehrlichman,
    Mitchell & others, & revealing the use of "hush money"
    and an "enemies list"
    Jn 13 Nixon declares 60 day retail price freeze
    July 16 Nixon's secret recording system is exposed
    July 26 Nixon defies prosecutors' subpoenas of his tapes &
    appeals his case until October 19
    Aug 15 US bombing of Cambodia ends
    Aug 31 Gainsville 8 (veterans) acquitted
    Apr- Sept: ROTC unable to meet quota of officers
    for six months in a row
    Sept Chile coup overthrows Salvador Allende
    Sept 11 Allende killed 
    Sept Jim Croce dies
    Sept Lennon to LA with May Pang & Spector sessions
    Oct Oil talks fail & various OPEC countries cut off
    oil deliveries to other countries, including U.S.,
    causing shortages (to March 74)
    Oct retrial of Chicago 7 on contempt charges;
    of 159 charges, only 13 upheld - ?all released?
    Oct 10 Spiro Agnew resigns as Vice President
    Oct 20 "Saturday Night Massacre": Nixon fires special prosecutor
    Archibald Cox. Attorney General Elliot Richardson &
    Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus resign.
    Oct 23 Eight impeachment resolutions introduced in the House
    Nov 3 Froines & Weiner of Chicago Seven acquitted of contempt charges.
    Nov 7 Congress finally (after 9 attempts) passes War Powers
    legislation, over Nixon's veto - limits President's
    power to commit armed forces to hostilities abroad
    without Congressional approval
    Nov 10 Stock Market drops 24.4 points
    Nov 16 Nixon signs bill to build Alaska pipeline
    Nov 19 Stock Market drops 28.67 points
    Nov 21 Inexplicable 18 1/2 minute gap discovered in subpoened tape
    Nov 26 Stock Market drops 29.05 points, to lowest in 11 years
    (since May 28, 62 JFK confrontation with steel industry)
    Nov 30 OPEC quadruples oil prices
    (?was 2 dollars/barrel) ?so 8 dollars/barrel?
    Dec 4 Dellinger, Rubin, & Hoffman of Chicago Seven, and their
    attorney William Kunstler, found guilty of contempt
    charges levied at them by Judge Hoffman,
    but given no further sentence.
    Davis, Hayden, and attorney Leonard Weinglass
    acquitted of contempt charges.
    Dec 31 6-month oil embargo starts, recession

    RS: Goat's Head Soup
    Dylan: Pat Garrett & Billy the Kid
    Lennon: Mind Games
    Harrison: Living in the Material World
    McCartney: Band on the Run
    Who: Quadrophenia (the record); movie 78
    *ZZ Top (Heavy Metal)
    *Lynyrd Skynyrd
    *Poco (w Richie Furay & Jim Messina from Buffalo Springfield)
    The Harder They Come with Jimmy Cliff
    *Springsteen: first
    Tom Waits: first

    Bergman: Cries & Whispers 
    & Scenes From a Marriage
    The Last Detail (wasn't this the Nicholson one?)
    The Paper Chase
    American Graffiti
    (The Exorcist)
    (Sat Night Livers at the Village Gate)

    Fear of Flying - Erica Jong
    Rubyfruit Jungle - Rita Mae Brown
    (Gravity's Rainbow - Thomas Pynchon)
    Small Is Beautiful (Economics as if People Mattered) 
    - E. F. Schumacher
    Cutting Through Spiritual Materialism - Chogyam Trungpa
    The Well Body Book - Hal Bennett
    The Joy of Sex - ?
    Handmade Houses (A Guide to the Woodbutcher's Art) 
    - Boericke & Shapiro
    Levi's Denim contest
    (Mother Earth's Hassle-Free Indoor Plant Book 
    - Lynn & Joel Rapp)
    Mother Earth News started?

    Last year of the draft
    Watergate investigations
    Dungeons & Dragons getting popular

    1974 Inflation speeds up but ?unemployment starts =
    Great Stagflation of 1973-75 (U.S.)
    Worldwide Stagflation of 1974-76
    Senate Watergate hearings 
    First Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty signed
    Pinochet rule starts
    "Boldt" decision, Washington state: Warm Springs, Yakima,
    Umatilla & Nez Perce tribes entitled to take up to half 
    salmon & steelhead runs from the Columbia River 
    based on 1855 treaty
    First "Witkars" (white cars for free use
    within the city) put into use in Amsterdam
    Abbie Hoffman (facing cocaine charge) goes undrgrd
    Joanne Little accused of murder of killing jailer
    (in self-defense against rape) (acquitted Aug 15, 75)
    ?Portugal coup ends W. Europe's oldest dictatorship
    Kissinger's "shuttle diplomacy"
    Garrison Keillor? starts Prairie Home Companion
    Gas shortages get worse through Mar 19
    Dalkon shield sales end
    Briarpatch Network, informal organization of small
    businesses practicing openness, honesty, service,
    and sharing, founded
    Nairopa Institute, Boulder, Colorado, founded

    Jan 30 Dylan at Mad Sq Gdn - starts first tour in 8 years
    Feb 4 Patty Hearst, 19, kidnapped by the SLA
    Mar Pentagon requests additional $474 million for Saigon
    military aid; Congress (House) denies funding request
    for the first time since the 1964 Tonkin Gulf resolution
    Apr 1 Jane Fonda arrives in Vietnam on second visit
    Apr 15 Patty Hearst & 8 others rob SF bank
    May Mohawks establish Ganienkah settlement in
    Adirondack Mountains Park, NY
    74 June Nature publishes Sherwood Rowlands of U.C. Irvine's 
    pioneer research on depletion of the ozone layer
    July 30 Watergate: House Judiciary Committee adopts 
    three articles of impeachment
    July 30 Watergate: Supreme Court upholds subpoena on Nixon tapes.
    Nixon turns them over July 30 & Aug 5.
    Aug Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics founded
    in Boulder by Allen Ginsberg & Anne Waldman
    Aug 5 Watergate: Tape transcripts indicate Nixon impeded 
    the investigation 
    Aug 8&9 Nixon resigns, Ford sworn in
    ?Springstein first played the Roxy?
    Sept Ford grants amnesty to draft evaders
    (Sept Green Revolution plan announced)
    Sept 16 US Dist Ct dismisses all charges against Banks & Means
    for Wounded Knee takeover
    (Oct WE Epilog)
    Oct US airlift of military supplies to Cambodia's
    Lon Nol regime suspended until March
    Oct 7 John Lennon finally given legal status to stay
    in the US (after 3 year legal battle)
    Nov Jerry Brown elected Gov of Calif (1974-1982)
    N 5-16 World Food Conference, Rome (Lappe?)
    Nov 13 Karen Silkwood, investigating Kerr-McGee xxx,
    killed in controversial auto accident
    Nov 20 US files anti-trust suit against AT&T
    Nov 21 Congress overrides Ford's veto to pass
    the Freedom of Information Act

    RS: Only Rock & Roll
    *Joni Mitchell: Court & Spark
    & Miles of Aisles
    Lennon: Walls & Bridges 
    Eric Clapton: 461 Ocean Blvd (August)
    *Queen (Heavy Metal)
    *Gentle Giant
    *Electric Light Orchestra
    *Germany: Tangerine Dream
    *Toots & The Maytals: first
    Maria Muldaur
    Dylan: Planet Waves & Blood on the Tracks (which was first?)
    74-75 Rolling Thunder Revue tour

    TV: (Kojak)
    (Monty Python & the Holy Grail)
    Lenny (w Dustin Hoffman)
    Wim Wenders: Alice in the Cities
    The Conversation (Coppola) is this the master plot one? no
    (The Sting)

    Robert Pirsig: Zen & the Art of Motorcycle Repair
    Carlos Castaneda: Tales of Power
    The Dispossessed - Ursula LeGuin
    The Power Broker - Robert Caro
    Spiritual Community Guide
    A Pilgrim's Guide to Planet Earth
    The Connection
    Native Funk & Flash - Jacopetti
    How to Grow More Vegetables . . . - J Jeavons
    The Gardener's Catalogue
    Country Furniture
    Gary Snyder - Turtle Island
    Rolling Thunder - Doug Boyd
    New Age Journal founded by 
    East West Journal editor Robert Hargrove,
    advertising director Eric Utne, and other staff
    CoEvolution Quarterly
    All the President's Men (the book)
    Fear of Flying

    Streaking (yes)
    Answering machines
    Digital watches
    People Magazine started (Feb)
    Isle of Calif mural behind SaMo post office (LA Fine Arts Squad)
    Farallones Institute founded

    1975 Inflation + Highest unemployment since the thirties
    (Whip Inflation Now - according to Washington mag)
    Also high interest rates
    Also ?insurance rates? triple
    draft registration is suspended
    Sen Frank Church launches investigation which reveals
    CIA conducted illegal surveillance of American
    citizens & plotted to assassinate foreign leaders i.e. Castro
    Sam Giancana, Mafia chieftain, murdered in his Chicago home,
    following reports of his involvement in CIA Castro plot
    Hoffa disappears
    Former United Mine Workers pres Tony Boyle starts jail
    sentence for ordering murder of union opponent Joseph
    Yablonski, wife & daughter
    Calif passes Agricultural Labor Relations Act
    (grants farm workers right to collective bargaining,
    establishes a minimum wage, & abolishes child labor in
    the fields)
    New York City almost goes bankrupt (75-76)
    Tom Donahue, founder of progressive? radio, dies
    Lennon goes into seclusion for five years
    Bunny Wailer goes into seclusion for 7 1/2
    Z Budapest arrested for tarot reading
    (9 years to Supreme Court win)
    Rolling Thunder Revue (into Jan at least)
    Frances Moore Lappe & Joseph Collins start IFDP
    Airlines start to be deregulated -> cheaper fares
    Franco dies (Spain) (Nov 20) - 36 years dictator
    Dictatorship ends in Greece (74? 75?)
    ?World wide famines
    Architect Frank Gehry creates second "deconstructivist" 
    style house (LA?); Netherlands designers Koolhaas
    and Zenghelis also do first deconstructivist buildings

    Jan 1 Menominee Indians seize unused Gresham, Wisconsin
    Roman Catholic novitiate (to Feb 4, when church
    promises to deed it to them for a tribal hospital)
    Jan Vondel Park, Amsterdam closed to camping
    Jan 7 Major auto producers announce rebates
    Apr 17 Khmer Rouge take over Cambodia (after 5 year war)
    (When does slaughter start)
    Apr 25 Moderates (Socialists & Popular Democrats) win the
    first free elections in Portugal in over 50 years
    A 30-My "Fall of Saigon": North Vietnamese troops enter Saigon
    May Pathet Lao begin takeover of Laos
    May 1 Stock Market commissions deregulated, 
    starting Stock Market shake-out
    May 27 Alaska legalizes home use of marijuana



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